An electoral swing analysis shows the extent of change in voter support from one election to another, expressed as a positive or negative percentage. A multi-party swing is an indicator of a change in the electorate's preference between candidates or parties. A swing can be calculated for the electorate as a whole, for a given electoral district or for a particular demographic. A swing is useful for analysing change in voter support over time, or as a tool for predicting the outcome of elections in constituency-based systems. Swing is usefully deployed when analysing the shift in voter intentions revealed by opinion polls or to compare polls concisely which may rely on differing samples and on markedly different swings and therefore predict extraneous results. A swing is calculated by comparing the percentage of the vote in a particular election to the percentage of the vote belonging to the same party or candidate at the previous election. One-party swing = Percentage of vote − percentage of vote.
Examples include the comparison between the 2007 Ukrainian Parliamentary elections. The above charts show the change in voter support for each of the six major political parties by electoral district and nationwide vote results. In many nation states' media, including in Australia and the United Kingdom, swing is expressed in terms of two parties; this practice is most useful where most governments tend to be from an existing two-party system but other candidates do sometimes run, is used to predict the outcome of elections in constituency-based systems where different seats are held with different previous levels of support. An assumption underlies extrapolated national calculations: that all districts will experience the same swing as shown in a poll or in a place's results; the advantage of this swing is the fact that the loss of support for one party will in most cases be accompanied by smaller or bigger gain in support for the other, but both figures are averaged into one. Employing the two assumptions allows the analyst to compute an electoral pendulum, predicting how many seats will change hands given a particular swing, what size uniform swing would therefore bring about a change of government.
In Australia, the term "swing" refers to the change in the outcome of an election from the viewpoint of specific political parties in the preferential voting system. The UK uses the two-party swing, adding one party's increase in share of the vote to the percentage-point fall of another party and dividing the total by two. So if Party One's vote rises by 4 points and Party Two's vote falls 5 points, the swing is 4.5 points. For disambiguation suffixes such as: must be added where three parties stand. Otherwise a problem when deciding which swing is meant and which swing is best to publish arises where a lower party takes first or second. Originating as a mathematical calculation for comparing the results of two constituencies, any of these figures can be used as an indication of the scale of voter change between any two political parties, as shown below for the 2010 United Kingdom general election: Swing in the United States can refer to swing state, those states that are known to shift an outcome between Democrats and Republican Parties, equivalent on a local level to marginal seats.
By contrast, a non-swing state is the direct equivalent of a safe seat, as it changes in outcome. The extent of change in political outcome is influenced by the voting system in use; some websites provide a pie chart based or column-based multi party swingometer where ± x%, ± x%, ± x% and so on is displayed or can be input for three parties. This tool or illustration provides outcomes wherever more than two political parties have a significant influence on which politicians are elected. Swing vote Swingometer Notes References
Stephen D. Crocker is the inventor of the Request for Comments series, authoring the first RFC and many more, he attended Van Nuys High School, as did Jon Postel. Crocker received his bachelor's PhD from the University of California, Los Angeles. Crocker was appointed as chair of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN in 2011. Steve Crocker has worked in the Internet community since its inception; as a UCLA graduate student in the 1960s, he was part of the team that developed the protocols for the ARPANET which were the foundation for today's Internet. For this work, Crocker was awarded the 2002 IEEE Internet Award. While at UCLA Crocker taught an extension course on computer programming; the class was intended to teach digital processing and assembly language programming to high school teachers, so that they could offer such courses in their high schools. A number of high school students were admitted to the course, to ensure that they would be able to understand this new discipline.
Crocker was active in the newly formed UCLA Computer Club. Crocker has been a program manager at Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a senior researcher at USC's Information Sciences Institute and director of the Computer Science Laboratory at The Aerospace Corporation and a vice president at Trusted Information Systems. In 1994, Crocker was chief technology officer of CyberCash, Inc.. In 1998, he founded and ran Executive DSL, a DSL-based ISP. In 1999 he was CEO of Longitude Systems, he is CEO of Shinkuro, a research and development company. Steve Crocker was instrumental in creating the ARPA "Network Working Group", the context in which the IETF was created, he has been an IETF security area director, a member of the Internet Architecture Board, chair of the ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee, board member and chairman of ICANN, a board member of the Internet Society and numerous other Internet-related volunteer positions. In 2012, Crocker was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame by the Internet Society.
Media related to Steve Crocker at Wikimedia Commons RFC 1, Host Software, S. Crocker, April 1969. RFC 1776, The Address is the Message, S. Crocker, April 1, 1995. Shinkuro.com executive team info Oral history interview with Stephen Crocker, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Crocker discusses computer networks, artificial intelligence research, his work at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, he discusses his work as a program manager in the Information Processing Techniques Office
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
CBC News, stylized as CBCnews, is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, CBC.ca. Founded in 1941, CBC News is the largest news broadcaster in Canada and has local and national broadcasts and stations, it collaborates with its French-language counterpart, Radio-Canada Info, although the two are organizationally separate. The CBC follows the Journalistic Standards and Practices which provides the policy framework within which CBC journalism seeks to meet the expectations and obligations it faces from the public; the first CBC newscast was a bilingual radio report on November 2, 1936. The CBC News Service was inaugurated during World War II on January 1, 1941 when Dan McArthur, chief news editor, had Wells Ritchie prepare for the announcer Charles Jennings a national report at 8:00 pm. Readers who followed Jennings were Frank Herbert and Earl Cameron.
CBC News Roundup startet on August 16, 1943 at 7:45 pm, being replaced by The World at Six on October 31, 1966. On English-language television the first newscast, part of CBC Newsmagazine, was given on September 8, 1952 on CBLT, the only English station telecasting; that year CBC National News was introduced changing its name to The National in 1970. CBC began delivering news online in 1996 via the Newsworld Online website; the CBC News Online site launched in 1998. In 2009, CBC's Television News, Radio News and Digital News departments were merged into CBC News with a central assignment and reporting structure. In 2013, CBC News relaunched its CBC Aboriginal website, based in Winnipeg, with journalists in Toronto and other cities. In 2016, the site was renamed CBC Indigenous. In 2017, CBC News relaunched its flagship newscast, The National, with four co-anchors based in Toronto and Vancouver. CBC News has won Canadian awards including Michener, Canadian Screen, Canadian Association of Journalists and RTDNA awards and internationally, Prix Italia, Monte Carlo, Gabriel and International Emmys.
Thousands of hours of archival CBC News programming are available at the CBC Digital Archives Website and Facebook page. The Television News section of CBC News is responsible for the news programs on CBC Television and CBC News Network, including national news programs like The National, The Fifth Estate, The Investigators with Diana Swain and The Weekly with Wendy Mesley, they are responsible for news, business and sports information for Air Canada's inflight entertainment. The distinctive music on all CBC television news programs was introduced in 2006 as part of the extensive rebranding of all news programming under the CBC News title. Most local newscasts on CBC Television are branded as CBC News:, such as CBC News: Toronto at Six. Local radio newscasts are heard on the half-hour during morning and afternoon drive shows and on the hour at other times during the day; the Radio News section of CBC News produces on-the-hour updates for the CBC's national radio newscasts and provides content for regional updates.
Major radio programs include World Report, The World at Six, The World This Hour and The World this Weekend. The majority of news and information is aired on CBC Radio One. All newscasts are available via apps or via voice-activated virtual assistants. CBC News Online is the CBC's CBC.ca news website. Launched in 1996, it was named one of the most popular news websites in Canada in 2012; the website provides regional and international news coverage, investigative, business and entertainment. Investigative, business, Indigenous, health and tech news. An Opinion section was reintroduced in November 2016. Many reports are accompanied by podcasting and video from the CBC's television and radio news services. CBC News content is available on multiple platforms including Facebook, Instagram, etc. CBC News Network is an English-language news channel owned and operated by the CBC, it began broadcasting on July 31, 1989 from several regional studios in Halifax, Toronto and Calgary. It was revamped and relaunched as the CBC News Network in 2009 as part of a larger renewal of the CBC News division.
Current programs include CBC News Now, Power & Politics, The National with Adrienne Arsenault and, Ian Hanomansing, Andrew Chang and Rosemary Barton. In November 2005, the CBC News Weather Centre was established to cover local and international weather, using in part data provided by Environment Canada. Claire Martin was hired to serve as the primary face of the Weather Centre. In April 2014, the national Weather Centre was disbanded due to CBC budget cuts. In November 2014, citing difficulties implementing this new system, CBC announced a one-year trial content sharing partnership with The Weather Network, the owned cable specialty channel, which went into effect on December 8. Under the partnership, in exchange for access to weather-related news coverage from the CBC, The Weather Network provides the national weather reports seen on The National and CBCNN da
Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly
The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly is one of two components of the General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the other being the Queen of Canada in Right of Newfoundland and Labrador, represented by the Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Newfoundland and Labrador General Assembly meets in the Confederation Building at St. John's; the governing party sits on the left side of the speaker of the House of Assembly as opposed to the traditional right side of the speaker. This tradition dates back to the 1850s because the heaters in the Colonial Building were located on the left side. Thus, the government chose to sit in the heat, leave the opposition sitting in the cold. Party leaders' names are written in bold and cabinet ministers in italic, with the Speaker of the House of Assembly designated by a dagger. 48th General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador 47th General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador Speaker of the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador List of Newfoundland and Labrador General Assemblies Official website Canadian Governments Compared
Liberal Party of Newfoundland and Labrador
The Liberal Party of Newfoundland and Labrador is a political party in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and the provincial wing of the Liberal Party of Canada. It has served as the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador since December 14, 2015; the party originated in 1948 as the Newfoundland Confederate Association. At this time, Newfoundland was being governed by a Commission of Government appointed by the Government of the United Kingdom; the NCA was an organization campaigning for Newfoundland to join Canadian confederation. Joey Smallwood was the NCA's chief organizer and spokesman, led the winning side of the 1948 Newfoundland referendum on Confederation. Following the referendum victory, the NCA reorganized itself as the new province's Liberal Party under Smallwood's leadership, it won the province's first post-Confederation election for the Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly held on May 27, 1949. The Liberals under Smallwood promoted the diversification of the province's economy through various megaprojects.
The provincial government invested in the construction of factories, the pulp and paper industry, the oil industry, hydro-electricity projects, the construction of highways and schools, the relocation of rural villages into larger centres, other projects. These projects were very expensive, yielded few results. Smallwood led the province unchallenged for two decades, during which he never faced more than eight opposition MHAs. However, by the late 1960s, disaffection with Smallwood and his government mounted within the province, he had always had a tendency that increased during the 1960s. He tended to treat his ministers as extensions of his authority rather than colleagues. In hopes of stemming the tide, Smallwood brought several younger Liberals into government during this time, but this did little to rebuild his popularity, he announced his retirement in 1969. Smallwood defeated one of the younger ministers, for the leadership. Crosbie along with many young Liberals defected to the opposition Progressive Conservatives.
The Progressive Conservatives had found support in the business community, in and around St. John's; the Liberals narrowly lost the 1971 election, but Smallwood refused to resign as Premier until January 1972 as the support of the Labrador Party's lone MHA resulted in a 21–21 tie in the House of Assembly for Smallwood's government. Frank Moores' Conservatives attempted to form government but its shaky hold on power resulted in the 1972 general election; this time, Smallwood's Liberals were conclusively defeated. Smallwood was forced out of the party, formed his own Newfoundland Reform Liberal Party, which ran in the 1975 general election against the Liberals and the Tories. Due in part to massive vote-splitting, the Tories won 30 seats against 20 for the two Liberal factions combined; the Liberals were badly split and demoralised, remained on the opposition benches until 1989. In the 1989 provincial election the Liberals returned to power under Clyde Wells, winning 31 of the 52 seats in the House of Assembly.
Despite their majority win the Progressive Conservatives narrowly won the popular vote, winning 47.6% of the vote compared to 47.2 for the Liberals. Under Wells, the Liberal government eschewed the megaprojects and spending of the Smallwood and Peckford eras in favour of an economic development program laid out in the Strategic Economic Plan. During a severe economic recession, the Wells administration introduced spending controls and reduced the size of the public service while at the same time maintaining social program spending and working to diversify and develop the economy. Wells rose to national prominence in early 1990 for his opposition to the Meech Lake constitutional Accord. In September 1990, Wells signed a development agreement for the Hibernia project, thereby laying the foundation for the province's oil and gas industry and future economic prosperity; when Wells retired in 1996, he was replaced by former federal Liberal cabinet minister Brian Tobin. Tobin returned to federal politics after only four years as Premier.
Less than two years into his second mandate Tobin announced his resignation as premier on October 16, 2000, to return to federal politics. Tobin's Deputy Premier Beaton Tulk was sworn in as his successor the same day and served as premier till a leadership convention could be held the new year. Minister of Health Roger Grimes, Fisheries Minister John Efford and Mines and Energy Minister Paul Dicks all announced their intentions to contest the February 2001 leadership race. Grimes and Efford were the perceived frontrunners in the leadership race and were considered to be different candidates with different strengths. Grimes was considered to be the candidate of the party establishment, he had a low-profile with a proven track record in several difficult portfolios. Efford on the other hand was a charismatic, populist politician whose outspokenness has caused some controversy. Efford's outspokenness alienated members of the establishment but won him the support of the party's grassroots. After the first ballot at the convention no candidate won the 50 per cent required to be elected leader.
Dicks was thus eliminated after finishing third and threw this support behind Efford, hoping to defeat Grimes who had finished first on the ballot. Dicks' support was not enough and on the second ballot Grimes was elected leader; the three-month race had included nasty and personal attacks between the candidates, when Grimes was announced as the leader he received boos from Efford's supporters. Grimes was sworn in as Premier
Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador
The Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador is a centre-right provincial political party in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The party was founded in 1949 and most formed the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador from the 2003 general election until the 2015 general election; the party has served as the official opposition to the government of Newfoundland and Labrador since December 14, 2015. On April 28, 2018 St. John's lawyer Ches Crosbie was elected leader; the party originated before Newfoundland's confederation with Canada as the Responsible Government League. The RGL campaigned for responsible government to return to Newfoundland, after being suspended in 1934. In the 1948 referendum Newfoundland narrowly voted to join Canada as its tenth province. Following the referendum federal parties started organizing in Newfoundland and most members of the RGL decided to align themselves with the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, to form the Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland.
Harry Mews was acclaimed as leader of the Progressive Conservative Party and led them into the 1949 provincial election. Liberal leader Joey Smallwood, who had campaigned for confederation in 1948, led his party to victory, winning 22 seats of the 28 seats available; the Progressive Conservatives only managed to win five seats and Mews, who ran in the district of St. John's West, was unsuccessful in his bid for a seat in the House of Assembly. Mews was elected mayor of St. John's that year and stepped down as party leader soon after; the Progressive Conservatives struggled to make gains in the province, being tarred as anti-confederates. Their support was confined to Roman Catholic communities on the Avalon Peninsula, outside of St. John's, anti-confederation strongholds in the 1940s. Smallwood continued to lead the Liberal Party through the 1950s and 1960s, but by 1969 his government started facing problems. Failed megaprojects and controversial policy decisions had started turning the public against Smallwood and his government.
He attempted to revitalize his party by appointing younger men to his cabinet, such as John Crosbie, Edward Roberts and Clyde Wells. However, Smallwood continued to face internal strife and announced his resignation as leader and his retirement from politics in 1969; when Crosbie became the front-runner to succeed him as leader, Smallwood decided to run for the leadership. Smallwood's leadership bid was successful and Crosbie, along with a number of young Liberals, defected to the Progressive Conservatives; the defections of Crosbie and others revitalized the Progressive Conservatives. No longer tarred by their anti-confederate stance in 1948, the Tories were viewed to be a fresh and modern party. For the first time since confederation they became a credible force in forming government. Under the leadership of Gerald Ottenheimer, the party became better organized and built district associations throughout the province. In May 1971, Frank Moores, the federal Member of Parliament for the Avalon-based riding of Bonavista—Trinity—Conception, was elected as party leader.
Moores led the Tories into the 1971 election. They won 21 seats in the House of Assembly, compared to 20 for the Liberals and one for the New Labrador Party; the balance of power rested with Tom Burgess, a former Liberal dissident, the Labrador Party's lone MHA. Burgess decided allowing Moores to form government by one seat. Smallwood resigned as premier on 18 January 1972, Moores was sworn in as the second Premier of Newfoundland. However, when Moores reneged on a promise to name Burgess to cabinet, Burgess defected back to the Liberals. Conservative MHA Hugh Shea crossed the floor to the Liberals. Just hours after the new House met, Moores realized, he asked Lieutenant Governor Ewart Harnum to call another election. In the March election, Moores led his party to a decisive victory, taking 33 seats and 61 percent of the vote; the once-dominant Liberals, now led by Roberts, won 37 percent of the popular vote. Moores was reelected to a second term on September 16, 1975; the number of districts in the province had increased to 52, the Progressive Conservatives won 30 seats and 46 percent of the popular vote.
Moores promised that his administration would make government more democratic and accountable, in contrast to Smallwood's domineering leadership style. The new Progressive Conservative government vowed to promote rural development and take greater control of the province's natural resources, it distanced itself from the Liberal Party's resettlement plans, industrialization policies; the Moores government was successful in bringing about democratic reforms. His government brought in daily question period, common in most legislative assemblies in Canada but was non-existent in Newfoundland; the government passed the Conflict of Interest Act in 1973, the first legislation of its kind in Canada. The act required elected officials and senior civil servants to make public any investments or relationships that could influence the performance of their official duties, it forbade MHAs from voting or speaking on issues where a conflict of interest could exist. While Smallwood had treated his cabinet as an extension of his authority, Moores gave his ministers more independence and greater control over their departments.
The government created a planning and priorities committee of senior ministers, who would discuss and create policy on resource development, government services, social programs. In 1975, an independent and non-partisan provincial ombudsman was created, his role was to investigate co