101st Airborne Division
The 101st Airborne Division is a specialized modular light infantry division of the US Army trained for air assault operations. The Screaming Eagles has been referred to as "the tip of the spear" by former U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and the most potent and tactically mobile of the U. S. Army's divisions by former Chief of Staff of the Army GEN Edward C. Meyer; the 101st Airborne is able to plan and execute brigade-size air assault operations capable of seizing key terrain in support of operational objectives, is capable of working in austere environments with limited or degraded infrastructure. These particular operations are conducted by mobile teams covering extensive distances and engaging enemy forces behind enemy lines. According to the author of Screaming Eagles: 101st Airborne Division, its unique battlefield mobility and high level of training have kept it in the vanguard of US land combat forces in recent conflicts. More the 101st Airborne has been performing foreign internal defense and counterterrorism operations within Iraq and Afghanistan.
The 101st Airborne Division has a history, nearly a century long. During World War II, it was renowned for its role in Operation Overlord, Operation Market Garden, the liberation of the Netherlands and its action during the Battle of the Bulge around the city of Bastogne, Belgium. During the Vietnam War, the 101st Airborne Division fought in several major campaigns and battles, including the Battle of Hamburger Hill in May 1969. In mid-1968, it was reorganized and redesignated as an airmobile division and in 1974 as an air assault division; the titles reflect the division's shift from airplanes to helicopters as the primary method of delivering troops into combat. Many current members of the 101st are graduates of the US Army Air Assault School, it is known as the ten toughest days in the US Army, its dropout rate is around 50 percent. Division headquarters is at Kentucky. In recent years, the division has served in Afghanistan. At the height of the War on Terror, the 101st Airborne Division had over 200 aircraft.
The division now has over 100 aircraft. As of December 2017, the division had about 29,000 soldiers, down from 35,000 soldiers just three years prior because of budget restraints; the 101st Division headquarters was organized 2 November 1918 at Camp Shelby, having been constituted on 23 July in the National Army. World War I ended 9 days and the division was demobilized on 11 December 1918. In 1921, the division headquarters was reconstituted in the Organized Reserves, organized on 10 September 1921, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, it was at this time that the "Screaming Eagle" became associated with the division, as a successor to the traditions of the Wisconsin volunteer regiments of the American Civil War. On 30 July 1942, the Army Ground Forces ordered the activation of two airborne divisions not than 15 August 1942; the 82nd Division, an Organized Reserve division, ordered into active military service in March 1942, was ordered to provide cadre to the 101st Division, the other division selected for the project, for all elements except parachute infantry.
As part of the reorganization of the 101st Division as an airborne division, the unit was disbanded on 15 August 1942 and reconstituted and reactivated in the Army of the United States. On 19 August 1942, its first commander, Major General William C. Lee, read out General Order Number 5: The 101st Airborne Division, activated on 16 August 1942, at Camp Claiborne, has no history, but it has a rendezvous with destiny. Due to the nature of our armament, the tactics in which we shall perfect ourselves, we shall be called upon to carry out operations of far-reaching military importance and we shall habitually go into action when the need is immediate and extreme. Let me call your attention to the fact that our badge is the great American eagle; this is a fitting emblem for a division that will crush its enemies by falling upon them like a thunderbolt from the skies. The history we shall make, the record of high achievement we hope to write in the annals of the American Army and the American people, depends wholly and on the men of this division.
Each individual, each officer and each enlisted man, must therefore regard himself as a necessary part of a complex and powerful instrument for the overcoming of the enemies of the nation. Each, in his own job, must realize that he is not only a means, but an indispensable means for obtaining the goal of victory, it is, not too much to say that the future itself, in whose molding we expect to have our share, is in the hands of the soldiers of the 101st Airborne Division. The pathfinders of the 101st Airborne Division led the way on D-Day in the night drop before the invasion, they left from RAF North Witham. These night drops caused a lot of trouble for the gliders. Many crashed and equipment and personnel were lost; the 101st Airborne Division's objectives were to secure the four causeway exits behind Utah Beach between St Martin-de-Varreville and Pouppeville to ensure the exit route for the 4th Infantry Division from the beach that morning. The other objectives included destroying a German coastal artillery battery at Saint-Martin-de-Varreville, capturing buildings nearby at Mésières believed used as barracks and a command post for the artillery battery, capturing the Douve River lock at La Barquette, capturing two footbridges spanning the Douve at La Porte opposite Brévands, destroying the highway bridges over the Douve at Saint-Côme-du-Mont, securing the
Globe High School
Globe High School is a high school in Globe, Arizona. It is the only high school in the Globe Unified School District, which operates High Desert Middle School and Copper Rim Elementary School. High school classes were held at the Central School, called Hill Street School. Overcrowding forced the construction of a new facility, the first Globe High School building was constructed in 1913 and completed the next year; the building had two stories and a basement, it held 250 students in grades 7 through 12. In 1920, a third story was added on top for the junior high school. Other facilities in the building have included a cafeteria and locker rooms in the basement, plus caretaker housing in the current nurse's office on the main floor; the first Globe-Miami football game was played in 1924, starting a major rivalry that spawned the creation of the "G" and "M" hills in each town in 1934, in an attempt to curb vandalism at the schools, the Copper Kettle trophy, cast in 1947. The game was played on Thanksgiving until 1965, when Arizona's early football schedule and the introduction forced it to be moved.
Globe High School first expanded to another building in 1949, when former tennis courts made way for a gymnasium and cafeteria. The school received additional space to grow when a separate junior high school was built in 1956 and a science and shop wing was added on in 1964; the building received a major renovation in 1991 to add carpeted floors, electrical outlets, central air, as well as to remove of the original leaded glass windows. Today, it is one of the oldest buildings in the state continuously used for education. Rose Mofford, governor of Arizona Globe, Arizona List of historic properties in Globe, Arizona
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Lipan, Salinero and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers; the Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures. The Apache homelands have consisted of high mountains and watered valleys, deep canyons and the southern Great Plains, including areas in what is now Eastern Arizona, Northern Mexico (Sonora and New Mexico, West Texas, Southern Colorado; these areas are collectively known as Apacheria. The Apache tribes fought the invading Mexican peoples for centuries; the first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations during the American-Indian wars, the U.
S. Army found the Apache to be skillful strategists; the following Apache tribes are federally recognized: Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, ArizonaThe Jicarilla are headquartered in Dulce, New Mexico, while the Mescalero are headquartered in Mescalero, New Mexico. The Western Apache, located in Arizona, is divided into several reservations, which crosscut cultural divisions; the Western Apache reservations include the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation and Tonto-Apache Reservation. The Chiricahua were divided into two groups; the majority moved to the Mescalero Reservation and form, with the larger Mescalero political group, the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, along with the Lipan Apache.
The other Chiricahua are enrolled in the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, headquartered in Apache, Oklahoma. The Plains Apache are located in Oklahoma, headquartered around Anadarko, are federally recognized as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma; the people who are known today as Apache were first encountered by the Conquistadors of the Spanish Crown, thus the term Apache has its roots in the Spanish language. The Spanish first used the term "Apachu de Nabajo" in the 1620s, referring to people in the Chama region east of the San Juan River. By the 1640s, they applied the term to southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west; the ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history. Modern Apache people today, the US government, maintain use of the Spanish term to describe themselves and tribal functions. Indigenous lineages who speak the language, handed down to them would refer to themselves and their people in that language's term Inde meaning "person" and/or "People".
Distant cousins and a subgroup of the Apache are the Navajo Peoples who in their own language refer to themselves as the Diné. The first known written record in Spanish is by Juan de Oñate in 1598; the most accepted origin theory suggests Apache was borrowed and transliterated from the Zuni word ʔa·paču meaning "Navajos". Another theory suggests the term comes from Yavapai ʔpačə meaning "enemy"; the Zuni and Yavapai sources are less certain because Oñate used the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. A less origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon"; the fame of the tribes' tenacity and fighting skills bolstered by dime novels, was known among Europeans. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French meaning an outlaw; the term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. Over the centuries, many Spanish and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area.
Most Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Europeans did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have used different criteria to name finer divisions, these do not always match modern Apache groupings; some scholars do not consider groups residing in. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. In 1900, the U. S. government classified the members of the Apache tribe in the United States as Pinal Coyotero, Mescalero, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma. In the 1930s, the anthropologist Grenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups: White Mountain, San Carlos, North Tonto, South Tonto.
Since other anthropologists (e.g. Albert Sc
Globe is a city in Gila County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 7,532; the city is the county seat of Gila County. Globe was founded c. 1875 as a mining camp. Mining, tourism and retirees are most important in the present-day Globe economy; the Globe Downtown Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. Globe is in southern Gila County at 33°23′59″N 110°46′54″W, in the valley of Pinal Creek, a north-flowing tributary of the Salt River. U. S. Route 60 passes through the city, leading northeast through the Fort Apache Indian Reservation 87 miles to Show Low, west 87 miles to Phoenix; the western terminus of U. S. Route 70 is in Globe at US 60 on the east side of town. Arizona State Route 77 leads south from Globe 36 miles to Winkelman, Roosevelt is 31 miles to the northwest via State Route 188. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Globe has a total area of 18.2 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.07%, is water.
The town of Miami, Arizona, is 6 miles west of Globe's downtown. Globe and the unincorporated areas nearby are called "Globe-Miami". Globe is served by the Arizona Eastern Railway. In December 2008, weekend excursion service under the name Copper Spike began operating from Globe to the Apache Gold Hotel Casino near San Carlos. Trains operated four daily round-trips on Thursdays through Sundays until 2011, when the Copper Spike Excursions were discontinued; the San Carlos Apache Airport is a public-use general aviation airport located seven nautical miles southeast of the city's central business district. Globe has a semi-arid climate, characterized by hot summers and moderate to warm winters. Globe's arid climate is somewhat tempered by its elevation, leading to cooler temperatures and more precipitation than Phoenix or Yuma. Summers in Globe are hot, with daytime highs between 90 °F and 100 °F. High temperatures topping 100 °F are not uncommon in August for Globe. Summertime lows are right around 65 °F. Wintertime highs average between 55 °F and 65 °F, lows tend to be right at or above freezing.
The all-time highest recorded temperature in Globe is 111 °F, it occurred on both June 27, 1990, July 29, 1995. The lowest recorded temperature in the city is 12 °F, which occurred the same year the first time the record high was reached—December 23, 1990; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,486 people, 2,814 households, 1,871 families residing in the city. The population density was 415.5 people per square mile. There were 3,172 housing units at an average density of 176.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.60% White, 1.15% Black or African American, 3.10% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 14.59% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. 32.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,814 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,071, the median income for a family was $42,280. Males had a median income of $31,404 versus $21,952 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,128. About 8.8% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over. In 1875, prospectors found silver in the San Carlos Apache Reservation, including an unusual globe-shaped silver nugget. In just four years, the silver began to give out, but by copper deposits were discovered. In the 1900s, the Old Dominion Copper Company in Globe ranked.
The Old Dominion closed in 1931, mining operations moved to nearby Miami. Globe's economy remains dependent on substance abuse, the mining industry, as of 2008 the city was home to one of the few operating copper smelters in the United States. Besh-Ba-Gowah, about one mile south of Globe, was occupied by Salado populations between AD 1225 and AD 1400; the plans for an incorporated Globe were established in July 1876, with retail stores and Globe's first newspaper printing its first issue on May 2, 1878. By February 1881, Globe was the Gila County seat. Coming with Globe's new importance as the county seat came a stagecoach line linking it to Silver City, New Mexico. Due to Globe's relative isolation from the rest of Arizona and its proximity to the San Carlos Apache reservation, Globe remained a frontier town. Globe's history is laced with many historic events such as murders, stagecoach robberies, outlaws and Apache raids. Natiotish, a San Carlos Apache, left the r
Stars and Stripes (newspaper)
Stars and Stripes is an American military newspaper that focuses and reports on matters concerning the members of the United States Armed Forces. It operates from inside the Department of Defense, but is editorially separate from it, its First Amendment protection is safeguarded by the United States Congress, to whom an independent ombudsman, who serves the readers' interests reports; as well as a website and Stripes publishes four daily print editions for the military service members serving overseas. The newspaper has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. During World War I, the staff, roving reporters, illustrators of the Stars and Stripes were veteran reporters or young soldiers who would become such in the post-war years, it was published by the American Expeditionary Forces from February 8, 1918, to June 13, 1919. Harold Ross, editor of the Stars and Stripes, returned home to found The New Yorker magazine. Cyrus Baldridge, its art director and principal illustrator, became a major illustrator of books and magazines, as well as a writer, print maker and stage designer.
Sports page editor Grantland Rice had a long career in journalism and founded a motion picture studio called Grantland Rice Sportlight. Drama critic Alexander Woollcott's essays for Stars and Stripes were collected in his 1919 book, The Command Is Forward; the Stars and Stripes was an eight-page weekly which reached a peak of 526,000 readers, relying on the improvisational efforts of its staff to get it printed in France and distributed to U. S. troops. During World War II, the newspaper was printed in dozens of editions in several operating theaters. Again, both newspapermen in uniform and young soldiers, some of whom would become important journalists, filled the staffs and showed zeal and talent in publishing and delivering the paper on time; some of the editions were assembled and printed close to the front in order to get the latest information to the most troops. During the war, the newspaper published the 53-book series G. I. Stories. After Bill Mauldin did his popular "Up Front" cartoons for the World War II Stars and Stripes, he returned home to a successful career as an editorial cartoonist and two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize.
The newspaper has been published continuously in Europe since 1942 and in the Pacific since 1945. Notable former Stars and Stripes staffers include: CBS 60 Minutes' Andy Rooney and Steve Kroft. A photograph in Stars and Stripes loosely inspired the exploits of PFC Jack Agnew in the 1965 novel and its 1967 film adaptation, The Dirty Dozen. American comic strips have been presented in Stripes' Sunday Comics. Stars and Stripes is authorized by Congress and the US Department of Defense to produce independent daily military news and information distributed at U. S. military installations in Europe and Mideast and East Asia. A weekly derivative product is distributed within the United States by its commercial publishing partners. Stars and Stripes newspaper averages 32 pages each day and is published in tabloid format and online at www.stripes.com/epaper. Stars and Stripes employs civilian reporters, U. S. military senior non-commissioned officers as reporters, at a number of locations around the world and on any given day has an audience just shy of 1.0 million.
Stars and Stripes serves independent military news and information to an online audience of about 2.0 million unique visitors per month, 60 to 70 percent of whom are located in the United States. Stars and Stripes is a non-appropriated fund organization, only subsidized by the Department of Defense. A large portion of its operating costs is earned through the sale of advertising and subscriptions. Unique among the many military publications and Stripes operates as a First Amendment newspaper and is part of the newly formed Defense Media Activity; the other entities encompassed by the Defense Media Activity, are command publications of the Department of Defense. Stars and Stripes is in the process of digitizing its World War II editions. Newspaper microfilm from 1949 to 1999 is now in searchable format through a partnership with Heritage Microfilm and has been integrated into an archives website. Newspaper Archive has more made the England and Mediterranean editions from World War II available.
Ensley Llewellyn Library of Congress. "Stars and Stripes: The American Soldiers' Newspaper of World War I, 1918 to 1919". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 7, 2018. Official website Stars and Stripes digital editions Today's Stars and Stripes Mideast Edition front page at the Newseum websiteStars and Stripes multimedia gallery Stars and Stripes Museum/Library Association, Inc. Stars and Stripes: The American Soldiers' Newspaper of World War I, 1918 to 1919 The short film The Story of Stars and Stripes is available for free download at the Internet Archive The short film Big Picture: All the World to All the Troops is available for free download at the Internet Archive
San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation
The San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, in southeastern Arizona, United States, was established in 1872 as a reservation for the Chiricahua Apache tribe as well as surrounding Yavapai and Apache bands forcibly removed from their original homelands under a strategy devised by General George Crook of using an Apache to catch an Apache. Known as "Hell's Forty Acres" under United States occupation because of deplorable health and environmental conditions, today's San Carlos Apaches operate a Chamber of Commerce, the Apache Gold Casino, a Language Preservation program, a Culture Center, a Tribal College. On December 14, 1872, President U. S. Grant established the San Carlos Apache Reservation; the government gave various religious groups responsibility for managing the new reservations, the Dutch Reformed Church was in charge of the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. The church chose John Clum, who turned down the position twice before accepting the commission as Indian Agent for the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in the Arizona Territory on February 16, 1874.
The U. S. Army showed both animosity toward disdain for the civilian Indian Agents. Soldiers and their commanding officers sometimes brutally tortured or killed the Indians for sport while politicians in Washington, D. C. knew little about differences in tribal cultures and language. The 8th Cavalry was stationed in Arizona during this time until 1875. Politicians ignored political differences and military alliances and tried to apply a "one-size-fits-all" strategy to deal with the "Indian problem"; as a result, tribal friends and foes were forced to live in close proximity to one another. Meanwhile, the Apaches were supposed to be fed and housed by their caretakers, but they saw the federal money and suffered as a result. Clum arrived at the reservation on August 4, 1874. During his tenure at San Carlos, he struck a lifelong friendship with Eskiminzin, an Aravaipa Apache chief, persuaded many of the White Mountain people to move south to San Carlos. Clum won the Indians' confidence and the Apaches responded by turning in their weapons.
The Apaches formed a tribal court to try minor infractions and joined the Tribal Police organized under Clum's command, which helped to form a system of limited Indian self-rule. The agent soon attracted Yavapai Indians to the semi-arid reservation; the Army bristled at Clum's actions because they prevented them from taking part of the funds that passed through the reservation. In 1875, Buffalo soldiers of the 9th Cavalry from Texas replaced the 8th Cavalry in Arizona; the 9th Cavalry would stay in Arizona until 1881. On April 21, 1877, along with 100 of his best Apache Police, captured Geronimo at the Ojo Caliente Reservation in the New Mexico Territory; the U. S. Army, which had mounted intense efforts to track down and capture Geronimo, was embarrassed by Clum's success. Indian Bureau administrators and U. S. Army commanders continually frustrated his efforts. Clum resigned, the reservation's new administrators released Geronimo, resulting in more than 15 years of conflict across the American southwest.
In March 1875, the government closed the Yavapai-Apache Camp Verde Reservation and marched the residents 180 miles to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. More than 100 Yavapai died during the winter trek. After the Chiricahuan Apache were deported east to Florida in 1886, San Carlos became the reservation for various other relocated Apachean-speaking groups; these included the Pinal Coyotero of the northern Gila River area, the former San Carlos Apache bands Aravaipa, Pinaleño, Apache Peaks, San Carlos proper, the former Canyon Creek, Carrizo Creek and Cibecue bands of the Cibecue Apache. Today the Community Cibecue is part of the Fort Apache Reservation of the White Mountain Apache with the communities Cedar Creek and Carrizo of the Cibecue Apache territory, various bands of Southern Tonto Apache, some Eastern White Mountain Apache, the Lipan, Dzil Dlaazhe. By the early 1900s, Yavapais were drifting away from the San Carlos Reservation and were requesting permission to live at the original Camp Verde Reservation.
After the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the various Apache groups formed a government and became federally recognized as the San Carlos Nation. Grenville Goodwin, an anthropologist who had lived with the Western Apache since the late 1920s, helped them to decide what government they wanted to form under the new law to gain more sovereignty. In 1999, the San Carlos Apache founded the Apache Nation Chamber of Commerce to "create environments that ensure the greatest opportunity to succeed, to become self-sufficient for Indigenous and all communities." The ANCC encourages individuals and corporations to form business relationships with Arizona's tribal governments. The San Carlos Apache Tribe Wellness Center, established in 2003, is a tribally run out-patient mental health and substance abuse program; the new expanded clinic includes two round group rooms designed to simulate traditional Apache wickiups as well as sky lights to bring natural lighting into interior spaces and outside meeting space.
The San Carlos Apache Tribe's Language Preservation Program, located in Peridot, began its outreach in 2011 to the 14,000 tribal members to help preserve and develop the Apache language. In 2014, tribal Chairman