Tsarskoye Selo was the town containing a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility, located 24 kilometers south from the center of Saint Petersburg. It is now part of the town of Pushkin. Tsarskoye Selo forms one of the World Heritage site Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments. During the Soviet times it was known as Detskoye Selo. In the 17th century, the estate belonged to a Swedish noble, its original Finnish name is translated as "a higher ground". Max Vasmer, on the other hand, derives this toponym from the Finnish word for island, "saari": "Saaren kylä" = "Island village". By the 18th-century at the latest, it was called "Tsarskoye Selo". In 1708, Peter the Great gave the estate to the future Empress Catherine I, as a present, she founded the Blagoveschensky church there in 1724, changed the name of the settlement to Blagoveschenskoye, but this did not stand the test of time and went out of use. It was Catherine I, her daughter, Empress Elizabeth and her architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli were responsible for the building of the Catherine Palace.
Empress Catherine II of Russia and her architect Charles Cameron extended the palace building, now known as the Cameron Gallery. There are two imperial palaces: the baroque Catherine Palace with the adjacent Catherine Park and the neoclassical Alexander Palace with the adjacent Alexander Park; the Catherine Palace is surrounded by a Garden à la française and an English landscape garden, with such 18th-century structures as Dutch Admiralty, Creaking Pagoda, Chesme Column, Rumyantsev Obelisk and Marble Bridge. The landscape Alexander Park has several Chinoiserie structures, notably the Chinese Village. By the end of the 18th century, Tsarskoye Selo became a popular place of summer residence among the nobility; the guards' regiments were stationed to the south of Tsarskoye Selo, where Catherine the Great founded in the 1770s the town of Sophia. The five-domed neoclassical Ascension Cathedral, designed by Cameron, is the chief monument of that area; the Royal Forestry School the first such school in Russia, was founded in Tsarskoye Selo in 1803.
In 1808, Sophia and Tsarskoye Selo became one town. In 1811, Alexander I opened the celebrated Lyceum next door to the Catherine Palace. Among the first students of the Lyceum who graduated in 1817 were Aleksandr Pushkin and Alexander Gorchakov. Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin graduated from the Lyceum; the Lyceum garden, the house of the Lycee Director, the house of Ludwig-Wilhelm Tepper de Ferguson, Lyceum music teacher belong to important historic sites associated with the Lyceum of Pushkin's time. The literary traditions of Tsarskoye Selo were continued in the 20th century by such notable poets as Anna Akhmatova and Innokenty Annensky; the town escaped the 19th century industrialization, although it was between Tsarskoye Selo and St. Petersburg that the first Russian railway was built in 1837, Tsarskoye Selo Railway, it was known for its powerful government radio station, set up here in 1917. After his return not long after abdicating in early 1917, former Emperor Nicholas II was held under arrest in his favourite residence, the Alexander Palace, until departing, never to return, on 1st August 1917 with his family.
In 1918, Tsarskoye Selo was renamed by the Bolsheviks into Detskoye Selo and in 1937 it was renamed again to the town of Pushkin, thus commemorating the centenary of the poet's death. On September 17, 1941, the Germans occupied the town of Pushkin and plundering many historical monuments and other cultural artifacts, including the famous Amber Room; the Red Army liberated the town on January 24, 1944. After the war, reconstruction began on Tsarskoye Selo. Under the Soviet Union the nickname "the Czar's village" came to be attached to blocks and small neighborhoods that housed the nomenklatura, their stores were better stocked. The buildings in the neighborhoods were better designed and maintained. One such neighborhood, west of Moscow, contained less industry and more parks than any other neighborhood. Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo Emperor railway station in Pushkin town Adolphe Kegresse King, Greg; the Court of the Last Tsar. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-72763-7. Tsarskoye Selo, Pushkin town, historical facts of the city, local weather, directions from St. Petersburg The State Museum of Tsarskoye Selo Alexander Palace Time Machine The Alexander Palace Time Machine Tsarskoye Selo in 1910 – a guide to the Palaces and Town Photo Tours of Tsarskoe Selo Last Days at Tsarskoe Selo Last Days at Tsarskoe Selo by Count Paul Beckendorff Photographic views of Tsarskoye Selo, c. 2002 The Nostalgic Glass Tsarskoye Selo Photos Iconicarchive Gallery Bernard DeCou's colored photos of Tsarskoye Selo, c. 1931
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky
The Imperial Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky was an order of chivalry of the Russian Empire first awarded on 1 June 1725 by Empress Catherine I of Russia. The introduction of the Imperial Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky was envisioned by Emperor Peter I of Russia for rewarding military bravery in battle. However, he died, it was established by Empress Catherine I of Russia, in memory of the deeds of Saint Alexander Nevsky, patron Saint of the Russian capital of Saint Petersburg, for defending Russia against foreign invaders. The order was awarded to distinguished Russian citizens who had served their country with honor through political or military service, it was first awarded on the occasion of the wedding of Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia and Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp in 1725. A dozen guests received the reward, the order fell far behind the Order of Saint Andrew and the Order of Saint Catherine in prestige; the Empress Catherine complained about the situation and by September 1725, she took it upon herself to determine who would receive the award.
The Order of Saint Alexander was granted the highest esteem and was not bestowed upon people below the rank of Lieutenant-General or an equal political status. Additionally it was, including Polish King Augustus II the Strong and King Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway The Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky was abolished after the 1917 Russian Revolution, along with all other orders and titles of the Russian Empire. In 1942, the Soviet Union revived the order as a purely military decoration and renamed it the more secular Order of Alexander Nevsky, the Russian Federation revived it in 2010; the heads of the Russian Imperial House in exile have continued to award the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky. HIH Maria Vladimirovna, a pretender to the Russian throne and to the headship of the Russian Imperial House, continues to award a Russian Imperial Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky as a dynastic order of knighthood; these actions are disputed by some members of the Romanov family. In 2010, researchers in Saint Petersburg and Moscow published a book of all the names of the recipients of the original order.
The combined number of honorees spanning the years 1725 to 1917 totaled 3,674
Order of Saint Vladimir
The Order of Saint Vladimir was an Imperial Russian Order established in 1782 by Empress Catherine II in memory of the deeds of Saint Vladimir, the Grand Prince and the Baptizer of the Kievan Rus'. The order was awarded for continuous civil and military service. People, awarded with the St. Vladimir Order for military merits bore it with a special fold on the ribbon - "with a bow". There was a certain hierarchy of Russian Orders. According to this, the St. Vladimir Order, 1st Class was the second one by its significance. According to the Russian Law about the Nobility, people who were awarded with the St. Vladimir Order had had the rights of hereditary nobility until the Emperor's Decree of 1900 was issued. After this only three first classes of the Order gave such a right. Today, HIH Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, pretender to the Russian throne, Head of the Russian Imperial House continues to award the Russian Imperial Order of Saint Vladimir as a dynastic order of knighthood; this is disputed by some members of the Romanov Family Association.
First class of the order – A red cross with black and golden borders. The badge of the Order depended from a sash worn over the right shoulder, a gold-and-silver eight-rayed star was fastened on the left chest. Second class – The red cross on the neck and the star on the left chest. Third class – The red cross of a smaller size on the neck. Fourth class – The same on the left chest. Recipient Knights and Dames Grand Cross use the post-nominal letters "GCStV", Knights use the post-nominal letters "KStV", Knights Commander use the post-nominal letters "KCStV", Knight Officer use the post-nominal letters "OStV"; when an individual is entitled to use multiple post-nominal letters, those of the Order of Saint Vladimir appear before all others, except "KA", "GCSG", "KSG", "KCSG", "OSG". Badge: A red enamelled cross pattée with black enamelled borders, a black enamelled central disc bearing a crowned red and ermine mantle with the monogram of St. Vladimir. Worn on a sash by the first degree, on a necklet by the second and third degrees, on a chest ribbon by the fourth degree.
Star: A four-pointed star superimposed upon a four-pointed gold star, with a golden cross pattée and the letters "CPKB" between the arms of the cross on a black enamel background at the centre surrounded by the motto of the order "Benefit and Glory". Worn on the left chest by the first and second degrees; this motto was transferred to present-day star of the Order of Merit for the Fatherland, established in 1992 by President Boris Yeltsin and is today the second highest ranking decoration of that country. Ribbon: red with wide black edges. In 1957, in commemoration of the 40th anniversary of the Patriarch's restoration in Russia, an Order of Saint Vladimir was created by the Russian Orthodox Church; the order is to be awarded to priests and nuns of Orthodox church for their service to Soviet Union and Russia. There are three degrees of the order, it has no relation to the former imperial order. Abbasgulu aga Bakikhanov Gudsi Charles Broke Vere Angus Buchanan Anto Gvozdenović Jacob van Deventer Robert Henry Dick Ivan Gannibal Hugo W. Koehler Alexander Kolchak Louis-Mathieu Langlès Mikhail Lermontov was to be awarded the Fourth Class of the Order but never received it.
His name was removed from the final list of recipients by Czar Nicholas I, who harbored a strong dislike for the stubborn poet. Mitrofan Lodyzhensky Fyodor Matisen August Ludwig von Schlözer Igor Sikorsky Pyotr Stolypin Jovan Sundečić Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Nikolai Yudenich Mikhail Tukhachevsky Ilya Ulyanov, Vladimir Lenin's father William Munro Kerr Alexander Alexandrovich Spir, father of the philosopher African Spir, surgeon—Chief Physician of the military Hospital of Odessa
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia and Armenia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Europe's highest mountain, Mount Elbrus, at 5,642 metres is located in the west part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range. On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and grows into the Armenian highlands, part of, located in Turkey; the Caucasus region is separated into northern and southern parts – the North Caucasus and Transcaucasus, respectively. The Greater Caucasus mountain range in the north is within the Russian Federation, while the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely Georgia, Armenia and the recognised Artsakh Republic; the region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian families are indigenous to the area.
The term Caucasus is not only used for the mountains themselves but includes Ciscaucasia and Transcaucasia. According to Alexander Mikaberidze, Transcaucasia is a "Russo-centric" term. Pliny the Elder's Natural History derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis. German linguist Paul Kretschmer notes that the Latvian word Kruvesis means "ice". In the Tale of Past Years, it is stated that Old East Slavic Кавкасийскыѣ горы came from Ancient Greek Καύκασος ), according to M. A. Yuyukin, is a compound word that can be interpreted as the "Seagull's Mountain" According to German philologists Otto Schrader and Alfons A. Nehring, the Ancient Greek word Καύκασος is connected to Gothic Hauhs as well as Lithuanian Kaũkas and Kaukarà. British linguist Adrian Room points out that Kau- means "mountain" in Pelasgian; the Transcaucasus region and Dagestan were the furthest points of Parthian and Sasanian expansions, with areas to the north of the Greater Caucasus range impregnable. The mythological Mount Qaf, the world's highest mountain that ancient Iranian lore shrouded in mystery, was said to be situated in this region.
In Middle Persian sources of the Sasanian era, the Caucasus range was referred to as Kaf Kof. The term resurfaced in Iranian tradition on in a variant form when Ferdowsi, in his Shahnameh, referred to the Caucasus mountains as Kōh-i Kāf. "Most of the modern names of the Caucasus originate from the Greek Kaukasos and the Middle Persian Kaf Kof"."The earliest etymon" of the name Caucasus comes from Kaz-kaz, the Hittite designation of the "inhabitants of the southern coast of the Black Sea". It was noted that in Nakh Ков гас means "gateway to steppe" The modern name for the region is similar in the many languages, is between Kavkaz and Kawkaz; the North Caucasus region is known as the Ciscaucasus, whereas the South Caucasus region is known as the Transcaucasus. The Ciscaucasus contains most of the Greater Caucasus mountain range, it consists of Southern Russia the North Caucasian Federal District's autonomous republics, the northernmost parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Ciscaucasus lies between the Black Sea to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, borders the Southern Federal District to its north.
The two Federal Districts are collectively referred to as "Southern Russia." The Transcaucasus borders the Greater Caucasus range and Southern Russia to its north, the Black Sea and Turkey to its west, the Caspian Sea to its east, Iran to its south. It contains surrounding lowlands. All of Armenia and Georgia are in the South Caucasus; the watershed along the Greater Caucasus range is perceived to be the dividing line between Europe and Southwest Asia. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus located in western Ciscaucasus, is considered as the highest point in Europe; the Caucasus is one of the culturally diverse regions on Earth. The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation; the Russian divisions include Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino–Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai, in clockwise order. Three territories in the region claim independence but are recognized as such by only a handful entities: Artsakh and South Ossetia.
Abkhazia and South Ossetia are recognized by the world community as part of Georgia, Artsakh as part of Azerbaijan. The region has language families. There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region. No fewer than three language families are unique to the area. In addition, Indo-European languages, such as Armenian and Ossetian, Turkic languages, such as Azerbaijani, Kumyk language and Karachay–Balkar, are spoken in the area. Russian is used as a lingua franca most notably in the North Caucasus; the peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Armenian Christians. Twelver Shi'
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic known as Azerbaijan People's Republic or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic. The ADR was founded by the Azerbaijani National Council in Tiflis on 28 May 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire, its established borders were with Russia to the north, the Democratic Republic of Georgia to the north-west, the First Republic of Armenia to the west, Iran to the south. It had a population of 2.86 million. Ganja was the temporary capital of the Republic; the name of "Azerbaijan" which the leading Musavat party adopted, for political reasons, prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. Under the ADR, a government system was developed in which a Parliament elected on the basis of universal and proportionate representation was the supreme organ of state authority.
Fatali Khan Khoyski became its first prime minister. Besides the Musavat majority, Ittihad, Muslim Social Democrats as well as representatives of Armenian, Polish and German minorities gained seats in the parliament; some members supported Pan-Turkist ideas. Among the important accomplishments of the Parliament was the extension of suffrage to women, making Azerbaijan one of the first countries in the world, the first majority-Muslim nation, to grant women equal political rights with men. Another important accomplishment of the ADR was the establishment of Baku State University, the first modern-type university founded in Azerbaijan. From 1813 and 1828, as a result of Qajar Iran's forced cession through the Treaty of Gulistan and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the territory of modern-day Azerbaijan, in turn what was the short-lived ADR, had become part of the Russian Empire. By 1917, when both Russian revolutions took place the territory of the actual Azerbaijan had been part of the empire's Transcaucasian administrative region for more than 100 years, alongside the rest of the Transcaucasus since Iran's cession.
It was a multinational region of the Russian Empire, where 3 independent states were born later: Armenia and Azerbaijan. The population of the latter was in major part Muslims and, why it is referred to as Muslim territory when talking about this period of history. After the February revolution of 1917 in Russia on March 22, 1917, the Special Transcaucasian Committee Ozakom was established to fill the administrative gap following the abdication of the Tsar; the members of Ozakom were the members of the State Council and representatives of the Armenian and Azerbaijan political elite. Ozakom announced that in the following months the most important issues, i.e. national, religious and social, were to be solved by the Transcaucasian Constituent Assembly. In the course of April and May 1917 several Muslim Assemblies took place. Like many ethnic minorities of Transcaucasia, Azeris aimed at secession from Russia after the February Revolution. Two general opinions were expressed by the representatives of the Muslim community: pan-Turkish, meaning joining with Turkey, federalization.
The Transcaucasian region got an opportunity to decide its destiny, taking the course of federalization. In accordance with the new structure, the Transcaucasian region was to have a independent internal policy, leaving to the new Russian government only foreign policy and army, custom. After the October revolution of 1917 the Transcaucaisan government had to change its policy as Russia was now involved in the Civil War; the Transcaucausians did not accept the Bolshevik revolution. In February, 1918 the Transcaucasian Council started its work in Tbilisi, this was the first serious step towards complete independence of the Caucasian nations; the “Sejm” consisted of 125 deputies and represented 3 leading parties: Georgian mensheviks, Azerbaijan Muslims and Armenian “dashnaks”. Bolsheviks refused to join the Sejm and established their own government of the local Soviet in Baku: the so-called Baku Commune; the Commune was formed by 85 Social Revolutionaries and Left Social Revolutionaries, 48 Bolsheviks, 36 Dashnaks, 18 Musavatists and 13 Mensheviks.
Stepan Shaumyan, a Bolshevik, Prokopius Dzhaparidze, a leftist SR, were elected Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners of the Commune of Baku. The Russian Caucasus Army was degrading after the collapse of the Russian Empire; the Russian forces were substituted by new Armenian bodies. Given the circumstances, the Transcaucasian Sejm signed the Armistice of Erzincan with the Ottoman Empire on December 5, 1917. On March 3, 1918, the Bolshevik government in Russia signed the Brest-Litovsk Treaty with Germany. One of the terms was the loss of the regions of Kars and Ardahan to the Ottoman Empire; the terms of the Treaty revealed a deep conflict between Georgians and Armenians on one side and the Muslims on another. The peace talks between the Sejm and Turkey started in March, 1918, in Trapezond did not have any results; the Ottoman Empire delivere
China Relief Expedition
The China Relief Expedition was an expedition in China undertaken by the United States Armed Forces to rescue United States citizens, European nationals, other foreign nationals during the latter years of the Boxer Rebellion, which lasted from 1898 to 1901. The China Relief Expedition was part of a multi-national military effort known as the Eight-Nation Alliance to which the United States contributed troops between 1900 and 1901. Towards the close of the expedition, the focus shifted from rescuing non-combatants to suppressing the rebellion. By 1902, at least in the city of Peking, the Boxer Rebellion had been controlled; the American annexation of the Philippines resulting from the Spanish–American War stimulated a growing American interest in China for both commercial and humanitarian reasons. The Philippines served as a convenient way point for trade with the Qing China, would be of use in the protection of American interests in the Pacific; the dominant problem in China at the end of the nineteenth century was its threatened partition by the Great Powers.
Both the United States and the British opposed this, in September 1899 the United States announced it had secured agreement from the interested powers for maintenance of an Open Door policy in their relations with China. Many Chinese resented the extensive foreign intervention in China; this discontent coalesced into the nucleus of a secret group called the Righteous Harmony Society. The Boxers, with the support of Prince Duan, undertook a campaign against foreign influences and foreigners. By early 1900 this movement had brought much of China to the verge of revolution. Boxers in the northern provinces attacked and killed hundreds of Chinese Christians and foreigners missionaries; the wave of unrest came to an apex following the assassination of Clemens von Ketteler, the German ambassador plenipotentiary, on June 20. The Chinese government broke off diplomatic relations and demanded that all foreigners leave promising safe escort. About 3,500 foreigners and Chinese Christians refused to leave, fearing for their safety, took refuge in the foreign legation compound, where they were besieged.
A composite military force of 407 men plus about 200 civilians defended the compound. The Great Powers took immediate steps to organize a large relief expedition for Peking, to stamp out what came to be known as the Boxer Rebellion. Although the William McKinley administration disliked the idea of becoming involved in an international incident with overtones of entangling foreign alliances during an election year, President McKinley agreed to join with the other powers to take steps to rescue their beleaguered nationals; the Seymour Expedition, an international column of Sailors and Marines, including 112 Americans, made a hurried attempt to relieve Peking, but failed to get through when it met with severe resistance after it left Tientsin, the nearest port city to Peking. As a result of the Philippine Insurrection, the United States had forces available nearby in the Philippines, was therefore in a position to contribute one of the larger contingents to the international relief expedition.
The first American forces left the Philippines on June 14. A detachment of 107 Marines went to China to protect American lives and property; this detachment steamed toward Taku aboard the USS Newark, arriving on June 18, where they joined by 32 Marines aboard the USS Nashville. Under the command of Major Littleton W. T. Waller, the detachment advanced toward Tientsin. Although General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. commanding in the Philippines, was reluctant to weaken his overextended forces, he agreed to dispatch to China the 9th Infantry Regiment, which departed from Manila on June 27. On June 17 the United States Navy's China Squadron under Rear Admiral Louis Kempff declined to join foreign naval forces in the Battle of Taku Forts, which guarded the river approach to Tientsin. On July 6 the 9th Infantry Regiment arrived at Taku. Colonel Emerson H. Liscum, commander of the 9th Infantry Regiment, disembarked the regiment's 1st and 2nd Battalions and marched on Tientsin. On 13 July 1900 elements of this force participated in the attack on Tientsin troops from several other nations.
The city of Tientsin fell to the Allies on the same day. Liscum and the flag bearer of the regiment were killed by Chinese snipers, the 9th infantry regiment suffered a ten percent casualty rate. By the beginning of August, the American forces were reinforced by the 14th Infantry Regiment, Battery F of the 5th Artillery Regiment. Major-General Adna R. Chaffee, Sr arrived in Nagasaki, Japan, on July 24. Within two days of his arrival, General Chaffee received orders to proceed to Taku and assume command of the American forces there. Other units, including the 6th Cavalry Regiment, were deployed directly from the mainland United States. Using Manila as a base and Nagasaki as an advance port, the United States assembled some 2,500 soldiers and Marines in China. By early August a multinational coalition of 19,000 soldiers, including British, Japanese, German, Austrian and American troops, was ready to move out of Tientsin toward Peking, some seventy miles distant. High points of the fighting en route were at Pei-tsang, which fell on 5 August, a severe engagement for American and British contingents at Yang-tsun on 6 August.
The force reached the Qing capital on 12 August 1900 and prepared to assault the gates leading into the Outer City. Lacking effective central direction, the relief expedition's attack wa