Sam'al was founded at least as far back as the Early Bronze Age. It was abandoned during the Hittite and Mittani periods flourished again in the Iron Age under Luwian speaking Neo-Hittites, by the 920 BC BC had become a kingdom. In the 9th and 8th century BC it came under control of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and by the 7th century BC it had become a directly ruled Assyrian province, it is located in the Anti-Taurus Mountains of modern Turkey's Gaziantep Province. The site of Sam'al was occupied in the Early Bronze Age, is thought to be part of the kingdom of Yamhad early in the second millennium, it was abandoned but rose again in the Iron Age becoming a kingdom. With the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Sam'al became a vassal state and a province of that empire. Kingdom of Sam'al was a middle power of the Middle-East in the first half of the 1st millennium BCE, it was near the Nur Mountains. Sam'al was the capital of the country. Royal steles and stone tablets from the period, of Kilamuva and Panamuva II, are the main sources for historical data about this timeperiod.
It became a middle power at the end of the 10th century BCE. It had expanded from being a city state and gained territories from Carchemish, around Adana from Quwê and remained independent, it didn't become part of Cilicia. In 859 BC Alimus was saved with the help of king of Sam ` al.. He didn't participate in the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC, but Assyria had been blocked in the Western area. Though the campaign of Assyria in 825 BC occupied the vital territories of Sam'al, Quwê had been defeated, but it had been reorganised as Denyen. After the death of Shalmaneser III, Ya'udi again became independent; some rulers of Sam'al had aggressive expansionist politics. Assyrian sources are not clear regarding Sam'al. Ya'udi was one of Assyria's satellite states in the annals of Shalmaneser III. Though around 830 BC Azitawadda, king of Denyen, states Ya'udi is his satellite country – at the same time, Kilamuwa mentions on his stela that he hired Assyria against Denyen. Other sources from the same period mention Ya'udi as a satellite state of Denyen and Assyria wanted to occupy this territory.
Kilamuva might offer for Deyen to be a satellite state. Before this, he should defeat Azitawadda. Assyrians won over Denyen and Sam'al in 825 BC. Sam'al became independent after the death of Shalmaneser III. There is an alternative opinion which states that Ya'udi and Sam'al were separate royal houses and Sam'al, the younger of the two, fought against the Assyrians at Alimus in 859 BC, in 858 BC when Shalmanser III crossed the Euphrates for the first time, again in 853 BC at the Battle of Qarqar; the Kingdom of Sam'al was founded by Hayyanu and his successor was Ahabbu of Siri'laya in 854 BC. Whereas Gabar, the founder of Ya'udi, his successors became a member of the Assyrian satellites; this makes clear. The Kingdom of Ya'udi wanted to open a corridor between Denyen, it was prevented by the unified Syrian forces. This unity had been dissolved in 825 BC. After the death of Shalmanezer III Denyen couldn't occupy it but the Samalians could. Sam ` moved into the palace of Kilamuva. At the end, in 717 BC, Assyria occupied the country under the rule of Sargon II.
The site was excavated in 1888, 1890, 1891, 1894 and 1902 during expeditions led by Felix von Luschan and Robert Koldewey. Each of the expeditions was supported by the German Orient Committee, except for the fourth, financed with monies from the Rudolf-Virchow-Stiftung and private donors, they found a fortified teardrop-shaped citadel, surrounded by the as yet unexcavated town and a further enormous double fortification wall with three gates and 100 bastions. Among the notable objects found at the site are five giant statues of lions carved from stone, which had guarded the gates of the city, but may have been ritually buried together within the citadel; the German excavations on the citadel recovered large numbers of relief-carved orthostats, along with inscriptions in Aramaic and Akkadian. These are on exhibit in the Pergamon Museum and Istanbul. Found was the notable Victory stele of Esarhaddon celebrating his victory over Taharqa; the field diaries of the excavation were lost during World War II.
In August 2006, the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago began a new long-term excavation project at the site of Zincirli under the directorship of David Schloen. Seven seasons of excavation have been conducted through 2012. Three royal inscriptions from Ya'udi or Sam'al are informative for the history of the area; the earliest is from the reign of King Panammu I, the others at 730 BCE. The dialectical peculiarities of these royal inscriptions from Sam'al have led to some scholars including P.-E. Dion. and S. Moscati advancing "Samalian" or "Ya'udic" as a distinct variety of Old Aramaic. Kuttamuwa was an 8th-century BC royal official from Sam'al who ordered an inscribed stele, to be erected upon his death; the inscription requested that his mourners commemorate his life and his afterlife with feasts "for my soul, in this stele." It is one of the earliest references in a Near East culture to a soul as a separate entity from the body. The 800-pound basalt stele is two feet wide. Cities of the ancient Near East Short chronology timeline Simon B.
Parker. "Appeals for military intervention: stories from Zinjirli and the Bible". The Biblical Archaeologist 59: 213-224. Ussishkin, David. "The Syro-Hittite ritua
For the municipality of the same name, see Banguingui, Sulu. Banguingui known as Sama Banguingui or Samal Banguingui is a distinct ethno-linguistic group dispersed throughout the Greater Sulu Archipelago and southern and western coastal regions of the Zamboanga Peninsula in Mindanao, Philippines, they are one of the ethnic groups collectively known as the Sama-Bajau peoples. The Banguingui are not recognized by law either in the Philippines or in the neighboring Malaysian state of Sabah; this can be attributed to their natural ability to culturally assimilate and their acceptance in either Tausug and Yakan societies. The Banguingui are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group; the Banguingui language has both oral traditions. Its written language is fast becoming a dying tradition. Oral traditions are handed down by the kamattoahan to the anak baha-u; the Banguingui built kuta throughout the Sulu Archipelago. Like their other Sama cousins, they sailed various ships like the vinta, salisipan, or bangka-bangka throughout the Sulu-Sulawesi region.
At the height of the Sulu Sultanate, the Banguingui, along with the Iranun people, formed the bulk of the Sultan's navy, leading coastal raids against settlements in the northern Philippines, as well as the coasts of neighboring Borneo and the Maluku Islands. They were heavily involved in piracy and the slave trade during the 18th and 19th centuries; the Banguingui sailed garay warships, in contrast to the lanong of the Iranun. Maas Alidji – a mariner in the service of the Sultan who gain fame during a battle in Brunei Bay. Maas Arolas Tulawie – one time governor of the Province of Sulu and patriarch of the Tulawie Clan, his descendants include some of the political leaders in the province. Their bailiwick is the Municipality of Talipao in the eastern region of Jolo Island. Imam Jai Dionga – First cousin of Maas Arolas Tulawie and headman of Buan Island in the Province of Tawi-Tawi for more than three decades, he is well respected by Tausug and Sama alike. He was one time Vice Mayor of the Municipality of Balimbing.
Panglima Alip - Progenitor of the Tulawies of Sulu and Diongas of Tawi-Tawi, was overlord of Tongkil in the 19th century reporting directly to the Sultan of Sulu. Ethnic groups in the Philippines Iranun people Garay Karakoa
Samal Saeed Mujbel Al Mamoori is an Iraqi defender who plays for Al-Zawraa In Iraq, for the Iraq national football team. Samal is the twin brother of the Iraqi midfielder Samer Saeed. Scores and results list Iraq's goal tally first. Al-ShortaBaghdad Cup: 2005Erbil SCIraqi Premier League: 2007–08, 2008–09Al-Quwa Al-JawiyaAFC Cup: 2016, 2017 Iraq FA Cup: 2015–16 Iraqi Premier League: 2016–17 2005 West Asian Games Gold medallist. 2012 Arab Nations Cup Bronze medallist 2012 WAFF Championship: runner-up 15/16 IPL Center Back of the season Samal Saeed at National-Football-Teams.com
The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia with their origins from the southern Philippines. The name collectively refers to related people who call themselves the Sama or Samah, they live a seaborne lifestyle, use small wooden sailing vessels such as the perahu, balutu, lepa and vinta. Some Sama-Bajau groups native to Sabah are known for their traditional horse culture; the Sama-Bajau are traditionally from the many islands of the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines, coastal areas of Mindanao and eastern Borneo, the Celebes, throughout eastern Indonesian islands. In the Philippines, they are grouped together with the religiously-similar Moro people. Within the last fifty years, many of the Filipino Sama-Bajau have migrated to neighbouring Malaysia and the northern islands of the Philippines, due to the conflict in Mindanao; as of 2010, they were the second-largest ethnic group in the Malaysian state of Sabah. Sama-Bajau have sometimes been called the "Sea Gypsies" or "Sea Nomads", terms that have been used for non-related ethnic groups with similar traditional lifestyles, such as the Moken of the Burmese-Thai Mergui Archipelago and the Orang laut of southeastern Sumatra and the Riau Islands of Indonesia.
The modern outward spread of the Sama-Bajau from older inhabited areas seems to have been associated with the development of sea trade in sea cucumber. Like the term Kadazan-Dusun, Sama-Bajau is a collective term, used to describe several related indigenous people who consider themselves a single distinct bangsa, it is accepted that these groups of people can be termed Sama or Bajau, though they never call themselves "Bajau" in the Philippines. Instead, they call themselves with the names of their tribes the place they live or place of origin. For example, the sea-going Sama-Bajau prefer to call themselves the Sama Dilaut or Sama Mandilaut in the Philippines. In the Philippines, the term "Sama" was used to describe the more land-oriented and settled Sama–Bajau groups, while "Bajau" was used to describe the more sea-oriented, boat-dwelling, nomadic groups; these distinctions are fading as the majority of Sama-Bajau have long since abandoned boat living, most for Sama-style piling houses in the coastal shallows."Sama" is believed to have originated from the Austronesian root word sama meaning "together", "same", or "kin".
The exact origin of the exonym "Bajau" is unclear. Some authors have proposed. Other possible origins include the Brunei Malay word bajaul, which means "to fish"; the term "Bajau" has pejorative connotations in the Philippines, indicating poverty in comparison to the term "Sama". Since it is used most to refer to poverty-stricken Sama-Bajau who make a living through begging. British administrators in Sabah classified the Sama-Bajau as "Bajau" and labelled them as such in their birth certificates, thus the Sama-Bajau in Malaysia may sometimes self-identify as "Bajau" or "Malay", for political reasons. This is due to the government recognition of the Sama-Bajau as Bumiputera under the name "Bajau"; this ensures easy access to the special privileges granted to ethnic Malays. This is true for recent Moro Filipino migrants; the indigenous Sama-Bajau in Malaysia have started labelling themselves as their ancestors called themselves, such as Simunul. For most of their history, the Sama-Bajau have been a nomadic, seafaring people, living off the sea by trading and subsistence fishing.
The boat-dwelling Sama-Bajau see themselves as non-aggressive people. They kept close to the shore by erecting houses on stilts, travelled using lepa, handmade boats which many lived in. Most of the various oral traditions and tarsila among the Sama-Bajau have a common theme which claims that they were a land-dwelling people who were the subjects of a king who had a daughter. After she is lost by either being swept away to the sea or being taken captive by a neighbouring kingdom, they were supposedly ordered to find her. After failing to do so they decided to remain nomadic for fear of facing the wrath of the king. One such version told among the Sama-Bajau of Borneo claims that they descended from Johorean royal guards who were escorting a princess named Dayang Ayesha for marriage to a ruler in Sulu. However, the Sultan of Brunei fell in love with the princess. On the way to Sulu, they were attacked by Bruneians in the high seas; the princess was married to the Sultan of Brunei instead. The escorts, having lost the princess, elected to settle in Borneo and Sulu rather than return to Johor.
Among the Indonesian Sama-Bajau, on the other hand, their oral histories place more importance on the relationship of the Sama-Bajau with the Sultanate of Gowa rather than Johor. The various versions of their origin myth tell about a royal princess, washed away by a flood, she was found and married a king or a prince of Gowa. Their offspring allegedly became the ancestors of the Indonesian Sama-Bajau. However, there are other versions which are more mythological and do not mention a princess. Among the Philippine Sama-Bajau, for example, there is a myth that claims that the Sama-B
Samal the Municipality of Samal, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Bataan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 35,298 people. Samal is situated in the north-eastern portion of Bataan, 111 kilometres away from Manila, it has a total land area of 56.30 square kilometres. Samal originated from samel, a covering attached to a banca to protect the passengers from the sun and rain, made of nipa leaves and woven together. Saint Catherine of Sienna became the patron of Samal, founded as a municipality on April 20, 1641."Sea gypsies" of Mindanao settlers migrated to Luzon in the early 14th century and settled in Bataan. In Samal, they propagated the capiz culture. Samal was the second town founded by the Dominican friars in Bataan and is composed of four barrios: Calaguiman, Santa Lucia and Lalawigan. Samal is located at 14°46′N 120°33′E. According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, the municipality has a land area of 56.30 square kilometres constituting 4.10% of the 1,372.98-square-kilometre- total area of Bataan.
Samal is politically subdivided into 14 barangays. In the 2015 census, Samal had a population of 35,298; the population density was 630 inhabitants per square kilometre. Pursuant to the Local government in the Philippines", the political seat of the municipal government is located at the Municipal Hall. In the History of the Philippines, the Gobernadorcillo was the Chief Executive who held office in the Presidencia. During the American rule, the elected Mayor and local officials, including the appointed ones held office at the Municipal Hall; the legislative and executive departments perform their functions in the Sangguniang Bayan and Municipal Trial Court and are located in the Town Hall. Samal's incumbent elected officials are - Mayor Mayor Generosa "Gene" Malibiran Dela Fuente and Vice Mayor Emmanuel R. Cortez; the Sangguniang Bayan Members are: Aida De Guia Macalinao, Madell Tagorio Bathan, Amelia Yabut Dela Rosa, Roman, Jr. Estrella Lazarte, Eduardo Alipio De Castro, Ricky Bugay Santos, John Samson Mateo and Eduardo Bugay De Leon.
They hold office at the second floor of the Town Hall the Office of the Mayor and Sangguniang Bayan Session Hall, respectively. The 2nd Municipal Circuit Trial Court of Orani-Samal MCTC Judge Ma. Cristina J. Mendoza-Pizzaro holds office in her sala located at the second floor of the MTC building at the back of the Orani Town hall. Composed of uplands and hills with some lowlands and plains, Samal's main produce are palay, vegetable, fruits rootcrops and cutflowers, including livestock and aquatic resources such as shellfish, prawns and different species of fish. Joaquin Ma. Joson of Bataan established the first ice plant. Wooden shoe making, pulp mills are some of the industries of the natives, it manufactures banana chips and arrow root flour through native processes made into cookies called araro as pasalubong. Samal is rich is marine aquatic resources and productive farmlands. Garments manufacturing in Samal is engaged in by five firms engaged in exports. In the Town Hall of Samal and along the streets, Capiz shells are displayed to show that the town residents manufacture this commodity.
Samal's attractions and historical landmarks include: Senakulo sa Calaguiman during Holy Week Town Hall of Samal Samal Capiz shell industry Fish ponds, mangrove and seafoods in Samal bay The 1596 Parish Church of Saint Catherine of Siena belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Balanga (Dioecesis Balangensis - Suffragan of San Fernando, Pampanga. The Parish has a Catholic population of 11,581, under Titular of St. Catherine of Siena, with Feast day on April 30, its former Parish Priest is Monsignor Edilfredo Cruz of the Vicariate of St. Dominic de Guzman; as of June 2011, Fr. Antonio David Bernaldo was assigned as new Parish Priest of the church; the Dominicans in 1596 directed the spirituality of Samal. Attacked by Dutch invaders in April 1647, the local garrison of Pampanga under Alejo Aguas ousted the Dutch forces. Rev. Jeromino Belen, O. P. rebuilt the convent. In 1896 the Katipuneros burned the church and convent which were rebuilt by Rev. Justo Quesada in 1903. Samal on MyBataan
Israel Defense Forces ranks
The Israeli Defense Forces has a unique rank structure. Because the IDF is an integrated force, ranks are the same in all services The ranks are derived from those used in the pre-state paramilitary Haganah, which operated during the Mandate period in order to protect the Yishuv; this is reflected in the compacted rank structure: for instance, the Chief of Staff is only equivalent to a lieutenant general in other militaries. Officers: Volunteers who have completed the officer's course. Officers serve for 44 months for men. Positions in specialized units require their officers to serve for more than this. Promotions are based on time served, it takes about a year to be promoted from 2nd lieutenant to 1st lieutenant and three years to be promoted from 1st lieutenant to captain. Army officers have bronze-metal insignia, air force officers have silver metal insignia, navy officers have gold-metal insignia or gold braid bars. Officers without a university education can be promoted to a maximum of Rav Seren, although the IDF sponsors the studies for their majors.
Academic officers: Special rank given to soldiers who are delaying completing officers' training so they can complete a professional education. A kama is equivalent to a 2nd lieutenant, a ka'ab is equivalent to a 1st lieutenant, but are treated as if they were breveted to the next higher rank. Officers of these ranks are considered professional manpower and take posts of command. Upon completing officers' training, an academic officer is awarded the corresponding next "real" rank due to their experience in grade, their insignia bars are embossed with scrolls rather than laurel branches. Non-commissioned officers: The professional non-commissioned and warrant ranks, drawn from volunteers who signed on for military service after completing conscription, they are assigned to head-up the headquarters staff of a unit. Samal is a Hebrew abbreviation for segen mi-khutz la-minyan, which translates as “supernumerary deputy”. Rav samal translates as "chief sergeant". Nagad is a variant of the biblical word nagid, which means "ruler" or "leader".
Rav nagad is a senior staff NCO rank equivalent to the American ranks of "Chief Warrant Officer" and "Master Warrant Officer". Enlisted: The conscript and field NCO ranks. All Jewish or Druze conscripts must start their compulsory service at 18. Enlisted male conscripts serve for female conscripts serve for 24 months. In the IDF enlisted ranks are earned by means of time in service, rather than by a particular post or assignment. After 4 to 12 months the conscript is promoted to rav turai, after 18 to 20 months promoted to samal, after 24 to 32 months is promoted to samal rishon.. Field NCOs who command sub-units are called mashak; this is an abbreviation that translates into English as "non-commissioned officer". It is a term of respect like the French Army's chef. Recruits: Upon enlistment to military service in Israel, all soldiers begin a basic training course and undergo several weeks or months of'integration' from citizens to soldiers; this course is called tironut and the soldier being trained on this course is called a tiron.
This is erroneously interpreted as a rank, similar to the US Army's private. Both officers and enlisted personnel have an obligation to serve in the Reserves after completing their active military service. Male personnel serve until 41 -- 51 years old; the rank of memale makom katzín, initials:Mamak or "substitute officer", was created in the 1960s. The rank was considered below a 2nd lieutenant, it indicated a cadet in the Israeli army who had finished the basic preparation for an officer rank, but for some reason abandoned their studies, failed to complete the professional officer preparation, or completed it with a minimal passing grade but was still found worthy of command. They occupied the lowest officer posts; those who finished the officer preparation with a minimal passing grade and were substituting in a command position were eligible for promotion to normal officer rank after a set period. It was discontinued in 1994; the rank of Samal Bakhír, initials:Samab was used from 1948 to 1952.
It was the equivalent of a US Army First Sergeant. It was replaced by the rank of Rav Samal Yekhidati, similar to a British or Commonwealth Army Warrant Officer II; the rank of rav turái rishón, initials:Ratash, or "chief private first class", was used from 1972 to 1982. There was an expansion of staff NCO ranks during this period and the higher rank
Samal, Davao del Norte
Samal the Island Garden City of Samal, or sometimes called IGaCOS, is a 4th class city in the province of Davao del Norte, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 104,123 people, it is made up of Samal Island and the smaller Talikud Island in the Davao Gulf, from the merger of former municipalities of Samal and Kaputian. Samal is a part of the Metropolitan Davao area and is two kilometers away from Davao City, the largest city and the primary economic center of Mindanao; the name Samal was derived from the Sama-Bajau peoples, the natives who were the first inhabitants of the island. The first datu in the island was Datu Taganiyug, a native of what is now Peñaplata, today the governance center of the city. In the past, the people of the island name a place about. For example, the name Peñaplata was derived from the word "piña" or pineapple because of the abundance of pineapple in the area. This, however, is folk etymology, for peñaplata means "rock of silver" in Spanish.
Tagpopongan is the first barangay in the island. It was so called owing to the fact; the word Samal was known before because it was used as surname by datus. The island was home to the Sama-Bajau peoples, until Hindu influences from other southeast Asian vassal states were brought, followed by Islamic influences. On, Spain managed to conquer the island in the late 1840s when Nueva Vergara was established; the Pacific War, which happened during World War II, struck the island. Japanese fighter planes bombed the island. Japanese forces occupied the island and forced the people to work for four years until they were expelled by the Allied forces. After the war, infrastructure was built, like schools and stores in the area; the time came in July 8, 1948, when the entire island itself becomes part of the newly created municipality of Samal. Five years in 1953, the municipality of Babak was created from Samal, marking the political division of the island between the two municipalities. Now came the political division of the island between the three municipalities, when the municipality of Kaputian was created from the island in 1966.
In this period, the living qualities between these three municipalities became low and rural. In 1969, a proposal to create the sub-province of Samal was created by Republic Act No. 5999 and covered the area of the present-day city. The act was enacted without President Ferdinand Marcos' approval. However, the sub-province was never inaugurated; the city was created through Republic Act No. 8471 in January 30, 1998. This act paved the way for the dissolution and merger of the three former municipalities of Samal and Kaputian into one local government unit by turning into districts, now named as IGaCoS, the Island Garden City of Samal; the first city mayor was Rogelio P. Antalan, who served for three consecutive terms from 1998 to 2007. On September 22, 2015, Kjartan Sekkingstad, aged 55, from Sotra, was abducted by Abu Sayyaf Islamist guerrillas from a high-end tourist resort on Samal Island, along with two Canadian men, John Ridsdel, aged 68, Robert Hall, aged 67, a Filipina woman, Marites Flor, Hall’s girlfriend.
In April and June 2016, the Canadians were beheaded after ransoms were not paid, in June 2016 Flor was released. On September 17, 2016, Sekkingstad was released on Jolo island, 600 miles south of Manila after captor Abu Sayyaf received $638,000 in ransom for his release, he was handed over to the Moro National Liberation Front. The MNLF was in peace talks with the government and had been working with authorities to secure Sekkingstad's release, it is not known who paid the ransom for Sekkingstad. Samal is the only city in the country that encompasses two entire islands, hence its name as the Island Garden City. While pristine beaches dot the island's shores, hills dominate the middle portions of the island. Talikud Island is located southwest of the main island. IGaCoS enjoys an evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year and a typhoon free climate, which make it ideal for agricultural production. Samal is politically subdivided into 46 barangays. In 1955, the sitios of Mambago, San Isidro, Sto.
Niño, San Antonio, San Agustin, Balet, Tambo and Cogon were converted into barrios of the now-defunct municipality of Babak. Cebuano is the medium of language of the people of Samal Island, followed by Isama and Tausug; the city’s economy depends in its agricultural production. Copra, corn, vegetables and fish are the major products of the island. Livestock production is a major product with Davao City as the primary market. In addition, rice is produced in the barangays of San Isidro in Babak District and Aumbay in Peñaplata District; the city is the largest resort city in the country. It houses many beach resorts, it has numerous marine reefs and tranquil waters that lure the tourists to visit them in Talikud Island. There are 34 registered resorts with a combined capacity of 1,000 rooms in the city; the most popular of these is the Pearl Farm Beach Resort, owned by Ms. Universe 1973 winner Margarita Moran; because of these, the Department of Tourism named it one of the best visiting islands in Mindanao and one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the country.
Thus, tourism is the main source of income in the city. Biggest taxes are imposed to touri