Abolitionism was the movement to end slavery. This term can be used both formally and informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain known as Emperor Charles V, was following the example of Louis X of France who had abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315, he passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, it was not enforced as a result. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church condemned the slave trade in response to a plea by Lourenço da Silva de Mendouça, it was vehemently condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839; the abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality of slavery. James Oglethorpe was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, banning it in the Province of Georgia on humanitarian grounds, arguing against it in Parliament, encouraging his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause.
Soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More united with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. The Somersett Case in 1772, in which a fugitive slave was freed with the judgement that slavery did not exist under English common law, helped launch the British movement to abolish slavery. Though anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, the colonies and emerging nations that used slave labour continued to do so: Dutch, British and Portuguese territories in the West Indies, South America, the Southern United States. After the American Revolution established the United States, northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution. Vermont, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans and African Americans.
During the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. In 1787 the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed in London. Revolutionary France abolished slavery throughout its empire in 1794, although it was restored in 1802 by Napoleon as part of a program to ensure sovereignty over its colonies. Haiti formally declared independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory; the northern states in the U. S. all abolished slavery by 1804. The United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. Britain abolished slavery throughout its empire by the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies re-abolished it in 1848 and the U. S. abolished slavery in 1865 with the 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia, to emancipate the serfs in Russia.
Slavery was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Mauritania was the last country to abolish slavery, with a presidential decree in 1981. Today and adult slavery and forced labour are illegal in all countries, as well as being against international law, but a high rate of human trafficking for labour and for sexual bondage continues to affect tens of millions of adults and children. In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed; this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Some cases of African slaves freed by setting foot on the French soil were recorded such as this example of a Norman slave merchant who tried to sell slaves in Bordeaux in 1571, he was arrested and his slaves were freed according to a declaration of the Parlement of Guyenne which stated that slavery was intolerable in France. Born into slavery in Saint Domingue, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became free when his father brought him to France in 1776.
As in other New World colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labour for their sugar cane plantations in their Caribbean colonies. In addition, French colonists in Louisiane in North America held slaves in the South around New Orleans, where they established sugarcane plantations. Louis XIV's Code Noir regulated the slave institution in the colonies, it gave unparalleled rights to slaves. It included the right to gather publicly, or take Sundays off. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions, it forbade slave owners to torture them or to separate families, it demanded enslaved Africans receive instruction in the Catholic faith, implying that Africans were human beings endowed with a soul, a fact French law did not admit until then. It resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free in 1830, they were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and slaves.
Other free people of colour, such as Julien Raimond, spo
Frederick Douglass was an American social reformer, orator and statesman. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his oratory and incisive antislavery writings. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Northerners at the time found it hard to believe. Douglass wrote several autobiographies, he described his experiences as a slave in his 1845 autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, which became a bestseller, was influential in promoting the cause of abolition, as was his second book, My Bondage and My Freedom. After the Civil War, Douglass remained an active campaigner against slavery and wrote his last autobiography and Times of Frederick Douglass. First published in 1881 and revised in 1892, three years before his death, it covered events during and after the Civil War.
Douglass actively supported women's suffrage, held several public offices. Without his approval, Douglass became the first African American nominated for Vice President of the United States as the running mate and Vice Presidential nominee of Victoria Woodhull, on the Equal Rights Party ticket. Douglass was a firm believer in the equality of all peoples, whether black, Native American, or recent immigrant, he was a believer in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, in the liberal values of the U. S. Constitution; when radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union with Slaveholders", criticized Douglass' willingness to engage in dialogue with slave owners, he famously replied: "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong." Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Talbot County, Maryland. The plantation was between Cordova; the exact date of his birth is unknown, he chose to celebrate his birthday on February 14.
In his first autobiography, Douglass stated: "I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it."Douglass was of mixed race, which included Native American and African on his mother's side, as well as European. His father was "almost white," as shown by historian David W. Blight in his 2018 biography of Douglass, he said his mother. After escaping to the North years he took the surname Douglass, having dropped his two middle names, he wrote of his earliest times with his mother: The opinion was... whispered that my master was my father. My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant... It common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a early age.... I do not recollect seeing my mother by the light of day.... She would lie down with me, get me to sleep, but long before I waked she was gone. After this early separation from his mother, young Frederick lived with his maternal grandmother, Betty Bailey.
At the age of six, he was separated from his grandmother and moved to the Wye House plantation, where Aaron Anthony worked as overseer. Douglass's mother died. After Anthony died, Douglass was given to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld, who sent him to serve Thomas' brother Hugh Auld in Baltimore, he felt himself lucky to be in the city, where he said slaves were freemen, compared to those on plantations. When Douglass was about twelve, Hugh Auld's wife Sophia started teaching him the alphabet. Douglass described her as a kind and tender-hearted woman, who treated him "as she supposed one human being ought to treat another". Hugh Auld disapproved of the tutoring, feeling that literacy would encourage slaves to desire freedom. Under her husband's influence, Sophia came to believe that education and slavery were incompatible and one day snatched a newspaper away from Douglass. In his autobiography, Douglass related how he learned to read from white children in the neighborhood, by observing the writings of the men with whom he worked.
Douglass continued, secretly, to teach himself how to write. He often said, "knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom." As Douglass began to read newspapers, political materials, books of every description, this new realm of thought led him to question and condemn the institution of slavery. In years, Douglass credited The Columbian Orator, an anthology that he discovered at about age twelve, with clarifying and defining his views on freedom and human rights; the book, first published in 1797, is a classroom reader, containing essays and dialogues, to assist students in learning reading and grammar. When Douglass was hired out to William Freeland, he taught other slaves on the plantation to read the New Testament at a weekly Sunday school; as word spread, the interest among slaves in learning to read was so great that in any week, more than 40 slaves would attend lessons. For about six months, their study went unnoticed. While Freeland remained complacent about their activities, other plantation owners became incensed about their slaves being educated.
One Sunday they burst i
The Samaná Península is a peninsula in Dominican Republic situated in the province of Samaná. The Samaná Peninsula is connected to the rest of the state by the Isthmus of Samaná; the Peninsula contains many beaches in the city of Santa Bárbara de Samaná. It contains 3 rivers; the main roads are the Samaná Highway that leads from the peninsula to Santo Domingo. The peninsula contains the Samaná El Catey International Airport; the peninsula has a lot of agriculture and social economy. El Catey International Airport Samana - Dominican Republic Samana Information Travel Guide to Samana Peninsula
History of Haiti
The recorded written history of Haiti began on 5 December 1492 when the European navigator Christopher Columbus happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that came to be known as the Caribbean. It was inhabited by the Taíno, Arawakan people, who variously called their island Ayiti, Bohio, or Kiskeya. Columbus promptly claimed the island for the Spanish Crown, naming it La Isla Española Latinized to Hispaniola. French influence began in 1625, French control of what was called Saint-Domingue—modern-day Haiti—began in 1660. From 1697 on, the western part of the island was French and the eastern part was Spanish. Haiti became one of the wealthiest of France's colonies, producing vast quantities of sugar and coffee and depended on a brutal slave system for the necessary labor. Inspired by the message of the French Revolution, Haitian slaves rose up in revolt in 1791 and after decades of struggle the independent republic of Haiti was proclaimed in 1804. Successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean.
Around A. D. 600, the Taíno, an Arawak culture, arrived on the island. They were organized into cacicazgos, each led by a cacique. Christopher Columbus established La Navidad, near the modern town of Cap-Haïtien, it was built from the timbers of his wrecked ship, Santa María, during his first voyage in December 1492. When he returned in 1493 on his second voyage he found the settlement had been destroyed and all 39 settlers killed. Columbus continued east and founded a new settlement at La Isabela on the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic in 1493; the capital of the colony was moved to Santo Domingo in 1496, on the south west coast of the island in the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic. The Spanish returned to western Hispaniola in 1502, establishing a settlement at Yaguana near modern-day Léogâne. A second settlement was established on the north coast in 1504 called Puerto Real near modern Fort-Liberté – which in 1578 was relocated to a nearby site and renamed Bayaja.
Following the arrival of Europeans, La Hispaniola's indigenous population suffered to near extinction, in the worst case of depopulation in the Americas. A accepted hypothesis attributes the high mortality of this colony in part to European diseases to which the natives had no immunity. A small number of Taínos were able to set up villages elsewhere. Spanish interest in Hispaniola began to wane in the 1520s, as more lucrative gold and silver deposits were found in Mexico and South America. Thereafter, the population of Spanish Hispaniola grew at a slow pace; the settlement of Yaguana was burnt to the ground three times in its just over a century long existence as a Spanish settlement, first by French pirates in 1543, again on May 27, 1592, by a 110-strong landing party from a four-ship English naval squadron led by Christopher Newport in his flagship Golden Dragon, who destroyed all 150 houses in the settlement, by the Spanish themselves in 1605, for reasons set out below. In 1595, the Spanish, frustrated by the twenty-year rebellion of their Dutch subjects, closed their home ports to rebel shipping from the Netherlands, cutting them off from the critical salt supplies necessary for their herring industry.
The Dutch responded by sourcing new salt supplies from Spanish America where colonists were more than happy to trade. So large numbers of Dutch traders/pirates joined their English and French brethren trading on the remote coasts of Hispaniola. In 1605, Spain was infuriated that Spanish settlements on the northern and western coasts of the island persisted in carrying out large scale and illegal trade with the Dutch, who were at that time fighting a war of independence against Spain in Europe and the English, a recent enemy state, so decided to forcibly resettle their inhabitants closer to the city of Santo Domingo; this action, known as the Devastaciones de Osorio, proved disastrous. Five of the existing thirteen settlements on the island were brutally razed by Spanish troops including the two settlements on the territory of present-day Haiti, La Yaguana, Bayaja. Many of the inhabitants escaped to the jungle, or fled to the safety of passing Dutch ships; this Spanish action was counterproductive as English and French pirates were now free to establish bases on the island's abandoned northern and western coasts, where wild cattle were now plentiful and free.
In 1697, after decades of fighting over the territory, the Spanish ceded the western part of the island to the French, who henceforth called it Saint-Domingue. Saint-Domingue developed into a lucrative colony for France, its economy was based on a labor-intensive sugar industry which rested on vast numbers of African slaves. Meanwhile, the situation on the Spanish part of the island deteriorated; the entire Spanish empire sank into a deep economic crisis, Santo Domingo was in addition struck by earthquakes, hurricanes and a shrinking population. In 1711, the city of Cap-Français was formally established by Louis XIV and took over as capital of the colony from Port-de-Paix. In 1726, the city of Les Cayes was founded on the Southern coast which became the biggest settlement in the south. In 1749, the city of Port-au-Prince was established on the West coast, which in 1770 took over as the capital of the colony from Cap-Français, however that same year the 1770 Port-au-Prince earthquake and tsunami destroyed the city killing 200 people and 30,000 from famine and di
Richard Allen (bishop)
Richard Allen was a minister, educator and one of America's most active and influential black leaders. In 1794, he founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first independent black denomination in the United States, he opened his first AME church in 1794 in Pennsylvania. Elected the first bishop of the AME Church in 1816, Allen focused on organizing a denomination in which free blacks could worship without racial oppression and slaves could find a measure of dignity, he worked to upgrade the social status of the black community, organizing Sabbath schools to teach literacy and promoting national organizations to develop political strategies. He was born into slavery on February 1760, on the Delaware property of Benjamin Chew; when he was a child Allen and his family were sold to Stokeley Sturgis, who had a plantation in Delaware. When Sturgis had financial problems he sold two of his five siblings. Allen had an older brother and sister left with him and the three began to attend meetings of the local Methodist Society, welcoming to slaves and free blacks.
They were encouraged by their master Sturgis. Richard taught himself to write, he joined the Methodists at 17. He attracted criticism from local slave owners. Allen and his brother redoubled their efforts for Sturgis so that no one could say his slaves did not do well because of religion; the Reverend Freeborn Garrettson, who had freed his own slaves in 1775, began to preach in Delaware. He was among many Methodist and Baptist ministers after the American Revolutionary War who encouraged slaveholders to emancipate their people; when Garrettson visited the Sturgis plantation to preach, Allen's master was touched by this declaration and began to give consideration to the thought that holding slaves was sinful. Sturgis was soon convinced that slavery was wrong and offered his slaves an opportunity to buy their freedom. Allen performed extra work to earn the money and bought his freedom in 1780, when he changed his name from "Negro Richard" to "Richard Allen." Allen's first wife was named Flora. They were married on October 19, 1790.
She worked closely with him during the early years of establishing the church, from 1787 to 1799. They attended church school and worked together purchasing land, donated to the church or rented out to families. Flora died on March 1801, after a long illness. Scholars do not know. After moving to Philadelphia, Allen married a freed slave from Virginia, she had moved to Philadelphia as a child and the couple met around 1800. Richard and Sarah Allen had six children. Sarah Allen was active in what became the AME Church and is called the "Founding Mother." Allen was qualified as a preacher in 1784 at the Christmas Conference, the founding of the Methodist Church in North America in Baltimore, Maryland. He was one of the two black attendees of the conference along with Harry Hosier, but neither could vote during deliberations. Allen was allowed to lead services at 5 a.m. which were attended by blacks. Eschewing Asbury and Hosier's circuit riding practices, he moved to Philadelphia, a center of free blacks.
In 1786, Allen became a preacher at St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania but was restricted to early-morning services; as he attracted more black congregants, the church vestry ordered them to be in a separate area for worship. Allen preached on the commons near the church gaining a congregation of nearly 50 and supporting himself with a variety of odd jobs. Allen and Absalom Jones a Methodist preacher, resented the white congregants' segregation of blacks for worship and prayer, they decided to leave St. George's to create independent worship for African Americans; that brought some opposition from the white church as well as the more-established blacks of the community. In 1787, Allen and Jones led the black members out of St. George's Methodist Church, they formed the Free African Society, a non-denominational mutual aid society that assisted fugitive slaves and new migrants to the city. Allen, along with Absalom Jones, William Gray and William Wilcher, found an available lot on Sixth Street near Lombard.
Allen negotiated a price and purchased this lot in 1787 to build a church, but it was years before they had a building. Now occupied by Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, it is the oldest parcel of real estate in the United States, owned continuously by African Americans. Over time, most of the FAS members chose to affiliate with the Episcopal Church, as many blacks in Philadelphia had been Anglicans since the 1740s, they founded the African Church with Absalom Jones. It was accepted as a parish congregation, opened its doors on July 17, 1794 as the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas. In 1795, Absalom Jones was ordained as a deacon. In 1804, he became the first black ordained in the United States as an Episcopal priest. Allen and others wanted to continue in the Methodist practice. Allen called their congregation the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Converting a blacksmith shop on Sixth Street, the leaders opened the doors of Bethel AME Church on July 29, 1794. At first affiliated with the larger Methodist Episcopal Church, the church had to rely on visiting white ministers for communion.
In recognition of his leadership and preaching, Allen was ordained as the first black Methodist minister by Bishop Francis Asbury in 1799. He and the congregation still had to continue to negotiate white oversight and deal with white elders of the denomination. A decade after its founding, the AME Church had 457 members, in 1813, it had 1,272. In 1816, Allen unite
Black Indians in the United States
Black Indians are people of mixed Native American and African American heritage, who have strong ties to and identify as Native Americans. Many Indigenous peoples of the Eastern Woodlands, such as the Narragansett, Pequot and Shinnecock, as well as tribes from the Southeast, such as Choctaw and Cherokee, have a significant degree of African ancestry and sometimes European ancestry as well. Certain Native American tribes have had close relations with African Americans in regions where slavery was prevalent, or where free people of color have resided. Members of the Five Civilized Tribes participated in holding enslaved African Americans in the Southeast, some slaves migrated with them to the West on the Trail of Tears in 1830 and during the period of Indian Removal. In peace treaties with the US after the American Civil War, the slaveholding tribes, which had sided with the Confederacy, were required to emancipate slaves and give them full citizenship rights in their nations; the Cherokee and Seminole have created controversy in recent decades as they tightened rules for membership in their nations and excluded Freedmen who did not have at least one Native American ancestor on the early 20th-century Dawes Rolls.
This exclusion was appealed in the courts, both because of the treaty conditions and because of inaccuracies in the Dawes Rolls. The Chickasaw Nation never extended citizenship to Chickasaw Freedmen; until historic relations between Native Americans and African Americans were neglected in mainstream United States history studies. At various times, Africans had varying degrees of contact with Native Americans, although they did not live together in as great number as with Europeans. African slaves brought to the United States and their descendants have had a history of cultural exchange and intermarriage with Native Americans, as well as with other enslaved people who possessed Native American and European ancestry. Most interaction took place in the Southern United States, where the largest number of people were enslaved. A significant number of African Americans have some Native American ancestry, but most have not grown up within the cultures and do not have current social, cultural or linguistic ties to Native peoples.
Relationships among different Native Americans and African Americans have been varied and complex. Some groups were more accepting of Africans than others and welcomed them as full members of their respective cultures and communities. Native peoples disagreed about the role of ethnic African people in their communities. Other Native Americans did not oppose it for others; some Native Americans and people of African descent fought alongside one another in armed struggles of resistance against U. S. expansion into Native territories, as in the Seminole Wars in Florida. After the American Civil War, some African Americans continued as members of the US Army, they were assigned to fight against Native Americans in the Western frontier states. Their military units became known as a nickname given by Native Americans. Black Seminole in particular were recruited from Indian Territory and worked as Native American scouts for the Army. Records of contacts between Africans and Native Americans date to April 1502, when the first enslaved African arrived in Hispaniola.
Some Africans escaped inland from the colony of Santo Domingo. In the lands which became part of the United States of America, the first recorded example of an African slave escaping from European colonists and being absorbed by Native Americans dates to 1526. In June of that year, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón established a Spanish colony near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in present-day South Carolina; the Spanish settlement was named San Miguel de Guadalupe. In 1526 the first enslaved African took refuge with local Native Americans. In 1534 Pueblo peoples of the Southwest had contact with the Moroccan slave Esteban de Dorantes before any contact with the remainder of survivors of his Spanish expedition; as part of the Spanish Pánfilo de Narváez expedition, Esteban traveled from Florida in 1528 to what is now New Mexico in 1539, with a few other survivors. He is thought have been killed by Zuni. Intermarriage between enslaved Africans and Native Americans began in the early 17th century in Atlantic coastal settlements where the people met each other as workers in the Upper South..
In 1622 Native Americans attempted to overrun the European colony of Jamestown. They killed the Europeans but brought the African slaves as captives back to their own communities assimilating them. Interracial relationships occurred between African Americans and members of other tribes in the coastal states as colonists had tried to enslave Native Americans, until giving that up in the early 18th century. Several colonial advertisements for runaway slaves made direct reference to the connections which Africans had in Native American communities. "Reward notices in colonial newspapers now told of African slaves who'ran off with his Indian wife' or'had kin among the Indians' or is'part-Indian and speaks their language good'."Colonists in South Carolina felt so concerned about the possible threat posed by the mixed African and Native American population that they passed a law in 1725 prohibiting taking slaves to the frontier regions, imposing a fine of 200 pounds if violated. In 1751 South Carolina passed a law against holding Africans in proximity to Native Americans, as the planters considered that detrimental to
Black Canadians is a designation used for people of full or partial Sub-Saharan African descent, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada. The majority of Black Canadians are of Caribbean origin, though the population consists of African-American immigrants and their descendants, as well as many native African immigrants. Black Canadians draw a distinction between those of Afro-Caribbean ancestry and those of other African roots; the term African Canadian is used by some Black Canadians who trace their heritage to the first slaves brought by British and French colonists to the North American mainland. Promised freedom by the British during the American Revolutionary War, thousands of Black Loyalists were resettled by the Crown in Canada afterward, such as Thomas Peters. In addition, an estimated ten to thirty thousand fugitive slaves reached freedom in Canada from the Southern United States during the antebellum years, aided by people along the Underground Railroad. Many Black people of Caribbean origin in Canada reject the term African Canadian as an elision of the uniquely Caribbean aspects of their heritage, instead identify as Caribbean Canadian.
Unlike in the United States, where African American has become a used term, in Canada controversies associated with distinguishing African or Caribbean heritage have resulted in the term Black Canadian being accepted there. Black Canadians have contributed to many areas of Canadian culture. Many of the first visible minorities to hold high public offices have been Black, including Michaëlle Jean, Donald Oliver, Stanley G. Grizzle, Rosemary Brown and Lincoln Alexander, in turn opening the door for other minorities. Black Canadians form the third-largest visible minority group in Canada, after South Asian and Chinese Canadians. According to the 2006 Census by Statistics Canada, 783,795 Canadians identified as black, constituting 2.5 per cent of the entire Canadian population. Of the black population, 11 per cent identified as mixed-race of "white and black"; the five most black-populated provinces in 2006 were Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Nova Scotia. The ten most black-populated census metropolitan areas were Toronto, Ottawa, Vancouver, Hamilton, Winnipeg and Oshawa.
Preston, in the Halifax area, is the community with the highest percentage of black people, with 69.4 per cent. According to the 2011 Census, a total of 945,665 Black Canadians were counted, making up 2.9 per cent of Canada's population. In the 2016 Census, the black population totalled 1,198,540, encompassing 3.5 per cent of the country's population. At times, it has been claimed that Black Canadians have been undercounted in census data. Writer George Elliott Clarke has cited a McGill University study which found that 43 per cent of all Black Canadians were not counted as black in the 1991 Canadian census, because they had identified on census forms as British, French or other cultural identities which were not included in the census group of Black cultures. Although subsequent censuses have reported the population of Black Canadians to be much more consistent with the McGill study's revised 1991 estimate than with the official 1991 census data, no recent study has been conducted to determine whether some Black Canadians are still missed by the self-identification method.
One of the ongoing controversies in the Black Canadian community revolves around appropriate terminologies. Many Canadians of Afro-Caribbean origin object to the term African Canadian, as it obscures their own culture and history, this accounts for the term's less prevalent use in Canada, compared to the consensus African American south of the border. Black Nova Scotians, a more distinct cultural group, of whom some can trace their Canadian ancestry back to the 1700s, use both terms, African Canadian and Black Canadian. For example, there is an Office of African Nova Scotian Affairs and a Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia. Caribbean Canadian is used to refer to Black Canadians of Caribbean heritage, although this usage can be controversial because the Caribbean is not populated only by people of African origin, but includes large groups of Indo-Caribbeans, Chinese Caribbeans, European Caribbeans, Syrian or Lebanese Caribbeans and Amerindians; the term West Indian is used by those of Caribbean ancestry, although the term is more of a cultural description than a racial one, can be applied to groups of many different racial and ethnic backgrounds.
The term Afro-Caribbean-Canadian is used in response to this controversy, although as of 2019, this term is still not seen in common usage. More specific national terms such as Jamaican Canadian, Haitian Canadian, or Ghanaian Canadian are used; as of 2019, there is no used alternative to Black Canadian, accepted by the Afro-Caribbean population, those of more recent African extraction, descendants of immigrants from the United States as an umbrella term for the whole group. One common practice, seen in academic usage and in the names and mission statements of some Black Canadian cultural and social organizations but not yet in universal nationwide usage, is to always make reference to both the African and Caribbean communities. For example, one key health organization dedicated to HIV/AIDS education and prevention in the Black Canadian community is now named the African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario, the Toronto publication Pride bills itself as an "African-Canadian and Caribbean-Canadian news magazine", G98.7, a Black-ori