Banda Singh Bahadur
Banda Singh Bahadur, was a Sikh military commander who established a Sikh state with capital at Lohgarh. At age 15 he left home to become an ascetic, was given the name ‘’Madho Das’’, he established a monastery at Nānded, on the bank of the river Godāvarī, where in September 1708 he was visited by, became a disciple of, Guru Gobind Singh, who gave him the new name of Banda Singh Bahadur after initiating him into the Khalsa. Armed with the blessing and authority of Guru Gobind Singh, he came to Khanda in Sonipat and assembled a fighting force and led the struggle against the Mughal Empire. Guru Gobind Singh appointed five Sikhs to assist him, his first major action was the sacking of the Mughal provincial capital, Samana, in November 1709. After establishing his authority in Punjab, Banda Singh Bahadur abolished the zamindari system, granted property rights to the tillers of the land, he was captured by the Mughals and tortured to death in 1715-1716. Banda Singh was born at Rajouri. According to Hakim Rai's Ahwāl-i-Lachhmaṇ Dās urf Bandā Sāhib, his father Ram Dev was a farmer belonging to the Sodhi sub-caste of the Khatris.
After a meeting with Guru Gobind Singh on 3 September 1708, he became a Sikh. The Guru Gobind ordered him to go to Khanda and fight the Mughals with the help of the Sikh army in Battle of Sonipat. In 1709 he defeated Mughals in the Battle of Samana and captured the Mughal city of Samana, killing about 10,000 Mohammedans. Samana minted coins. With this treasury the Sikhs became financially stable; the Sikhs soon took over Sadhora. The Sikhs captured the Cis-Sutlej areas of Punjab, including Malerkotla and Nahan. On 12 May 1710 in the Battle of Chappar Chiri the Sikhs killed Wazir Khan, the Governor of Sirhind and Dewan Suchanand, who were responsible for the martyrdom of the two youngest sons of Guru Gobind Singh. Two days the Sikhs captured Sirhind. Banda Singh was now in control of territory from the Sutlej to the Yamuna and ordered that ownership of the land be given to the farmers, to let them live in dignity and self-respect. Banda Singh Bahadur developed the village of Mukhlisgarh, made it his capital.
He renamed it to Lohgarh where he issued his own mint. The coin described Lohgarh: "Struck in the City of Peace, illustrating the beauty of civic life, the ornament of the blessed throne", he established a state in Punjab for half a year. Banda Singh sent Sikhs to the Uttar Pradesh and Sikhs took over Saharanpur, Jalalabad and other nearby areas, bringing relief to the repressed population. In the regions of Jalandhar and Amritsar, the Sikhs started fighting for the rights of the people. Banda Singh Bahadur captured Rahon after defeating Mughals in the Battle of Rahon. Sikhs used their newly established power to remove corrupt officials and replace them with honest ones. Banda Singh Bahadur is known to have halted the Zamindari system in the time he was active and gave the farmers proprietorship of their own land, it seems that all classes of government officers were addicted to extortion and corruption and the whole system of regulatory and order was subverted. Local tradition recalls that the people from the neighborhood of Sadaura came to Banda Singh complaining of the iniquities practices by their land lords.
Banda Singh ordered Baj Singh to open fire on them. The people were astonished at the strange reply to their representation, asked him what he meant, he told them that they deserved no better treatment when being thousands in number they still allowed themselves to be cowed down by a handful of Zamindars. He defeated the Shaikhs in the Battle of Sadhaura; the rule of the Sikhs over the entire Punjab east of Lahore obstructed the communication between Delhi and Lahore, the capital of Punjab, this worried Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah He gave up his plan to subdue rebels in Rajasthan and marched towards Punjab. The entire Imperial force was organized to kill Banda Singh Bahadur. All the generals were directed to join the Emperor's army. To ensure that there were no Sikh agents in the army camps, an order was issued on 29 August 1710 to all Hindus to shave off their beards. Banda Singh was in Uttar Pradesh when the Moghal army under the orders of Munim Khan marched to Sirhind and before the return of Banda Singh, they had taken Sirhind and the areas around it.
The Sikhs therefore moved to Lohgarh for their final battle. The Sikhs defeated the army but reinforcements were called and they laid siege on the fort with 60,000 troops. Gulab Singh seated himself in his place. Banda Singh went to a secret place in the hills and Chamba forests; the failure of the army to kill or catch Banda Singh shocked Emperor, Bahadur Shah and On 10 December 1710 he ordered that wherever a Sikh was found, he should be murdered. The Emperor became mentally disturbed and died on 18 February 1712. Banda Singh Bahadur wrote Hukamnamas to the Sikhs to join him at once. In 1712, the Sikhs gathered near Kiratpur Sahib and defeated Raja Ajmer Chand, responsible for organizing all the Hill Rajas against Guru Gobind Singh and instigating battles with him. After Bhim Chand's dead the other Hill Rajas accepted their subordinate status and paid revenues to Banda Singh. While Bahadur Shah's four sons were killing themselves for the throne of the Mughal Emperor, Banda Singh Bahadur recaptured Sadhaura and Lohgarh.
Farrukh Siyar, the next Moghal Emperor, appointed Abdus Samad Khan as the governor of Lahore and Zakaria Khan, Abdus Samad Khan's son, the Faujdar of Jammu. In 1713 the
Mashhad spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the northeast near the borders with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan, it has a population of 3,001,184 inhabitants, which includes the areas of Mashhad Taman and Torqabeh. It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv to the east; the city is named after the "shrine" of the eighth Shia Imam. The Imam was buried in a village in Khorasan, which afterwards gained the name Mashhad, meaning the place of martyrdom; every year, millions of pilgrims visit the Imam Reza shrine. The Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid is buried within the shrine. Mashhad has been governed by different ethnic groups over the course of its history; the city enjoyed relative prosperity in the Mongol period. Mashhad is known colloquially as the city of Ferdowsi, after the Iranian poet who composed the Shahnameh; the city is the hometown of some of the most significant Iranian literary figures and artists, such as the poet Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, the traditional Iranian singer and composer.
Ferdowsi and Akhavan Sales are both buried in Tus, an ancient city, considered to be the main origin of the current city of Mashhad. On 30 October 2009, Iran's then-President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad declared Mashhad to be "Iran's spiritual capital"; the name Mashhad comes from Arabic. It is known as the place where Ali ar-Ridha, the eighth Imam of Shia Muslims, died. Reza's shrine was placed there; the ancient Parthian city of Patigrabanâ, mentioned in the Behistun inscription of the Achaemenid Emperor Darius I, may have been located at the present-day Mashhad. At the beginning of the 9th century, Mashhad was a small village called Sanabad, situated 24 kilometres away from Tus. There was a summer palace of the governor of Khurasan. In 808, when Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph, was passing through to quell the insurrection of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Transoxania, he became ill and died, he was buried under the palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba. Thus the Dar al-Imarah was known as the Mausoleum of Haruniyyeh. In 818, Ali al-Ridha was buried beside the grave of Harun.
Although Mashhad owns the cultural heritage of Tus, earlier Arab geographers have identified Mashhad and Tus as two separate cities that are now located about 19 kilometres from each other. Although some believe that after this event, the city was called Mashhad al-Ridha, it seems that Mashhad, as a place-name, first appears in al-Maqdisi, i.e. in the last third of the 10th century. About the middle of the 14th century, the traveller Ibn Battuta uses the expression "town of Mashhad al-Rida". Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the name Nuqan, still found on coins in the first half of the 14th century under the Il-Khanids, seems to have been replaced by al-Mashhad or Mashhad. Shias began to make pilgrimages to his grave. By the end of the 9th century, a dome was built above the grave, many other buildings and bazaars sprang up around it. Over the course of more than a millennium, it has been rebuilt several times. In 1161, the Ghuzz Turks seized the city, but they spared the sacred area their pillaging.
Mashad al-Ridha was not considered a "great" city until Mongol raids in 1220, which caused the destruction of many large cities in Khurasan but leaving Mashhad intact in the hands of Mongolian commanders because of the cemetery of Ali Al-Rezza and Harun al-Rashid. Thus the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad; when the traveller Ibn Battuta visited the town in 1333, he reported that it was a large town with abundant fruit trees and mills. A great dome of elegant construction surmounts the noble mausoleum, the walls being decorated with colored tiles; the only well-known food in Mashhad, "sholeh Mashhadi" or "Sholeh", dates back to the era of the Mongolian invasion when it is thought to be cooked with any food available and be a Mongolian word. It seems that the importance of Sanabad-Mashhad continually increased with the growing fame of its sanctuary and the decline of Tus, which received its death blow in 1389 from Miran Shah, a son of Timur; when the Mongol noble who governed the place rebelled and attempted to make himself independent, Miran Shah was sent against him by his father.
Tus was stormed after a siege of several months and left a heap of ruins. Those who escaped the holocaust settled in the shelter of the'Alid sanctuary. Tus was henceforth abandoned and Mashhad took its place as the capital of the district. On, during the reign of the Timurid Shahrukh Mirza, Mashhad became one of the main cities of the realm. In 1418, his wife Goharshad funded the construction of an outstanding mosque beside the shrine, known as the Goharshad Mosque; the mosque remains intact to this date, its great size an indicator to the status the city held in the 15th century. Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty, conquered Mashhad after the death of Husayn Bayqarah and the decline of the Timurid dynasty, he was captured by the Uzbeks during the reign of Shah Abbas I. In the 16th century the town suffered from the repeated raids of the Özbegs. In 1507, it was ta
The metre or meter is the base unit of length in the International System of Units. The SI unit symbol is m; the metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum in 1/299 792 458 of a second. The metre was defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole – as a result the Earth's circumference is 40,000 km today. In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar. In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. In 1983, the current definition was adopted; the imperial inch is defined as 0.0254 metres. One metre is about 3 3⁄8 inches longer than a yard, i.e. about 39 3⁄8 inches. Metre is the standard spelling of the metric unit for length in nearly all English-speaking nations except the United States and the Philippines, which use meter. Other Germanic languages, such as German and the Scandinavian languages spell the word meter. Measuring devices are spelled "-meter" in all variants of English.
The suffix "-meter" has the same Greek origin as the unit of length. The etymological roots of metre can be traced to the Greek verb μετρέω and noun μέτρον, which were used for physical measurement, for poetic metre and by extension for moderation or avoiding extremism; this range of uses is found in Latin, French and other languages. The motto ΜΕΤΡΩ ΧΡΩ in the seal of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, a saying of the Greek statesman and philosopher Pittacus of Mytilene and may be translated as "Use measure!", thus calls for both measurement and moderation. In 1668 the English cleric and philosopher John Wilkins proposed in an essay a decimal-based unit of length, the universal measure or standard based on a pendulum with a two-second period; the use of the seconds pendulum to define length had been suggested to the Royal Society in 1660 by Christopher Wren. Christiaan Huygens had observed that length to be 39.26 English inches. No official action was taken regarding these suggestions.
In 1670 Gabriel Mouton, Bishop of Lyon suggested a universal length standard with decimal multiples and divisions, to be based on a one-minute angle of the Earth's meridian arc or on a pendulum with a two-second period. In 1675, the Italian scientist Tito Livio Burattini, in his work Misura Universale, used the phrase metro cattolico, derived from the Greek μέτρον καθολικόν, to denote the standard unit of length derived from a pendulum; as a result of the French Revolution, the French Academy of Sciences charged a commission with determining a single scale for all measures. On 7 October 1790 that commission advised the adoption of a decimal system, on 19 March 1791 advised the adoption of the term mètre, a basic unit of length, which they defined as equal to one ten-millionth of the distance between the North Pole and the Equator. In 1793, the French National Convention adopted the proposal. In 1791, the French Academy of Sciences selected the meridional definition over the pendular definition because the force of gravity varies over the surface of the Earth, which affects the period of a pendulum.
To establish a universally accepted foundation for the definition of the metre, more accurate measurements of this meridian were needed. The French Academy of Sciences commissioned an expedition led by Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre and Pierre Méchain, lasting from 1792 to 1799, which attempted to measure the distance between a belfry in Dunkerque and Montjuïc castle in Barcelona to estimate the length of the meridian arc through Dunkerque; this portion of the meridian, assumed to be the same length as the Paris meridian, was to serve as the basis for the length of the half meridian connecting the North Pole with the Equator. The problem with this approach is that the exact shape of the Earth is not a simple mathematical shape, such as a sphere or oblate spheroid, at the level of precision required for defining a standard of length; the irregular and particular shape of the Earth smoothed to sea level is represented by a mathematical model called a geoid, which means "Earth-shaped". Despite these issues, in 1793 France adopted this definition of the metre as its official unit of length based on provisional results from this expedition.
However, it was determined that the first prototype metre bar was short by about 200 micrometres because of miscalculation of the flattening of the Earth, making the prototype about 0.02% shorter than the original proposed definition of the metre. Regardless, this length became the French standard and was progressively adopted by other countries in Europe; the expedition was fictionalised in Le mètre du Monde. Ken Alder wrote factually about the expedition in The Measure of All Things: the seven year odyssey and hidden error that transformed the world. In 1867 at the second general conference of the International Association of Geodesy held in Berlin, the question of an international standard unit of length was discussed in order to combine the measurements made in different countries to determine the size and shape of the Earth; the conference recommended the adoption of the metre and the creation of an internatio
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza or in Iran as Imam Reza, was a descendant of the Islamic prophet and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, before his son Muhammad al-Jawad. He was an Imam of knowledge according to Sufis, he lived in a period when Abbasid caliphs were facing numerous difficulties, the most important of, Shia revolts. The Caliph Al-Ma'mun sought out a remedy for this problem by appointing Al-Ridha as his successor, through whom he could be involved in worldly affairs. However, according to the Shia view, when Al-Ma'mun saw that the Imam gained more popularity, he decided to correct his mistake by poisoning him; the Imam was buried at the Imam Reza shrine in a village in Khorasan, which afterwards gained the name Mashhad, meaning the place of martyrdom. On the eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH, a son was born in the house of Imam Musa al-Kadhim in Medina, he was named Ali and titled al-Ridha meaning in Arabic, "the contented", since it was believed that Allah was contented with him.
His kunya was Abu' l Hasan. However, in the Shia sources he is called Abu'l-Ḥasan al-Ṯānī, since his father, Musa al-Kadhim, was Abu'l Hasan. In keeping with his high status amongst Shi'a, he has been given other honorific titles since, such as Saber, Razi and Vali. Ali was born one month after the death of his grandfather, Ja'far as-Sādiq, brought up in Medina under the direction of his father, his mother, was a distinguished and pious lady. It is said that the boy al-Ridha required a great deal of milk, so that when his mother was asked whether her milk was sufficient, she answered, "it is not because my milk is not sufficient, but he wants it all the time, I am falling short in my prayers." A Nubian woman, she was purchased and freed by Bibi Hamidah Khatun, the wife of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, a Um Walad of Nubian origin. Imam Ali ibn Musa was said to be shadid udmah or aswad, meaning he had a dark skinned or black complexion. Bibi Hamidah was a notable Islamic scholar. Disputes exist regarding the number of their names.
A group of scholars say that they were five sons and one daughter, that they were: Muhammad al- Qani', al-Hasan, Ja'far, Ibrahim, al-Husayn, and'Ayesha. Sabt ibn al-Jawzi, in his work Tadhkiratul-Khawass, says that the sons were only four, dropping the name of Husayn from the list; the eighth Imam had reached the Imamate, after the death of his father, through Divine Command and the decree of his forefathers Imam Musa al-Kadhim, who would tell his companions that his son Ali would be the Imam after him. As such, Makhzumi says that one day Musa al-Kadhim summoned and gathered us and entitled him as "his executor and successor." From the onset, al-Kadhim preferred al-Ridha to the rest of his sons, informing them, "This is your brother ‘Ali b. Musa’, the scholar of the Household of Muhammad. Question him about your beliefs and memorize what he says to you, for I heard my father, Ja'far al-Sadiq say: ‘The scholar of the Household of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his Household, is in your loins.
Would that I met him, for he is the namesake of the Commander of the faithful.' "Yazid ibn Salit has related a similar narration from the seventh Imam when he met him on his way to Mecca: "Ali, whose name is the same as the First and the fourth Imam, is the Imam after me." Said the Imam. However, due to the extreme choking atmosphere and pressure prevailed in the period of Musa al-Kazim, he added, "What I said must remain up to you and do not reproduce it to anybody unless you know he is one of our friends and companions." The same is narrated from Ali bin Yaqtin, from Imam Musa al-Kazim who has said "Ali is the best of my children and I have conferred on him my epithet" According to Wāqedī in his youth, Ali al-Ridha would transmit Hadith from his father and his uncles and gave Fatwa in the mosque of Medina. Ali al-Ridha was not looked upon favorably by Hārūn Rashīd. According to Donaldson he was twenty or twenty-five years old when he succeeded his father as Imam in Medina, it was about eighteen years when the Caliph Al-Ma'mun "undertook to ingratiate himself with the numerous Shia parties by designating Ali ar-Ridha as his successor to the Caliphate."
After the death of Harun al-Rashid in 809, Harun's two sons began fighting for control of the Abbasid Empire. One son, Al-Amin, had an Arab mother and thus had the support of Arabs, while his half-brother Al-Ma'mun had a Persian mother and the support of Persia. After defeating his brother, al-Ma'mun faced many insurrections from the followers of Muhammad's family in many areas; the Shia of al-Ma'mun's era, like the Shia of today, who made a large population of al-Ma'mun's Iran, regarded the Imams as their leaders who must be obeyed in all aspects of life and terrestrial, as they believed in them as the real caliphs of Muhammad. The Abbasids, like the Umayyads before them, realized this as a big threat to their own caliphate, since the Shias saw them as usurpers of al-Ma'mun, far from the sacred status of their Imams. Allamah Tabatabaei writes in his book Shi'ite I
Qutb al-Din Aibak
Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak spelt Quṭb ud-Dīn Aibak or Qutub ud-Din Aybak, was the founder of the Mamluk dynasty and the first sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. Quṭb al-Din Aibak was born to Turkic parents in Turkistan. In his childhood, Aibak was sold as a slave and raised at Nishapur, where he was purchased by the local Qazi. After the death of his master, he was sold by his master's son and became a slave of Muhammad of Ghor who made him the Amir-i-Akhur, the Master of Slave. Aibak was appointed to military command and became an able general of Muhammad of Ghor. In 1193 and after conquering Delhi, his master returned to Khorāsān and left the consolidation of the Ghūrid conquests in northwest India to him. With his headquarters at Delhi, Aibak subjugated areas between the Yamuna rivers, he turned his attention to the Rajputs who were still resisting Ghūrid domination. In 1195–1203, he mounted campaigns against their strongholds, while Ghuri's other lieutenant Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji conquered Bihar and Bengal.
When Muhammad of Ghor was assassinated in 1206, Aibak was his logical successor. He was still technically a slave, but he obtained manumission, he married the daughter of Taj al-Din Yildiz of Ghazna, one of the other principal claimants to succeed Muhammad of Ghor, and, by other judiciously arranged marriages, consolidated his rule. He could only rule for 4 years, he rebuilt the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque in the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra in Ajmer. He started the construction of Qutb Minar in memory of sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, completed by his successor, Iltutmish after Aibak's death. Surviving inscriptions describe Aibak as Malik, the Quṭb Mīnār in Delhi still stands to commemorate his victories. Qutb-ud-din Aibak defeated the Gahadavala king Jayachandra in 1194. Aibak died of injuries received during an accidental fall from a horse while playing polo in 1210 AD, he was buried in Lahore near Anarkali Bazaar. His successor, Shams ud-Din Iltutmish, basing his power on the conquests of Aibak, was able to establish the independence of the Delhi Sultanate under the Mamluk dynasty