Samantabhadra (Jain monk)

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Acharya
Samantabhadra
Samantabhadra
Religion Jainism
Sect Digambara
Personal
Born 2nd century CE
Works Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, Āpta-mīmāṁsā, Jinaśatakam

Samantabhadra was a Digambara acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE[1][2] He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami but before Pujyapada.

Life[edit]

Samantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist.[3] He is credited with spreading Jainism in southern India.[4]

Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger).[5] As, digambara monks don't eat more than once in a day, he endured great pain. Ultimately, he sought the permission of his preceptor to undertake the vow of Sallekhana.[6] The preceptor denied the permission and asked him to leave monasticism and get the disease cured.[5] After getting cured he again joined the monastic order and became a great Jain Acharya.[7]

Thought[edit]

Samantabhadra affirmed Kundakunda's theory of the two nayas - vyavahāranaya (‘mundane') and niścayanaya (ultimate, omniscient). He argued however that the mundane view is not false, but is only a relative form of knowledge mediated by language and concepts, while the ultimate view is an immediate form of direct knowledge.[8] Samantabhadra also developed further the Jain theory of syādvāda.[citation needed]

Works[edit]

English translation of the Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra (1917) by Champat Rai Jain

Jain texts authored by Acharya Samantabhadra are:[9]

  • Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra[10] (150 verses)- The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra discusses the conduct of a Śrāvaka (Jain laity) in detail.[4]
  • Gandhahastimahabhasya, a monumental commentary on the Tattvartha Sutra. The Gandhahaslimahahhasya, with the exception of its Manglacharana (salutation to the deity), is extant now.[11] The Manglacharana is known as the 'Devagama stotra' or Āpta-mīmāṁsā.[4][12]
  • Āpta-mīmāṁsā- A treatise of 114 verses, it discusses the Jaina concept of omniscience and the attributes of the Omniscient.[4][13]
  • Svayambhustotra- An adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankaras[14] - 143 verses[4]
  • Yuktyanusasana- Sixty-four verses in praise of Tirthankara Vardhamāna Mahāvīra[4]
  • Jinasatakam (Stutividyā)[15](116 verses)- Poetical work written in Sanskrit in praise of twenty-four Jinas.[16]
  • Tattvanusasana[citation needed]
  • Vijayadhavala tika[citation needed]

Praise[edit]

Jinasena, in his celebrated work, Ādi purāṇa praises the Samantabhadra as[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gokulchandra Jain 2015, p. 82.
  2. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1917, p. iv.
  3. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 48.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 49.
  5. ^ a b Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. xviii.
  6. ^ Long 2009, p. 110.
  7. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. xx.
  8. ^ Long 2009, p. 130.
  9. ^ Gokulchandra Jain 2015, p. 84.
  10. ^ Samantabhadra, Ācārya (2006-07-01), Ratnakaranda Shravakacara, ISBN 9788188769049 
  11. ^ Champat Rai Jain 1917, p. v.
  12. ^ Ghoshal 2002, p. 7.
  13. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. xvii.
  14. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. xi.
  15. ^ Samantabhadrasvāmī (1969), Kevalajñānapraśnacūḍāmaṇi 
  16. ^ Gokulchandra Jain 2015, p. 92.
  17. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2015, p. xv.

Sources[edit]