Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century, remembered for his contribution in the expansion of Greece and promotion of liberal-democratic policies. As leader of the Liberal Party, he was elected several times, in total eight, as Prime Minister of Greece, serving from 1910 to 1920 and from 1928 to 1933. Venizelos had such profound influence on the internal and external affairs of Greece that he is credited with being "the maker of modern Greece", is still known as the "Ethnarch", his first entry into the international scene was with his significant role in the autonomy of the Cretan State and in the union of Crete with Greece. Soon, he was invited to Greece to resolve the political deadlock and became the country's Prime Minister. Not only did he initiate constitutional and economic reforms that set the basis for the modernization of Greek society, but reorganized both army and navy in preparation of future conflicts.
Before the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, Venizelos' catalytic role helped gain Greece entrance to the Balkan League, an alliance of the Balkan states against the Ottoman Empire. Through his diplomatic acumen, Greece doubled its area and population with the liberation of Macedonia and most of the Aegean islands. In World War I, he brought Greece on the side of the Allies. However, his pro-Allied foreign policy brought him into direct conflict with Constantine I of Greece, causing the National Schism; the Schism polarized the population between the royalists and Venizelists and the struggle for power between the two groups affected the political and social life of Greece for decades. Following the Allied victory, Venizelos secured new territorial gains in Anatolia, coming close to realizing the Megali Idea. Despite his achievements, he was defeated in the 1920 General Election, which contributed to the eventual Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War. Venizelos, in self-imposed exile, represented Greece in the negotiations that led to the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, the agreement of a mutual exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey.
In his subsequent periods in office, Venizelos succeeded in restoring normal relations with Greece's neighbors and expanded his constitutional and economical reforms. In 1935 he resurfaced from retirement to support a military coup, its failure weakened the Second Hellenic Republic. In the 18th century, the ancestors of Venizelos, named Cravvatas, lived in Mystras, in southern Peloponnese. During the Ottoman raids in the peninsula in 1770, a member of the Cravvatas family, Venizelos Cravvatas, the youngest of several brothers, managed to escape to Crete where he established himself, his sons called themselves Venizelos. The family was of Laconic and Cretan origin. Eleftherios was born in Mournies, near Chania in then-Ottoman Crete to Kyriakos Venizelos, a Cretan merchant and revolutionary, Styliani Ploumidaki; when the Cretan revolution of 1866 broke out, Venizelos' family fled to the island of Syros, due to the participation of his father in the revolution. They were not allowed to return to Crete, stayed in Syros until 1872, when Abdülaziz granted an amnesty.
He spent his final year of secondary education at a school in Ermoupolis in Syros from which he received his Certificate in 1880. In 1881 he enrolled at the University of Athens Law School and got his degree in Law with excellent grades, he worked as a lawyer in Chania. Throughout his life he maintained a passion for reading and was improving his skills in English, Italian and French; the situation in Crete during Venizelos' early years was fluid. The Ottoman empire was undermining the reforms, which were made under international pressure, while the Cretans desired to see the Sultan, Abdul Hamid II, abandon "the ungrateful infidels". Under these unstable conditions Venizelos entered into politics in the elections of 2 April 1889 as a member of the island's liberal party; as a deputy he was distinguished for his radical opinions. The numerous revolutions in Crete and after the Greek War of Independence were the result of the Cretans' desire for Enosis — Union with Greece. In the Cretan revolution of 1866, the two sides, under the pressure of the Great Powers, came to an agreement, finalized in the Pact of Chalepa.
The Pact was included in the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin, supplementing previous concessions granted to the Cretans — e.g. the Organic Law Constitution designed by William James Stillman. In summary the Pact was granting a large degree of self-government to Greeks in Crete as a means of limiting their desire to rise up against their Ottoman overlords; however the Muslims of Crete, who identified with Ottoman Empire, were not satisfied with these reforms, as in their view the administration of the island was delivered to the hands of the Christian Greek population. In practice, the Ottoman Empire failed to enforce the provisions of the Pact, thus fueling the existing tensions between the two communities. Throughout that period, the Cretan Question was a major issue of friction in the relations of independent Greece with the Ottoman Empire. In January 1897 violence and disorder were escalating on the island, thus polari
The kri-kri, sometimes called the Cretan goat, Agrimi, or Cretan Ibex, is a feral goat inhabiting the Eastern Mediterranean considered a subspecies of wild goat. The kri-kri is now found only on the island of Crete and three small islands just offshore; the kri-kri has a light brownish coat with a darker band around its neck. It has two horns that sweep back from the head. In the wild they avoid humans, resting during the day; the animal can leap some distance or climb sheer cliffs. The kri-kri is not thought to be indigenous to Crete, most having been imported to the island during the time of the Minoan civilization, it is found nowhere else and is therefore endemic to Crete. It was once common throughout the Aegean but the peaks of the 2,400 m White Mountains of Western Crete are their last strongholds—particularly a series of vertical 900 m cliffs called'the Untrodden'—at the head of the Samaria Gorge; this mountain range, which hosts another 14 endemic animal species, is protected as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.
In total, their range extends to the White Mountains, the Samaria National Forest and the islets of Dia and Agii Pandes. Some were introduced onto two more islands. By 1960, the kri-kri was under threat, with a population below 200, it had been the only meat available to mountain guerillas during the German occupation in World War II. Its status was one reasons why the Samaria Gorge became a national park in 1962. There are still only about 2,000 animals on the island and they are considered vulnerable: hunters still seek them for their tender meat, grazing grounds have become scarcer and disease has affected them. Hybridization is a threat, as the population has interbred with ordinary goats. Hunting them is prohibited. Archaeological excavations have unearthed several depictions of the kri-kri; some academics believe. On the island, males are called'agrimi', while the name'sanada' is used for the female; the kri-kri is a symbol of the island, much used in official literature. As molecular analyses demonstrate, the kri-kri is not, as thought, a distinct subspecies of wild goat.
Rather, it is a feral domestic goat, derived from the first stocks of goats domesticated in the Levant and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean around 8000-7500 BCE. Therefore, it represents a nearly ten-thousand-year-old "snapshot" of the first domestication of goats. In any case, the kri-kri has immense cultural significance there. However, endangered species legislation would not apply, but similar cases elsewhere have been covered under cultural heritage protection laws. Category:Feral goats Auckland Island Pig, redomesticated pig population Campbell Island cattle, exterminated feral cattle population Chillingham Cattle and White Park, culturally significant feral cattle populations Bar-Gal, G. K. et al.: Genetic evidence for the origin of the agrimi goat. Journal of Zoology 256:369-377. DOI:10.1017/S0952836902000407 Manceau, V. et al.: Systematics of the genus Capra inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13:504-510
Cretan revolt (1866–1869)
The Cretan revolt of 1866–1869 or Great Cretan Revolution was a three-year uprising in Crete against Ottoman rule, the third and largest in a series of Cretan revolts between the end of the Greek War of Independence in 1830 and the establishment of the independent Cretan State in 1898. The Christian Cretans had risen up together with the rest of Greece in the Greek Revolution of 1821, but despite successes in the countryside, the Ottomans held out in the four fortified towns of the northern coast and the island was reconquered by 1828, becoming an Egyptian province. In 1840, Crete was returned to direct Ottoman rule, followed by an unsuccessful 1841 uprising in support of Union with independent Greece. Another uprising in 1858 secured some privileges, such as the right to bear arms, equality of Christian and Muslim worship, the establishment of Christian councils of elders with jurisdiction over education and customary and family law; these concessions were resented by the Muslim community, while the Christians pressed for more, while maintaining their ultimate aim of Union with Greece.
As tensions ran high in the island, several petitions to the Sultan went unanswered, armed bands were formed, the uprising was proclaimed on 21 August 1866. The revolt caused immediate sympathy in Greece, but elsewhere in Europe; the rebels managed to gain control of most of the hinterland although as always the four fortified towns of the north coast and the southern town of Ierapetra remained in Ottoman hands. One particular event caused strong reactions among the liberal circles of western Europe, the "Holocaust of Arkadi"; the event occurred in November 1866, as a large Ottoman force besieged the Arkadi Monastery, which served as the headquarters of the rebellion. In addition to its 259 defenders, over 700 women and children had taken refuge in the monastery. After a few days of hard fighting, the Ottomans broke into the monastery. At that point, the abbot of the monastery set fire to the gunpowder stored in the monastery's vaults, causing the death of most of the rebels and the women and children sheltered there.
As reported by the American writer and consul William Stillman and others over the introduced telegraph, this event caused enormous shock in the rest of Europe and in North America and decreased the perceived legitimacy of Ottoman rule. By the mid-19th century, the Ottomans had ruled Crete for more than two centuries, despite frequent bloody uprisings by Cretan rebels. While the Cretans rose against the Ottoman occupation during the War of Greek Independence, the London Protocol of 1830 dictated that the island could not be a part of the new Greek state. On 30 March 1856, the Treaty of Paris obligated the Sultan to apply the Hatti-Houmayoun, which guaranteed civil and religious equality to Christians and Muslims; the Ottoman authorities in Crete were reluctant to implement any reform. Before the majority of Muslim conversions, the Empire tried to recant on liberty of conscience; the institution of new taxes and a curfew added to the discontent. In April 1858, 5,000 Cretans met at Boutsounaria.
An imperial decree on 7 July 1858 guaranteed them privileges in religious and financial matters. One of the major motivations of the revolt of 1866 was the breach of the Hatti-Houmayoun. A second cause of the insurrection of 1866 was the interference of Hekim Ismail Pasha, wāli of Crete, in an internal quarrel about the organization of the Cretan monasteries. Several laymen recommended that the goods of the monasteries come under the control of a council of elders and that they be used to create schools, but they were opposed by the bishops. Ismail Pasha intervened and designated several people to decide the subject and annulled the election of "undesirable" members, imprisoning the members of the committee, charged with going to Constantinople for presenting the subject to the Patriarch; this intervention provoked violent reactions from the Christian population of Crete. In the spring of 1866, meetings took place in several villages. On 14 May an assembly was held in the Aghia Kyriaki monstary in Boutsounaria near Chania.
They sent a petition to the consuls of the big powers in Chania. At the time of the first meetings of the revolutionary committees, the representatives were elected by province and the representative of the Rethymno region was the hegumen of Arkadi, Gabriel Marinakis. At the announcement of these nominations Ismail Pasha sent a message to the hegumen via the Bishop of Rethymno, Kallinikos Nikoletakis; the letter demanded that the higumen dissemble the revolutionary assembly or the monastery would be destroyed by Ottoman troops. In the month of July 1866, Ismail Pasha sent his army to capture the insurgents, but the members of the committee fled before his troops arrived; the Ottomans left again after destroying icons and other sacred objects that they found in the monastery. In September, Ismail Pasha sent the hegumen a new threat of destroying the monastery if the assembly did not yield; the assembly decided to implement a system of defense for the monastery. On September 24, Panos Koronaios landed at Bali.
He marched to Arkadi. A career military man, Koronaios believed; the hegumen and the monks disagreed and Koronaios conceded to them, but advised the destruction of the stables so that they could not be used by the Ottomans. This plan
Kingdom of Candia
The Realm or Kingdom of Candia or Duchy of Candia was the official name of Crete during the island's period as an overseas colony of the Republic of Venice, from the initial Venetian conquest in 1205–1212 to its fall to the Ottoman Empire during the Cretan War. The island was at the time and up to the early modern era known as Candia after its capital, Candia or Chandax. In modern Greek historiography, the period is known as the Venetocracy; the island of Crete had formed part of the Byzantine Empire until 1204, when the Fourth Crusade dissolved the empire and divided its territories amongst the crusader leaders. Crete was allotted to Boniface of Montferrat, unable to enforce his control over the island, he soon sold his rights to Venice. Venetian troops first occupied the island in 1205, but it took until 1212 for it to be secured against the opposition of Venice's rival Genoa. Thereafter, the new colony took shape: the island was divided into six provinces named after the divisions of the city of Venice itself, while the capital Candia was directly subjected to the Commune Veneciarum.
The islands of Tinos and Cythera under Venetian control, came under the kingdom's purview. In the early 14th century, this division was replaced by four provinces identical to the four modern prefectures. During the first two centuries of Venetian rule, revolts by the native Orthodox Greek population against the Roman Catholic Venetians were frequent supported by the Empire of Nicaea. Fourteen revolts are counted between 1207 and the last major uprising, the Revolt of St. Titus in the 1360s, which united the Greeks and the Venetian coloni against the financial exactions of the metropolis. Thereafter, despite occasional revolts and Turkish raids, the island prospered, Venetian rule opened up a window into the ongoing Italian Renaissance; as a consequence, an artistic and literary revival unparalleled elsewhere in the Greek world took place: the Cretan School of painting, which culminated in the works of El Greco, united Italian and Byzantine forms, a widespread literature using the local idiom emerged, culminating with the early 17th-century romances Erotokritos and Erophile.
After the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus in 1571, Crete was Venice's last major overseas possession. The Republic's relative military weakness, coupled with the island's wealth and its strategic location controlling the waterways of the Eastern Mediterranean attracted the attention of the Ottoman Empire. In the long and devastating Cretan War, the two states fought over the possession of Crete: the Ottomans overran most of the island, but failed to take Candia, which held out, aided by Venetian naval superiority and Ottoman distractions elsewhere, until 1669. Only the three island fortresses of Souda and Spinalonga remained in Venetian hands. Attempts to recover Candia during the Morean War failed, these last Venetian outposts were taken by the Turks in 1715, during the last Ottoman–Venetian War. Venice had a long history of trade contact with Crete; these same locations were allocated to the Republic of Venice in the partition of the Byzantine Empire that followed the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, in April 1204: in addition to the Ionian Islands, the Saronic Gulf islands and the Cyclades, she obtained several coastal outposts on the Greek mainland of interest as bases for her maritime commerce.
On 12 August 1204, the Venetians preempted their traditional rivals, the Genoese, to acquire Crete from Boniface of Montferrat. Boniface had been promised the island by Alexios IV Angelos, but as he had little use for it, he sold it in exchange for 1,000 silver marks, an annual portion of the island's revenues totalling 10,000 hyperpyra, the promise of Venetian support for his acquisition of the Kingdom of Thessalonica. Venice's gains were formalized in the Partitio Romaniae a few weeks later. To enforce their claim, the Venetians landed a small force on the offshore island of Spinalonga; the Genoese however, who had a colony on Crete, moved more quickly: under the command of Enrico Pescatore, Count of Malta, enjoying the support of the local populace, they soon became masters over the eastern and central portions of the island. A first Venetian attack in summer 1207 under Ranieri Dandolo and Ruggiero Premarino was driven off, for the next two years, Pescatore ruled the entire island with the exception of a few isolated Venetian garrisons.
Pescatore appealed to the Pope, attempted to have himself confirmed as the island's king. However, while Venice was determined to capture the island, Pescatore was left unsupported by Genoa. In 1209, the Venetians managed to capture Palaiokastro near Candia, but it took them until 1212 to evict Pescatore from the island, the later's lieutenant, Alamanno da Costa, held out longer. Only on 11 May 1217 did the war with Genoa end in a treaty that left Crete securely in Venetian hands. Giacomo Tiepolo became the first governor of the new province, with the title of "duke of Crete", based in Candia. To strengthen Venetian control over Crete, Tiepolo suggested the dispatch of colonists from the metropolis.
Doménikos Theotokópoulos, most known as El Greco, was a painter and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. "El Greco" was a nickname, a reference to his Greek origin, the artist signed his paintings with his full birth name in Greek letters, Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος, Doménikos Theotokópoulos adding the word Κρής Krēs, Cretan. El Greco was born in the Kingdom of Candia, at that time part of the Republic of Venice, the center of Post-Byzantine art, he trained and became a master within that tradition before traveling at age 26 to Venice, as other Greek artists had done. In 1570 he moved to Rome, where he executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style with elements of Mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance taken from a number of great artists of the time, notably Tintoretto. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, where he lived and worked until his death. In Toledo, El Greco produced his best-known paintings. El Greco's dramatic and expressionistic style was met with puzzlement by his contemporaries but found appreciation in the 20th century.
El Greco is regarded as a precursor of both Expressionism and Cubism, while his personality and works were a source of inspiration for poets and writers such as Rainer Maria Rilke and Nikos Kazantzakis. El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school, he is best known for tortuously elongated figures and fantastic or phantasmagorical pigmentation, marrying Byzantine traditions with those of Western painting. Born in 1541, in either the village of Fodele or Candia on Crete, El Greco was descended from a prosperous urban family, driven out of Chania to Candia after an uprising against the Catholic Venetians between 1526 and 1528. El Greco's father, Geórgios Theotokópoulos, was a tax collector. Nothing is known about his mother or his first wife Greek. El Greco's older brother, Manoússos Theotokópoulos, was a wealthy merchant and spent the last years of his life in El Greco's Toledo home. El Greco received his initial training as an icon painter of the Cretan school, a leading center of post-Byzantine art.
In addition to painting, he studied the classics of ancient Greece, the Latin classics also. Candia was a center for artistic activity where Eastern and Western cultures co-existed harmoniously, where around two hundred painters were active during the 16th century, had organized a painters' guild, based on the Italian model. In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was described in a document as a "master", meaning he was a master of the guild and operating his own workshop. Three years in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, he signed his name in Greek as μαΐστρος Μένεγος Θεοτοκόπουλος σγουράφος. Most scholars believe that the Theotokópoulos "family was certainly Greek Orthodox", although some Catholic sources still claim him from birth. Like many Orthodox emigrants to Catholic areas of Europe, some assert that he may have transferred to Catholicism after his arrival, practiced as a Catholic in Spain, where he described himself as a "devout Catholic" in his will; the extensive archival research conducted since the early 1960s by scholars, such as Nikolaos Panayotakis, Pandelis Prevelakis and Maria Constantoudaki, indicates that El Greco's family and ancestors were Greek Orthodox.
One of his uncles was an Orthodox priest, his name is not mentioned in the Catholic archival baptismal records on Crete. Prevelakis goes further, expressing his doubt that El Greco was a practicing Roman Catholic. Important for his early biography, El Greco, still in Crete, painted his Dormition of the Virgin near the end of his Cretan period before 1567. Three other signed works of "Doménicos" are attributed to El Greco. In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was an enrolled master of the local guild in charge of his own workshop, he left for Venice a few years and never returned to Crete. His Dormition of the Virgin, of before 1567 in tempera and gold on panel was created near the end of El Greco's Cretan period; the painting combines post-Byzantine and Italian Mannerist stylistic and iconographic elements, incorporates stylistic elements of the Cretan School. It was natural for the young El Greco to pursue his career in Venice, Crete having been a possession of the Republic of Venice since 1211.
Though the exact year is not clear, most scholars agree that El Greco went to Venice around 1567. Knowledge of El Greco's years in Italy is limited, he lived in Venice until 1570 and, according to a letter written by his much older friend, the greatest miniaturist of the age, Giulio Clovio, was a "disciple" of Titian, by in his eighties but still vigorous. This may mean he worked in Titian's large studio, or not. Clovio characterized El Greco as "a rare talent in painting". In 1570, El Greco moved to Rome, where he executed a series of works marked by his Venetian apprenticeship, it is unknown how long he remained in Rome, though he may have returned to Venice before he left for Spain. In Rome, on the recommendation of Giulio Clovio, El Greco was received as a guest at the P
Dimitrios Kallergis was a fighter of the Greek War of Independence, major general and one of the most important protagonists of the 3 September 1843 Revolution. Kallergis was born in 1803 in Crete. Hailing from the distinguished Cretan Kallergis family, a historic family of Mylopotamos, the roots of which lay in the Byzantine Empire and which had risen to prominence under the Venetian domination of the island, he was left fatherless at an early age and he was sent to Russia to the care of the Tsar's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Nesselrode, who appears in some sources is mentioned as his uncle. After completing his general studies he went to Vienna. On the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence joined the insurgents. On 19 January 1822 he disembarked with his relatives and Nikolaos Kallergis, the officer Valianos in Hydra bringing with them ammunitions, whose worth was 100.000 rubles and a recommendation letter of bishop Ignatius Oungrovlachias. During the summer of 1825 he took on along with his compatriot Emmanuel Antoniadis the leadership of the campaign in Crete.
On 2 August 200 revolutionaries occupied the Gramvousa’s fortress, in which many pirates assembled during the next months. The campaign failed while, according to the American Philhellene Samuel Gridley Howe, Kallergis was unsuitable for the leader’s position. Subsequently he participated in the Georgios Karaiskakis’ expedition in Roumeli and he was distinguished. In October 1826 he participated in the failed attack of Colonel Fabvier against Thebes. On January 30, 1827 he took part in the victorious battle of Kastella where he had significant contribution and on February 20 he defended the area of the Three Towers, conquered by the Ottomans but she had suffered several losses, he was captured by the enemy forces during the disastrous for the Greek troops battle of Phaleron, where he was leader of the Cretan fighters. He was released after paying a large sum of money from his family but during his captivity, his one ear was amputated. During the government of Ioannis Kapodistrias, Kallergis was one of his supporters.
He served as his adjutant and he proceeded to the organization of a regular body of the cavalry, where he became deputy commander. After the governor’s assassination he had sided with Augustinos Kapodistrias and he participated in the civil conflicts of the time. During January 1832 he fought as a cavalry officer in the battles in Argos and in March in the battle of Loutraki where his and Nikitaras’ forces were defeated by the troops of Ioannis Kolettis. At the same time, he followed a military career as an officer in the regular army while he was involved in the political issues of that period, first as a follower of the Russian party and of the French party. In 1834, during the Bavarian regency and the Kolettis’ government he was imprisoned as a supporter of the Russian party, whose significant members had made at that time various uprisings in the Greek territory. In 1843, as colonel of the cavalry, he was a leading figure of the 3 September 1843 Revolution against Otto which forced the king to dismiss his Bavarian ministers and grant a constitution.
He was appointed military commandant of Athens, promoted to Major General and aide de camp to the king. In 1845 he was dismissed by the army and withdrew from Greece, occasioned by an incident between him and Queen Amalia, he went to London, where he became friend with Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon I and Emperor of the French, which he followed in Paris and so he became follower of the French policy. In 1848 he made an abortive descent on the Greek coast, in the hope of launching a revolution in the Greek kingdom, he was soon released and, after a stay in the island of Zante, went to Paris. In 1854, during the Crimean War, he served as Minister of Military Affairs in the Alexandros Mavrokordatos cabinet—imposed by the British and French, hence called "Ministry of Occupation" by the Greeks; until Mavrokordatos’ arrival, Kallergis exercised authority as dictator, with the full support of the French occupation troops. This particular government recalled all the Greek officers who participated in the anti-Ottoman revolutionary movements in Thessaly and Macedonia to return to Greece while by personal requirement of Kallergis, Otto's adjutants—Gennaios Kolokotronis, Ioannis Mamouris and Gardikiotis Grivas—were dismissed, while the hitherto Minister of Military Affairs, Skarlatos Soutsos, was suspended.
When he was minister, Kallergis formed for the first time in Greece a fire brigade. In September 1855, a serious episode of Kallergis with the royal couple entailed the fall of Mavrokordatos’ government. In 1861 he was appointed minister plenipotentiary in Paris, in which capacity he took an important part in the negotiations which followed the fall of the Bavarian dynasty and led to the accession of Prince George of Denmark to the Greek throne. In 1866 he participated in the two-day government of Dimitrios Voulgaris as Minister of Military Affairs. In mid-1866 he returned to Greece as chief equerry of King George I, he proposed to the king to assign him the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, arguing that with the help of the governments of France and Italy he would be able to accomplish the vision of the Megali Idea, but King George didn’t believe it. In the summer of the same year he was elected by the Cretans as leader of the Cretan Revolt, but in September he refused the post because of health problems.
In January 1867 he was appointed as Ambassador of Greece to the United States but during the trip he fell ill in Paris and returned to Athens, where he died on 8 April 1