Tango is a style of music in 24 or 44 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, piano, double bass, at least two bandoneóns. Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango may include a vocalist. Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world. Though present forms developed in Argentina and Uruguay from the mid 19th century, there are records of 19th and early 20th century Tango styles in Cuba and Spain, while there is a flamenco Tangos dance that may share a common ancestor in a minuet-style European dance. All sources stress the influence of the African communities and their rhythms, while the instruments and techniques brought in by European immigrants in the 20th century played a major role in its final definition, relating it to the Salon music styles to which Tango would contribute back at a stage.
Angel Villoldo's 1903 tango El Choclo was first recorded no than 1906 in Philadelphia. Villoldo himself recorded it in Paris. Villoldo had to record in Paris. Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires later in Montevideo; the first generation of tango players was called "Guardia Vieja". It took time to move into wider circles: in the early 20th century it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited the brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women; the complex dances that arose from such rich music reflects how the men would practice the dance in groups, demonstrating male sexuality and causing a blending of emotion and aggressiveness. The music was played on portable instruments: flute and violin trios, with bandoneón arriving at the end of the 19th century; the organito, a portable player-organ, broadened the popularity of certain songs. Eduardo Arolas was the major instrument of the bandoneón's popularization, with Vicente Greco soon standardizing the tango sextet as consisting of piano, double bass, two violins and two bandoneóns.
Like many forms of popular music, tango was associated with the underclass, attempts were made to restrict its influence. In spite of the scorn, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I, wrote a poem which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts". One song that would become the most known of all tango melodies dates from this time; the first two sections of La Cumparsita were composed as a march instrumental in 1916 by teen-aged Gerardo Matos Rodríguez of Uruguay. Besides the global influences mentioned above, early Tango was locally influenced by Payada, the Milonga from Argentine and Uruguay Pampas, Uruguayan Candombe. In Argentina there was Milonga "from the country" since the mid eighteenth century; the first "payador" remembered is Santos Vega. The origins of Milonga seem to be in the Pampa with strong African influences though the local Candombe.
It is believed that this candombe existed and was practised in Argentina since the first slaves were brought into the country. Although the word "tango" to describe a music/dance style had been printed as early as 1823 in Havana, the first Argentinian written reference is from an 1866 newspaper, that quotes the song "La Coqueta". In 1876 a tango-candombe called "El Merenguengué" became popular, after its success in the Afro-Argentines carnival held in February of that year, it is played with harp and flute in addition to the Afro-Argentine Candombe drums. This has been considered as one of the strong points of departure for the birth and development of Tango; the first "group" of tango, was composed of two Afro-Argentines, "the black" Casimiro Alcorta and "the mulatto" Sinforoso. They did small concerts in Buenos Aires since the early 1870s until the early 1890s. "The black Casimiro" is author of "Entrada Prohibida" signed by the brothers Teisseire, "la yapa". It must be said, though that this duo was the author and performer of many of the early tangos now listed as "anonymous", since at that time were not used to signing works.
Before the 1900s, the following tangos were being played: "El queco", "Señora casera", "Andate a la recoleta", "El Porteñito", "Tango Nº1", "Dame la lata", "Que polvo con tanto viento", "No me tires con la tapa de la olla", "El Talar". One of the first women to write tango scores was Eloísa D’Herbil, she wrote such pieces as Y a mí qué, Che no calotiés! and others, between 1872 and 1885. The first is in the Museum of the City Score Rosario. On the other hand, the first copyrighted tango score is "El entrerriano", released in 1896 and printed in 1898 – by Rosendo Mendizabal, an Afro-Argentine; as for the transiti
Música popular brasileira
Música popular brasileira or MPB is a trend in post-bossa nova urban popular music in Brazil that revisits typical Brazilian styles such as samba, samba-canção and baião and other Brazilian regional music, combining them with foreign influences, such as jazz and rock. This movement has produced and is represented by many renowned Brazilian artists, such as Jorge Ben Jor, Novos Baianos, Chico Buarque and Dominguinhos, whose individual styles generated their own trends within the genre; the term is also used to describe any kind of music with Brazilian origins and "voice and guitar style" that arose in the late 1960s. Variations within MPB were the short-lived but influential artistic movement known as tropicália, the music of samba rock. MPB, loosely understood as a "style", debuted in the mid-1960s, with the acronym being applied to types of non-electric music that emerged following the beginning and evolution of bossa nova. MPB artists and audiences were connected to the intellectual and student population, causing MPB to be known as "university music."Like bossa nova, MPB was an attempt to produce a "national" Brazilian music that drew from traditional styles.
MPB made a considerable impact in the 1960s, thanks to several televised music festivals. The beginning of MPB is associated with Elis Regina's interpretation of Vinícius de Moraes and Edu Lobo's "Arrastão." In 1965, one month after celebrating her 20th birthday, Elis appeared on the nationally broadcast Festival de Música Popular Brasileira and performed the song. Elis recorded Arrastão and released the song as a single, which became the biggest selling single in Brazilian music history at that time and catapulted her to stardom; this brought MPB to a national Brazilian audience and many artists have since performed in the style over the years. The earliest MPB borrowed elements of the bossa nova and relied on thinly veiled criticism of social injustice and governmental repression based on progressive opposition to the political scene characterized by military dictatorship, concentration of land ownership, imperialism. Many of the albums on Rolling Stone Brazil's list of the 100 greatest Brazilian albums fall under this style.
Latin Grammy Award for Best MPB Album Analysis: Charles A. Perrone, _Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song: MPB 1965-1985_. Brazilian music at CliqueMusic MPB at AllMusic.com What Is Brazilian MPB Music? at Sounds and Colours Brazilian music - beyond the clichés
Angenor de Oliveira, known as Cartola, was a Brazilian singer and poet considered to be a major figure in the development of samba. Cartola with partners, more than 500 songs; the first of eight children of Sebastião Joaquim de Oliveira and Aída Gomes de Oliveira, Angenor was born at Rua Ferreira Viana, 74, in the Catete district of Rio de Janeiro. His name given at birth was Agenor, it was not until the age of 55 that he learned that due to an error in transcription the name on his birth certificate was Angenor; when he was eight his family moved to the Laranjeiras neighborhood in Rio. Due to financial difficulties, the large family moved to Mangueira hill in 1919, where a small favela was beginning to appear, when he was eleven. At age 15, after the death of his mother, he left school to pursue a bohemian lifestyle. In Mangueira, Cartola soon befriended pt:Carlos Cachaça and other sambistas, getting started in the world of malandragem and samba. In 1928, they founded the Arengueiros Carnival Bloco, which would turn into GRES Estação Primeira de Mangueira, one of the most loved samba schools in Brazil.
Cartola is considered responsible for the choice of colors of the school, light green and pink, as these were the colors of the "rancho do arrepiados" in Laranjeiras where he participated as a boy playing the cavaquinho that his father had taught him.. Cartola became popular with many sambas recorded at that time. In the beginning of his career, his daughter, adopted when she was five years old, was important in launching him as composer, as she was a singer of persuasive voice, singing his sambas in radio programs of this decade; as much that it makes participation special in the first LP of Cartola. He got his nickname because he used a bowler hat while working as a construction worker so the cement would not dirty his hair. In the 1940s, Cartola disappeared from the scene. Little is known about that time in Cartola's life, when he departed from Mangueira after disagreements and became depressed with the death of his wife Deolinda. Cartola was found, in a popular tale, by journalist Sérgio Porto in 1956, working as a car-washer.
Porto took charge of starting to promote Cartola's return, inviting him to radio shows and promoting his work with new partners. In 1963, investing in his struggle to take the favelas' samba to the city streets, Cartola opened together with Eugênio Agostine and his wife Dona Zica the famous Zicartola bar/restaurant in downtown Rio de Janeiro, which became known as the most important samba establishment of that time, providing a link between the traditional sambistas and the incipient Bossa Nova movement. Cartola invited people such as Nélson Cavaquinho, Nara Leão, Paulinho da Viola, Zé Ketti to sing the "low-value" music, as sambistas referred to their work. Cartola's real commercial success started in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when he became quite popular and a lot of samba classics were released, such as "O Sol Nascerá", "O Mundo é Um Moinho", " As Rosas não Falam", "Corra e Olhe o Céu", "Quem me vê Sorrindo." With support from singers Elizeth Cardoso, Clara Nunes, Paulinho da Viola and Beth Carvalho.
He released his first record only at the age of 66, in 1974, living in financial difficulties and sang until his death at age 72. The 2007 documentary film "Música Para os Olhos" directed by Lírio Ferreira and Hilton Lacerda is a profile of the life of Cartola. Cartola was biographed in the book Divino Cartola — Uma Vida em Verde e Rosa, it was written by Denilson Monteiro and released in January 2013. Cartola and his wife Dona Zica appear in the 1959 film Black Orpheus as a couple at the city hall when the main characters register to get married. Cartola composed melodies and lyrics, his lyrics are notable for their correct use of Portuguese considering his lack of formal higher education. His poetry binds in an effective manner elegance and emotion, while keeping a low level of complexity, which made his work accessible to larger layers of the population. With regard to tempo, Cartola's music had a strong tendency towards calmer, slower sambas in contrast to the faster, brisker sambas de terreiro seen in samba schools and to other composers' music.
Some say. The cavaquinhos in his records had a certain choro mood, less percussive than usual, with the exception of his last records where Alceu Maia was the cavaquinist; as a musician, Cartola made use of many modulations, some of which were not common in samba at that time. Some of his modulating tunes are "Quem me vê Sorrindo" and "Sim", "Aconteceu" and "Amor Proibido", "Inverno do Meu Tempo" and "A Cor da Esperança". Furthermore, he made use of non-trivial figures such as tritone substitutions and extensive tritone resolutions to the IIIm7, as can be observed, e.g. in "Alvorada", "Inverno do Meu Tempo" and "Disfarça e Chora". 1974 - Cartola 1976 - Cartola II 1977 - Verde Que Te Quero Rosa 1978 - Cartola 70 Anos 1982 - Cartola - Ao Vivo 1982 - Cartola - Documento Inédito 1942 - "Native Brazilian Music" - Leopold Stokowski 1967 - "A Enluarada Elizeth" - Elizeth Cardoso 1968 - "Fala Mangueira!" - Odete Amaral, Clementina de Jesus, Nelson Cavaquinho, Carlos Cachaça 1970 - "His
Bossa nova is a style of Brazilian music, developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s and is today one of the best-known Brazilian music styles abroad. The phrase bossa nova means "new trend" or "new wave". A lyrical fusion of samba and jazz, bossa nova acquired a large following in the 1960s among young musicians and college students. In Brazil, the word "bossa" is old-fashioned slang for something, done with particular charm, natural flair or innate ability; as early as 1932, Noel Rosa used the word in a samba: "O samba, a prontidão e outras bossas são nossas coisas, são coisas nossas." The exact origin of the term "bossa nova" remained unclear for many decades, according to some authors. Within the artistic beach culture of the late 1950s in Rio de Janeiro, the term "bossa" was used to refer to any new "trend" or "fashionable wave". In his book Bossa Nova, Brazilian author Ruy Castro asserts that "bossa" was in use in the 1950s by musicians as a word to characterize someone's knack for playing or singing idiosyncratically.
Castro claims that the term "bossa nova" might have first been used in public for a concert given in 1957 by the Grupo Universitário Hebraico do Brasil. The authorship of the term "bossa nova" is attributed to the then-young journalist Moyses Fuks, promoting the event; that group consisted of Sylvia Telles, Carlos Lyra, Nara Leão, Luiz Eça, Roberto Menescal, others. Mr. Fuks's description supported by most of the bossa nova members read "HOJE. SYLVIA TELLES E UM GRUPO BOSSA NOVA", since Sylvia Telles was the most famous musician in the group at that time. In 1959, Nara Leão participated in more than one embryonic display of bossa nova; these include the 1st Festival de Samba Session, conducted by the student union of Pontifícia Universidade Católica. This session was chaired by Carlos Diegues, a law student whom Leão married. Bossa nova is most performed on the nylon-string classical guitar, played with the fingers rather than with a pick, its purest form could be considered unaccompanied guitar with vocals, as created and exemplified by João Gilberto.
In larger, jazz-like arrangements for groups, there is always a guitar that plays the underlying rhythm. Gilberto took one of the several rhythmic layers from a samba ensemble the tamborim, applied it to the picking hand. According to Brazilian musician Paulo Bitencourt, João Gilberto, known for his eccentricity and obsessed by the idea of finding a new way of playing the guitar locked himself in the bathroom, where he played one and the same chord for many hours in a row; as in samba, the surdo plays an ostinato figure on the downbeat of beat one, the "ah" of beat one, the downbeat of beat two and the "ah" of beat two. The clave pattern sounds similar to the two-three or three-two son clave of Cuban styles such as mambo but is dissimilar in that the "two" side of the clave is pushed by an eighth note. Important in the percussion section for bossa nova is the cabasa, which plays a steady sixteenth-note pattern; these parts are adaptable to the drum set, which makes bossa nova a rather popular Brazilian style for drummers.
Certain other instrumentations and vocals are part of the structure of bossa nova: Bossa nova has at its core a rhythm based on samba. Samba feel originating in former African slave communities. Samba's emphasis on the second beat carries through to bossa nova. However, unlike samba, bossa nova doesn't have dance steps to accompany it; when played on the guitar, in a simple one-bar pattern, the thumb plays the bass notes on 1 and 2, while the fingers pluck the chords in unison on the two eighth notes of beat one, followed by the second sixteenth note of beat two. Two-measure patterns contain a syncopation into the second measure. Overall, the rhythm has a "swaying" feel rather than the "swinging" feel of jazz; as bossa nova composer Carlos Lyra describes it in his song "Influência do Jazz", the samba rhythm moves "side to side" while jazz moves "front to back". Bossa nova was influenced by the blues, but because the most famous bossa novas lack the 12-bar structure characteristic of classic blues, as well as the statement and rhyming resolution of lyrics typical of the genre, bossa nova's affinity with the blues passes unnoticed.
Aside from the guitar style, João Gilberto's other innovation was the projection of the singing voice. Prior to bossa nova, Brazilian singers employed brassy operatic styles. Now, the characteristic nasal vocal production of bossa nova is a peculiar trait of the caboclo folk tradition of northeastern Brazil; the lyrical themes found in bossa nova include women, longing, nature. Bossa Nova was apolitical; the musical lyrics of the late 1950s depicted the easy life of the middle to upper-class Brazilians, though the majority of the population was in the working class. However, in conjunction with political developments of the early 1960s, the popularity of bossa nova was eclipsed by Música popular brasileira, a musical genre that appeared around the mid-1960s, featuring lyrics that were more politically charged, referring explicitly to working class struggle. Luiz BonfáLuiz Bonfá Plays and Sings Bossa Nova Jazz Samba Encore! with Stan Getz Bob BrookmeyerTrombone Jazz Samba (recorded August 2
Samba is a Brazilian music genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived. Although there were various forms of samba in Brazil with popular rhythms originated from drumming, samba as a music genre has its origins in Rio de Janeiro, the former capital of Brazil. Samba is recognized around the world as a symbol of the Brazilian Carnival. Considered one of the most popular Brazilian cultural expressions, samba has become an icon of Brazilian national identity; the Bahian Samba de Roda, was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List in 2005. It is the main root of the samba carioca, the samba, played and danced in Rio de Janeiro; the modern samba that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century is predominantly in a 2/4 time signature varied with the conscious use of a sung chorus to a batucada rhythm, with various stanzas of declaratory verses.
Traditionally, the samba is played by various percussion instruments such as tamborim. Influenced by American orchestras in vogue since the Second World War and the cultural impact of US music post-war, samba began to use trombones, choros and clarinets. In addition to distinct rhythms and meters, samba brings a whole historical culture of food, varied dances, clothes such as linen shirts, the Naif painting of established names such as Nelson Sargento, Guilherme de Brito, Heitor dos Prazeres. Anonymous community artists, including painters, sculptors and stylists, make the clothes, carnival floats, cars, opening the doors of schools of samba. There is a great tradition of ballroom samba in Brazil, with many styles. Samba de Gafieira is the style more famous in Rio de Janeiro, where common people used to go to the gafieira parties since the 1930s, where the moves and identity of this dance have emerged, getting more and more different from its African and Cuban origins and influences; the Samba National Day is celebrated on December 2.
The date was established at the initiative of Luis Monteiro da Costa, an Alderman of Salvador, in honor of Ary Barroso. He composed "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" though he had never been in Bahia, thus 2 December marked the first visit of Ary Barroso to Salvador. This day was celebrated only in Salvador, but it turned into a national holiday. Samba is a local style in Southeastern Brazil and Northeast Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Recife, its importance as Brazil's national music transcends region, however. The etymology of samba is uncertain. Possibilites include: The Portuguese verb sambar, to do joiner's work, it is uncertain whether the African Semba dance is related to the Brazilian Samba, whether it is older or newer, beyond the superficial similarity of name and style. In only two Bantu languages does the verb-root "semba" mean "dance", while in others it denotes unrelated things like "hunger" or "cloth". One of the oldest records of the word samba appeared in Pernambuco magazine's O Carapuceiro, dated February 1838, when Father Miguel Lopes Gama of Sacramento wrote against what he called "the samba d'almocreve" – not referring to the future musical genre, but a kind of merriment popular for black people of that time.
According to Hiram Araújo da Costa, over the centuries, the festival of dances of slaves in Bahia were called samba. In the middle of the 19th century, the word samba defined different types of music made by African slaves when conducted by different types of Batuque, but it assumed its own characteristics in each Brazilian state, not only by the diversity of tribes for slaves, but the peculiarity of each region in which they were settlers; some of these popular dances were known as Baião, Candombe, Catêrêtê, Caxambú, Choradinho, Côco-inchádo, Cocumbí, Córta-jáca, Cururú, Furrundú, Lundú, Maracatú, Maxíxe, Quimbête, São-Gonçalo, Saramba. In Argentina, there is a dance called "zamba", a name which seems to share etymological origins with the samba, but the dance itself is quite different. Samba-enredo or samba de enredo is a subgenre of Samba in which songs are performed by a samba school for the festivities of Brazilian Carnival. "Samba-enredo" translates in Portuguese to "samba in song", or "song samba".
Each samba school creates a new samba-enredo in advance of the next year's Carnaval, selected by competition, to be performed in the final Carnaval parades and events leading up to Carnaval. For each samba school, choosing the following year's samba-enredo is a long process. Well in advance of the Carnaval parade, each samba school holds contests for writing the song; the song is written by samba composers from within the school itself, or sometimes from outside composers in "parcerias". Each school receives many—sometimes hundreds—songs, hoping to be the next samba-enredo for that yea
Ary de Resende Barroso, better known as Ary Barroso ONM, was a Brazilian composer, soccer commentator, talent-show host on radio and TV. He was one of Brazil's most successful songwriters in the first half of the 20th century. Barroso composed many songs for Carmen Miranda during her career. Ary Barroso was the most influential pre-bossa nova composer in Brazil. Barroso's songs were recorded by a lengthy list of artists including Carmen Miranda and João Gilberto, his 1939 composition Aquarela do Brasil, better known as Brazil, was featured in the 1942 Disney film Saludos Amigos, has gone on to become one of the 20 most recorded songs of all time. His song Na Baixa do Sapateiro, based on a Brazilian pop tune, was included in the Disney film The Three Caballeros and popularized as Baía. Barroso's soundtrack for the movie Brazil was nominated for an Oscar in 1945. Although he failed to win, Barroso was presented a Merit Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for his work. In 1955, Barroso received the National Order of Merit, the greatest honor bestowed by the Brazilian government.
Music was only one outlet for Barroso's creativity. A lawyer by training, he balanced his musical career with work as a radio announcer, humorist, producer, emcee and soccer commentator, he was such a fan of the Clube de Regatas do Flamengo soccer club of Rio de Janeiro that he turned down an invitation to move to the United States at the peak of his fame in the'40s because he didn't want to be so far from the team. Although Barroso's father, Joao Evangelista, was a well-known poet, guitar player and lawyer, he became an orphan at the age of seven when his parents died and was raised by his grandmother and aunt. At his aunt's insistence, Barroso began studying the piano at the age of ten, practicing a mandatory three hours a day. Within two years, he was playing so well that he was hired to accompany silent movies at the local theater. Although he inherited money at the age of seventeen when his uncle died, Barroso spent it and was forced to turn to music for an income. In addition to playing piano in cinemas and with orchestras, he became involved with musical theater.
Joining forces with lyricist Luís Peixoto, Barroso composed more than 60 tunes as well as writing scripts. Shortly after finishing law school, in 1929, Barroso married the daughter of the boarding house in which he lived. In an attempt to raise money, he entered and won a Carnaval song contest in 1930. Three years Barroso hosted the first of many radio shows. In 1961, Barroso was diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, he died on February 9, 1964. Alô, Alô, Brasil Music in My Heart Laranja da China Saludos Amigos Gals, Incorporated The Gang's All Here Popular Science Jam Session Something for the Boys Brazil The Three Caballeros Pan-Americana Tell It to a Star Easy to Wed The Lady from Shanghai Road to Rio Esta é Fina Sitting Pretty Revancha Viajera Cantando nace el amor La culpa de los hombres The Eddy Duchin Story Matemática Zero, Amor Dez Holiday for Lovers Garota de Ipanema Os Inconfidentes Silent Movie Bye Bye Brasil O Homem do Pau-Brasil Brazil: O Filme Strictly Ballroom Lucky Break Carmen Miranda: Bananas is My Business Next Stop Wonderland There's Something About Mary Three to Tango Woman on Top Madame Satã Carandiru Something's Gotta Give Millions Ma vie en cinémascope The Aviator La gran final My Kid Could Paint That Chega de Saudade Australia Iron Maiden: Flight 666 Arbitrage Mr. Peabody & Sherman Spy Ary Barroso – Giant of Brazilian Song Ary Barroso Discography ExtraordinAry, article by Arthur de Faria Ary Barroso from AllBrazilianMusic Ary Barroso on IMDb Walt Disney and Ary Barroso working at the Walt Disney studios, 1940
Bolero refers to two distinct genres of slow-tempo Latin music and their associated dances. The oldest type of bolero originated in Spain during the late 18th century as a form of ballroom music, which influenced art music composers around the world, most famously Maurice Ravel's Boléro, as well as a flamenco style known as boleras. An unrelated genre of sung music originated in eastern Cuba in the late 19th century as part of the trova tradition; this genre gained widespread popularity around Latin America throughout the 20th century and continues to thrive. The original Spanish bolero is a 34 dance that originated in Spain in the late 18th century, a combination of the contradanza and the sevillana. There are many so-called boleros in art music, which are inspired in the original Spanish genre of the same name. Ravel's Boléro is one of his most famous works written as a ballet score commissioned by Ida Rubinstein, but now played as a concert piece, it was called Fandango but has rhythmic similarities with the Spanish dance form as described in this article, being in a constant 34 time with a prominent triplet on the second beat of every bar.
Chopin wrote a bolero for solo piano. He was a close friend of Pauline Viardot, the daughter of the famed Spanish tenor Manuel García, who had introduced the bolero to Paris Debussy wrote a bolero in La Soirée dans Grenada Bizet wrote a bolero in Carmen Saint-Saëns wrote a bolero, El desdichado, for 2 voices and orchestra Moszkowski's first set of Spanish Dances ends with a bolero. Lefébure-Wély wrote Boléro de Concert for organ The bolero from Hervé's Chilpéric has been immortalized in Toulouse-Lautrec's famous painting. Friedrich Baumfelder wrote Op. 317, for piano. Richard Aaker Trythall wrote a bolero for four percussionists based on the rhythm and structure of the traditional bolero dance. Trythall imagined the four percussionists as four dancers, intertwining their solos and trios with moments of group ensemble work in the same way a choreographer might have done. Charles-Auguste de Beriot wrote a bolero in his concerto "Scene de Ballet" for piano. English banjo composer Joe Morley wrote a bolero titled "El Contrabandista" after noted banjoist and composer Alfred Cammeyer published a bolero in 44 time for banjo.
Morley composed his as a true bolero in 34 time. John Serry Sr. composed his African Bolero for accordion and flute in 1950. Fumio Hayasaka composed a bolero for the Akira Kurosawa film Rashomon in 1950. Keith Emerson composed his Abaddon's Bolero for Orchestra and Synthesizer in 1972. In some art music boleros, the root lies not in the bolero but in the habanera, a Cuban precursor of the tango, a favourite dance rhythm in the mid-19th century, occurs in French opera and Spanish zarzuela of the 19th and 20th centuries. In Cuba, the bolero was the first great Cuban musical and vocal synthesis to win universal recognition. In 24 time, this dance music spread to other countries, leaving behind what Ed Morales has called the "most popular lyric tradition in Latin America"; the Cuban bolero tradition originated in Santiago de Cuba in the last quarter of the 19th century. In the 19th century there grew up in Santiago de Cuba a group of itinerant musicians who moved around earning their living by singing and playing the guitar.
Pepe Sanchez is known as the creator of the Cuban bolero. Untrained, but with remarkable natural talent, he composed numbers in his head and never wrote them down; as a result, most of these numbers are now lost, but two dozen or so survive because friends and students wrote them down. He was the teacher for the great trovadores who followed; the bolero first spread from the east of Cuba to the Dominican Republic in the year 1895, thanks to trovador Sindo Garay, who had brought the criolla "La Dorila" to Cuba, giving rise to a lasting interchange of lyrical styles between both islands. In the early 20th century the bolero reached Puerto Rico and Mexico, where it was popularized by the first radio stations around 1915. By the 1930s, when Trío Matamoros made famous their mix of bolero and son cubano known as bolero-son, the genre was a staple of the musical repertoire of most Latin American countries. In Spain, Cuban bolero was incorporated into the copla repertoire with added elements from Andalusian music, giving rise to the so-called bolero moruno, made famous by composers such as Carmelo Larrea and Quintero, León y Quiroga.
Some of the bolero's leading composers have come from nearby countries, as in the case of the prolific Puerto Rican composer Rafael Hernández and the Mexican composers: Agustín Lara and María Grever. Some Cuban composers of the bolero are considered trovadores. Several lyric tenors contributed to the popularization of the bolero throughout North and South America during the 1930s and the 1940s through live concerts and performances on international radio networks. Included in this group were the Mexican operatic tenors: Juan Arvizu and Nestor Mesta Chayres, their collaborations in New York City with such musicians as Alfredo Antonini, Terig Tucci, Elsa Miranda and John Serry Sr. on the CBS radio show Viva América introduced the bolero to millions of listeners throughout the United States. Noteworthy during the 1940s and 1950s were the performances of Trio Los Panchos, which featured the artistry of musicians from Mexico and Puerto Rico including: Chucho Navarro, Alfredo Gil and Hernando Avilés.
Boleros saw a resurgence in popularity during the 1990s when Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for reviving interest in the bole