Shambo Shiva Shambo
Sambo Siva Sambo is a 2010 Telugu language action drama film directed by Samuthirakani. It stars Ravi Teja, Allari Naresh, Siva Balaji, Priyamani and Surya Teja in the lead roles; this film is a remake of the director's 2009 film Naadodigal. The film released on 14 January 2010 to mixed responses from critics. Despite mixed reviews,the film performed well as the audience gave a thumbs up and was declared a box office hit by Box Office India; the film was dubbed in Hindi as Mera Krodh in 2012. It was remade in Kolkata as Priyanka; the film was remade in Hindi as Rangrezz directed by Priyadarshan starring Jackky Bhagnani, Priya Anand, Rajpal Yadav, Vijay Verma and Amitosh Nagpal in the lead roles. The film was remade in Malayalm as Ithu Nammude Katha. Karunakar alias Karna and Chandu are close friends, each of them has individual goals. Karna is in love with his cousin Muniamma. Malli dreams of going to a foreign land as soon. Chandu is in love with Karunakar's sister Pavithra; the trio enjoys life, hanging out together.
Karunakar’s friend Santosh, the son of the Home Minister, is in love with his family’s arch rival's daughter. The three friends come forward to unite these lovebirds against all odds. In the process, Karunakar loses his job and misses his cousin, Malli loses his hearing, Chandu has his leg amputated. 10 days the married lovers seek divorce. The friends, who sacrificed so much to unite them, now teach them a lesson; the film is an official remake of Samuthirakarni's own Tamil Film Naadodigal. This film's title is based on Naadodigal's hit song Sambho Siva Sambho; the Music Was Composed By Sundar C. Babu and Released by Aditya Music; the film received mixed to positive reviews from critics. Sify rated 4/5 and gave it the verdict "entertaining". Supergoodmovies rated it 3/5 and said " All artists gave their best performances and though being his debut direction, Samuthirakarni deserves a hit" Shambo Shiva Shambo on IMDb https://web.archive.org/web/20100116085536/http://live.iencyclopedia.org/2010/01/shambo-shiva-shambo-movie-review-rating.html Movie Review & Rating http://www.indiaglitz.com/channels/telugu/review/11422.html https://web.archive.org/web/20100119175300/http://www.telugucinema.com/c/publish/moviereviews/shamboshivashambo_review.php
Samba is a Brazilian music genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived. Although there were various forms of samba in Brazil with popular rhythms originated from drumming, samba as a music genre has its origins in Rio de Janeiro, the former capital of Brazil. Samba is recognized around the world as a symbol of the Brazilian Carnival. Considered one of the most popular Brazilian cultural expressions, samba has become an icon of Brazilian national identity; the Bahian Samba de Roda, was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List in 2005. It is the main root of the samba carioca, the samba, played and danced in Rio de Janeiro; the modern samba that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century is predominantly in a 2/4 time signature varied with the conscious use of a sung chorus to a batucada rhythm, with various stanzas of declaratory verses.
Traditionally, the samba is played by various percussion instruments such as tamborim. Influenced by American orchestras in vogue since the Second World War and the cultural impact of US music post-war, samba began to use trombones, choros and clarinets. In addition to distinct rhythms and meters, samba brings a whole historical culture of food, varied dances, clothes such as linen shirts, the Naif painting of established names such as Nelson Sargento, Guilherme de Brito, Heitor dos Prazeres. Anonymous community artists, including painters, sculptors and stylists, make the clothes, carnival floats, cars, opening the doors of schools of samba. There is a great tradition of ballroom samba in Brazil, with many styles. Samba de Gafieira is the style more famous in Rio de Janeiro, where common people used to go to the gafieira parties since the 1930s, where the moves and identity of this dance have emerged, getting more and more different from its African and Cuban origins and influences; the Samba National Day is celebrated on December 2.
The date was established at the initiative of Luis Monteiro da Costa, an Alderman of Salvador, in honor of Ary Barroso. He composed "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" though he had never been in Bahia, thus 2 December marked the first visit of Ary Barroso to Salvador. This day was celebrated only in Salvador, but it turned into a national holiday. Samba is a local style in Southeastern Brazil and Northeast Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Recife, its importance as Brazil's national music transcends region, however. The etymology of samba is uncertain. Possibilites include: The Portuguese verb sambar, to do joiner's work, it is uncertain whether the African Semba dance is related to the Brazilian Samba, whether it is older or newer, beyond the superficial similarity of name and style. In only two Bantu languages does the verb-root "semba" mean "dance", while in others it denotes unrelated things like "hunger" or "cloth". One of the oldest records of the word samba appeared in Pernambuco magazine's O Carapuceiro, dated February 1838, when Father Miguel Lopes Gama of Sacramento wrote against what he called "the samba d'almocreve" – not referring to the future musical genre, but a kind of merriment popular for black people of that time.
According to Hiram Araújo da Costa, over the centuries, the festival of dances of slaves in Bahia were called samba. In the middle of the 19th century, the word samba defined different types of music made by African slaves when conducted by different types of Batuque, but it assumed its own characteristics in each Brazilian state, not only by the diversity of tribes for slaves, but the peculiarity of each region in which they were settlers; some of these popular dances were known as Baião, Candombe, Catêrêtê, Caxambú, Choradinho, Côco-inchádo, Cocumbí, Córta-jáca, Cururú, Furrundú, Lundú, Maracatú, Maxíxe, Quimbête, São-Gonçalo, Saramba. In Argentina, there is a dance called "zamba", a name which seems to share etymological origins with the samba, but the dance itself is quite different. Samba-enredo or samba de enredo is a subgenre of Samba in which songs are performed by a samba school for the festivities of Brazilian Carnival. "Samba-enredo" translates in Portuguese to "samba in song", or "song samba".
Each samba school creates a new samba-enredo in advance of the next year's Carnaval, selected by competition, to be performed in the final Carnaval parades and events leading up to Carnaval. For each samba school, choosing the following year's samba-enredo is a long process. Well in advance of the Carnaval parade, each samba school holds contests for writing the song; the song is written by samba composers from within the school itself, or sometimes from outside composers in "parcerias". Each school receives many—sometimes hundreds—songs, hoping to be the next samba-enredo for that yea
Sambo's Grave is the burial site of a dark-skinned cabin boy or slave, on unconsecrated ground in a field near the small village of Sunderland Point, near Heysham and Overton, North West England. Sunderland Point was a port, serving cotton and slave ships from the West Indies and North America, which declined after Glasson Dock was opened in 1787, it is a small community only accessible via a narrow road, which crosses a salt marsh and is cut off at high tide. In the early 18th century Sunderland Point was a port for Lancaster, serving ships too large to sail up to the town. According to the Lonsdale Magazine of 1822, Sambo had arrived around 1736 from the West Indies as a servant to the captain of an unnamed ship: After she had discharged her cargo, he was placed at the inn…with the intention of remaining there on board wages till the vessel was ready to sail, he continued in this state only a few days. As soon as Samboo's exit was known to the sailors who happened to be there, they excavated him in a grave in a lonely dell in a rabbit warren behind the village, within twenty yards of the sea shore, whither they conveyed his remains without either coffin or bier, being covered only with the clothes in which he died.—Lonsdale Magazine, 1822 It has been suggested that Sambo may have died from a disease to which he had no natural immunity, contracted from contact with Europeans.
He was buried in unconsecrated ground on the weatherbeaten shoreline of Morecambe Bay. With the opening of Glasson Dock in 1787, trade ships deserted Sunderland Point and it became a sea-bathing place and holiday venue. Sixty years after the burial, a retired headmaster of Lancaster boys' grammar school, James Watson, heard the story and raised money from summer visitors to the area for a memorial, to be placed on the unmarked grave. Watson, the brother of the prominent Lancaster slave trader, William Watson wrote the epitaph that now marks the grave: Today, official signposts on Sunderland Point define the grave and locality as a tourist attraction and the grave always bears flowers or stones painted by local children. Media related to Sambo's Grave at Wikimedia Commons Sunderland Point and Samboo's Grave "Sambo" 1657, antedates OED 1704- The Graves of Slaves & other Black People in 18th C Britain
Sambo's is a restaurant an American restaurant chain, started in 1957 by Sam Battistone Sr. and Newell Bohnett. Though the name was taken from portions of the names of its founders, the chain soon found itself associated with The Story of Little Black Sambo. Battistone and Bohnett capitalized on the connection by decorating the walls of the restaurants with scenes from the book, including a dark-skinned boy, a pale, magical unicycle-riding man called "The Treefriend". By the early 1960s, the illustrations depicted a light-skinned boy wearing a jeweled Indian-style turban with the tigers. A kids club, Sambo's Tiger Tamers, promoted the chain's family image. By 1979, Sambo's had 1,117 outlets in 47 American states. In the late 1970s, controversy over the chain's name drew protests and lawsuits in communities that viewed the term Sambo as pejorative towards African-Americans. Several of the restaurants were opened as or renamed "The Jolly Tiger" in locations where the local community passed resolutions forbidding the use of the original name or refused to grant the chain permits.
Additional corporate level decisions made at the time led to Sambo's corporate demise. Pressure to take Sambo's into a more normal, salaried manager compensation package was one issue, their unique "Fraction of the Action" promotion – whereby managers were entitled to 20% of the profits from their stores, with employees allowed to bid for a percentage of the remaining profits – was an early company expansion plan, the growth of the company outpaced its control. In March 1981, in a further attempt to give the chain a new image the company again renamed some locations, this time to "No Place Like Sam's". By November 1981, the company filed for bankruptcy. Neither the name change nor bankruptcy protection reversed this downward trend, by 1982 all but the original Sambo's at 216 West Cabrillo Boulevard in Santa Barbara, closed their doors. By February 1983, 618 of the locations were renamed Season's Friendly Eating. Several locations were sold including the Fort Lauderdale store. Bakers Square's parent company acquired Sambo's in California in October 1984.
Many Sambo's locations were converted to Bakers Square restaurants and the ones that weren't were sold to other chains, including Denny's. Sam Battistone, Jr. is the original owner of the New Orleans Jazz in the NBA. He moved the team to Utah and sold it. Battistone's grandson, restaurateur Chad Stevens, owns the only remaining Sambo's. There is another restaurant, "Lil Sambo's" in Lincoln City, Oregon which remains in operation. Although decorated, it was independently owned by Ron Krieger and never was part of the above referenced Sambo's chain, it was named "Lil Black Sambo's" and had the word "black" removed. The chain's notoriety is parodied in F Is for Family as "Sam's Starving Boy", with its decor resembling many of the 1970s locations, its mascot being a cartoon slave; the Original Sambo's Restaurant
Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Casta caste class system of the Spanish and Portuguese empires and today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry. The racial cross between enslaved African and Amerindians was referred to as a zambayga zambo sambo. In the United States, the word sambo is thought to refer to the racial cross between an enslaved African and a white person; the meaning of the term sambo however is contested in North America, where other etymologies have been proposed. The word most originated from one of the Romance languages, or Latin and its direct descendants; the feminine word is zamba. Under the casta system of Spanish colonial America, the term applied to the children of one African and one Amerindian parent, or the children of two zambo parents. During this period, many other terms denoted individuals of African-Amerindian ancestry in ratios smaller or greater than the 50:50 of zambos: cambujo for example. Today, zambo refers to all people with significant amounts of both African and Amerindian ancestry, though it is considered pejorative.
The term zambo was not formally used in Spanish writing until the seventeenth century, competed with other terms, including mulato. African slaves began mixing with indigenous people from the beginning of their importation into Hispaniola in the early sixteenth century; some of this mixture took place in the mines and plantations of Hispaniola, the other Spanish Caribbean islands following the introduction of sugar production in the 1520s, when Africans fled from these estates to unconquered indigenous regions. Unions described as producing zambos took place all throughout the Spanish colonial empire, following the pattern established in Hispaniola. In the eighteenth century, the Spanish began producing systematic racial classifications, zambo was defined in its final meaning; some famous zambo groups were created by runaway or rebel Africans who mixed with or took over indigenous communities. In the unconquered regions of Esmeraldes, in what would become Ecuador, for example, a small group of shipwrecked former slaves managed to win control of the indigenous communities representing them before Spanish authorities in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
Another famous group of zambos were the Misquito Zambos, who originated around 1640 when a group of African slaves revolted on a slave ship, took it over and wrecked it at Cape Gracias a Dios on the border between Honduras and Nicaragua. They united with the indigenous Miskito people, by the early eighteenth century came to dominate the kingdom, leading it on many extensive slave raids, their alliance and protection of English speaking merchants and settlers in the area helped Great Britain find the colony of British Honduras. Zambos represent small minorities in the northwestern South American countries Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador. A small but noticeable number of zambos resulting from recent unions of Amerindian men to Afro-Ecuadorian women are not uncommon in major coastal cities of Ecuador. Prior to the rural to urban migration, the Amerindian and Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicities were constrained to the Andes region and province of Esmeraldas and the Chota Valley in the province of Imbabura respectively.
In Central America, there are the Miskito and the garifunas. The Garifuna originated from the combination of Africans who were either shipwrecked or fled from neighboring islands to St. Vincent, in the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In 1797 they were deported by the English for their role in supporting France during the French Revolutionary Wars to the island of Roatan off the coast of Honduras. From there they spread up and down the coast of Central America, communities being found from Nicaragua to Belize. In Mexico, where zambos were sometimes known as lobos, they form a sizeable minority. According to the 2015 Intercensus Estimate, 896,829 people identified as both Afro-Mexican and Indigenous Mexican; the great majority of the country's Afro-descended population has been absorbed into the wider mestizo population. Greater concentrations can only be found in communities scattered around the southern coastal states, including Michoacán, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Veracruz, where the country's Afro-Mexicans reside.
Culturally, Mexican lobos followed more Amerindian traditions rather than African influences. This acculturation took place in Bolivia, where the Afro-Bolivian community absorbed and retained many aspects of Amerindian cultural influences, such as dress and use of the Aymara language; these communities of Afro-Bolivians reside in the Yungas region of the Bolivian department of La Paz. Afro-Latin Americans Black Indians Black Seminoles Casta Cholo Garifuna people Marabou Melungeon Mestee Mestizo Miskito Miscegenation Mulatto List of topics related to the African diaspora Stranded in Paradise: Shipwrecked Hundreds of Years Ago, the Garifuna Are Still Trying to Find Their Way by Teresa Wiltz, The Washington Post
Shambo was a black Friesian bull living in the interfaith Skanda Vale Temple near Llanpumsaint in Wales, adopted by the local Hindu community as a sacred animal. He came to public attention in April 2007, when a routine skin test for bovine tuberculosis tested positive, indicating he may have been in contact with the bacterium that causes the disease; as a result, the Welsh Government required. Skanda Vale disputed this and campaigned for a reprieve, expressing their belief that the sanctity of all life is the cornerstone of Hinduism, they were backed in this stance by the Hindu religious community at large. Farmers supported the Welsh Government's policy that cattle which tested positive to the skin test be destroyed in the interests of other local cattle. On 15 July 2007, Deputy High Court judge Gary Hickinbottom ruled that slaughtering Shambo would be unlawful, since the two slaughter orders had failed to give enough weight to the rights of the monks, he ruled that killing Shambo would violate the human rights of the Skanda Vale community, which has a right to "manifest" its religious faith, according to Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights.
A spokesman for the Farmers' Union of Wales called the ruling "ludicrous," arguing that it "contradicts the principles upon which successful TB eradication programmes throughout the world have been based for generations." On 23 July 2007, the Court of Appeal upheld the Welsh Assembly Government's appeal. Lord Justice Pill said former rural affairs minister Jane Davidson acted lawfully when she refused to make an exception for Shambo as a sacred bull; the Hindu community launched an international campaign to save him, arguing that to kill Shambo would be equivalent to taking a human life. Temple monks said they would form a human chain to save him, asking on their website: "If a member of your family is suspected of getting TB, does the government kill them, just in case?" They collected over 24,000 names on a petition asking the government to issue a reprieve. According to Skanda Vale, the sanctity of all life is the cornerstone of Hinduism. Ramesh Kallidai, secretary-general of the Hindu Forum of Britain, writes that the cow and bull are given a sacred place in Hindu culture as a mark of respect.
The cow symbolizes motherhood through the offering of milk, the bull represents the father who tills the soil and provides grain. Kallidai writes that most Hindus consider bovicide to be equivalent to matricide, that go raksha is an important part of the Hindu faith. According to Mahatma Gandhi, "One can measure the greatness of a nation and its moral progress by the way it treats its animals. Cow protection to me is not mere protection of the cow, it means protection of all, helpless and weak in the world. The cow means the entire subhuman world." Shambo tested positive during a routine skin test in April 2007. According to Skanda Vale, tests done on Shambo are not accurate enough — they said it was "extremely unlikely" that Shambo was infected. David Taylor, a vet who examined Shambo, has said, "he is a healthy bull, with no symptoms of TB, it would be an absolute crime to put that animal down." He argued that the tests were subjective. The Welsh assembly refused to carry out a second test to confirm exposure to bacteria.
According to a report by the Welsh Assembly, whether an animal is suffering from TB can only be shown by post-mortem examination or by microbiological analysis after death, but they say the test for exposure to the bacteria that cause the disease is 99.9% accurate and is recognized by the European Union and by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Against this, Skanda Vale argued that, if Shambo had bovine TB, he could be treated using antibiotics; the temple asked the government to grant permission for the treatment to proceed. The Welsh Assembly argued that, since there are no antibiotics licensed in the UK for treating bovine TB in cattle, there would be no way of testing whether he had been cured. However, Skanda Vale argues that cows are treated for bovine TB in India. Three parties represented in the Welsh Assembly — the Conservatives, Liberal Democrats, Plaid Cymru — called for Shambo to be destroyed, arguing that he posed a danger to other animals. There are 50 animals within the grounds of the temple, including cattle, water buffalo, an elephant.
Andrew Dismore, Labour Party Member of Parliament for Hendon, tabled an early day motion in the House of Commons: "That this House expresses concern at the decision of DEFRA inspectors, that Shambo the bull, part of the herd kept at Skanda Vale Hindu temple and monastery must be slaughtered. The farming community expressed support for the government's decision to'destroy' Shambo, citing the 5,220 cattle culled in Wales in 2006, the 20,000 in the UK in total, as a result of the TB test; the vice president of the Farmers' Union of Wales, said "We have to follow the rules like everybody else and I won't say we don't have sympathy because you know the farmers who've lost cattle do sympathise". The decisions to issue a slaughter notice and to proceed with the slaughter were challenged on ju
Sambo Creek is a traditional Garífuna village 15 kilometres east of La Ceiba on the Caribbean Sea north coast of Honduras. An annual fair is held in June. Sambo Creek has the largest Garifuna population in Honduras and is considered to be a true Garifuna town. Sambo Creek is the best place. Ethnic Mix: 65% Garifuna, 35% Mestizo Among the famous natives are Olympic sprinter Rolando Palacios