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Sambo (martial art)

Sambo is a Soviet martial art and combat sport. It originated in the Russian SFSR in Soviet Union; the word "SAMBO" is an acronym of samozashchita bez oruzhiya, which translates as "self-defence without weapons". Sambo is modern, since its development began in the early 1920s by the Soviet NKVD and Red Army to improve hand-to-hand combat abilities of the servicemen, it was intended to be a merger of the most effective techniques of other martial arts. The pioneers of sambo were Vasili Oshchepkov. Oshchepkov spent several years training in judo under its founder Kano Jigoro. Oshchepkov died in prison as a result of the Great Purge after being accused of being a Japanese spy. Spiridonov and Oshchepkov independently developed two different styles, which cross-pollinated and became what is known as sambo. Compared to Oshchepkov's system, called "free wrestling" in Russia, Spiridonov's style was softer and less brutal, it was less strength-dependent, which in large part was due to injuries Spiridonov sustained during World War I.

Anatoly Kharlampiev, a student of Vasili Oshchepkov, is considered a founder of sambo. In 1938, it was recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee. There are multiple competitive sport variations of sambo. Below are the main formats that are recognized by FIAS. Sport sambo is stylistically similar to old time catch wrestling and judo, in a lot of ways influenced by them, but with some differences in rules and uniform. More akin to catch wrestling, in contrast with judo, sambo allows various types of leg locks, while not allowing chokeholds, it focuses on throwing, ground work and submissions, with few restrictions on gripping and holds. Combat sambo. Utilized and developed for the military, combat sambo resembles modern mixed martial arts, including forms of striking and grappling. Combat sambo allows regular punches, kicks and knees, as well as soccer kicks and groin strikes, in addition to throws, holds and locks, except for a standing or flying wristbar; the chief distinction from Brazilian jiu-jitsu, apart from striking techniques, is that combat sambo rules and regulations do not permit a one-sided resort to ground fighting without throws or other combative maneuvers.

In terms of aliveness, combat sambo surpasses ARB by design, though both were designed for combat situations only. Competitors wear jackets as in sport sambo, but hand protection and sometimes shin protection and headgear; the first FIAS World Combat Sambo Championships were held in 2001. The World Combat Sambo Federation, based in Russia sanctions international combat sambo events. Combat sambo is designed to tackle certain tasks; the effectiveness of this martial art determined by its structure, namely by three components: boxing and adapters. Adapters of combat sambo were developed by the academician G. S. Popov; the task of adapters is to ensure the safe transition from middle distance to close one, as well as the consistent usage of sambo and boxing techniques. The given configuration provides the fusion of two martial arts into a single system. Sambo's early development stemmed from the independent efforts of Vasili Oshchepkov and Viktor Spiridonov to integrate the techniques of Catch wrestling, Judo and other foreign martial arts into native Turkic wrestling styles and Georigian chidaoba.

Oschepkov taught judo to elite Red Army forces at the Central Red Army House. Vasili Oschepkov was one of the first foreigners to learn Judo in Japan and had earned his nidan from judo's founder, Kano Jigoro. Spiridonov's background involved indigenous martial arts from various Soviet regions as well as an interest in Japanese jujutsu, his reliance on movement over strength was in part because during World War I he received a bayonet wound which left his left arm lame. Both Oschepkov and Spiridonov independently hoped that Soviet military hand-to-hand combat techniques could be improved with an infusion of the techniques distilled from other foreign martial arts. Contrary to common lore and Spiridonov did not cooperate on the development of their hand-to-hand systems. Rather, their independent notions of hand-to-hand combat merged through cross-training between students and formulative efforts by their students and military staff. While Oschepkov and Spiridonov did have occasion to collaborate, their efforts were not united.

Each technique was dissected and considered for its merits, if found acceptable in unarmed combat, refined to reach sambo's ultimate goal: to stop an armed or unarmed adversary in the least time possible. Thus, many techniques from jujutsu and other martial systems joined with the indigenous fighting styles to form the sambo repertoire; when the techniques were perfected, they were woven into sambo applications for personal self-defense, crowd control, border guards, secret police, dignitary protection, psychiatric hospital staff and commandos. In 1918, Lenin created Vsevobuch under the leadership of N. I. Podvoyskiy to train the Red Army; the task of developing and organizing Red Army military hand-to-hand combat training fell to K. Voroshilov, who in turn, created the NK

Xiphoceriana atrox

Xiphoceriana atrox is a species of grasshoppers belonging to the family Pamphagidae. Xiphoceriana atrox can reach a length of 70 millimetres of 55 millimetres in females; this species is present in Tanzania. Bolívar, I. Orthoptera. Fam. Acrididae. Subfam. Pamphaginae, Genera Insectorum, V. Verteneuil & L. Desmet, Brussels 170:40 pp. 1 pl Dirsh The phallic complex in Acridoidea in relation to taxonomy, Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 108:223-356 Dirsh Revision of the group Portheti, Revista española de Entomología 34:299-400 Dirsh, The African Genera of Acridoidea, Cambridge University Press, Antilocust Centre, London 579 pp. Gerstaecker, Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Leipzig 35 Hemp, C. Annotated list of Caelifera of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Journal of Orthoptera Research 18:183–214 Johnston, H. B. Annotated catalogue of African grasshoppers, The Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 833 pp. Johnston, H. B. Annotated catalogue of African grasshoppers, The Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Suppl:448 pp. Karsch Neue Orthopteren aus dem tropischen Afrika, Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 57:242-359 Kevan, D.

K. M. Orthoptera-Caelifera from northern Kenya and Jubaland. II. Pamphagidae, Pyrgomorphidae and Romaleinae, Opuscula Entomologica, Lund 22:193-208 Uvarov, Grasshoppers & Locusts. A Handbook of General Acridology, Cambridge University Press, London 1:481 pp

Sumner Monument (Earl Park, Indiana)

The Sumner Monument is a monument located at the Sumner Cemetery in Earl Park, Indiana, in the United States. The monument was completed in 1882 and is the final resting place of early Indiana settler and cattle baron, Edward. C. Sumner, his wife, Abigail Sumner; the sculptor of the work is unknown. The monument is a large pedestal made of either marble; the Inventories of American Painting and Sculpture has documentation stating it is made of marble, however, a Save Outdoor Sculpture! Surveyor stated. On top of the pedestal is a statue, again, of either granite or marble, of Edward C. Sumner, he wears clothing from the 19th century. His proper left elbow rests on a tree stump; the stump is covered with vines. His proper right hand is placed in his pocket. On the shaft of the pedestal is a relief bust of his wife, Abigail Sumner. In total, the sculpture is 22 feet high. An inscription is located on the front of the base: LSC/SUMNERA wooden sign nearby the monument reads: SUMNER CEMETERY EDWARD C. SUMNER 1811-1882 A NOTED INDIANA CATTLE BARON PURCHASED TOPENEEBEE'S RESERVE IN 1846, EXTENDED HOLDINGS TO 36,000 ACRES.

SUMNER, IN STONE, COMTEMPLATES WHAT HE IN LIFE ONCE OWNED. The stone used for the sculpture was shipped from New York; the monument cost $10,000. The sculpture was completed in 1882; the bust relief of Abigail Sumner was completed around the time of Edward Sumner's death. The portrait was not revealed; the sculpture was evaluated in 1993 by a surveyor from the Save Outdoor Sculpture! program. It was described as being "well maintained."

Nathan Blake

Nathan Blake is a Welsh former professional footballer, who played in the Premier League for several clubs representing his country at the international levels. Blake was relegated from the Premier League five times, a record he holds jointly with Hermann Hreiðarsson. Blake is one of the most promoted players to the Premier League with four promotions. Blake was released in 1990, without graduating to the first team, he moved back to his home-city club Cardiff City after this, where he made his senior debut against Bristol Rovers in March. He rose to being a first team regular in 1990–91 and went on to become a firm favourite with fans, he helped the club to the Third Division title in 1992–93, scoring 11 times, made a strong start to life in the third tier the next season, scoring 14 goals in 20 games. It was during this season that he rose to national prominence when he scored a spectacular goal against Manchester City to send them crashing out of the FA Cup; this form attracted Premier League Sheffield United to snap him up for £300,000 in February 1994.

In total, he scored 40 goals in 164 appearances for the Welsh side. Blake scored five goals in the remainder of Sheffield United's top flight campaign, but could not halt relegation, he finished as the Blades' top scorer in the next two seasons, but neither season saw the club mount a serious promotion challenge in Division One. During the 1995–96 season, his goalscoring again won him a move to the Premier League, as he joined Bolton Wanderers in December 1995 in a £1,200,000 deal. Blake failed to make an immediate impact at Bolton Wanderers and only managed one league goal as they dropped out of the Premier League after a solitary season, he rediscovered his goalscoring prowess in the 1996–97 season though, as he notched 19 league goals to fire Bolton back to the top flight as champions. The next season saw his best seasonal tally in the top flight as he bagged 12 goals, however this couldn't prevent yet another relegation for the club after one season, he started the 1998–99 season brightly, with 6 goals in the opening 12 games, which won him his third move back to the Premier League with Blackburn Rovers in a £4.25m deal in October 1998.

History repeated itself though for Blake as he again suffered the drop in a season that saw him manage just 3 goals. The striker remained at Ewood Park for two full seasons, the second of which saw him again win promotion, but he managed only 9 goals over these seasons, he started the club's return in the top flight, scored their opening goal away at Derby County, but was swiftly returned to Division One when he was sold to Wolverhampton Wanderers in September 2001 for an initial £1.5m fee. Blake, who had a strained relationship with Blackburn manager Graeme Souness, was offered the chance to stay and fight for a place in the side but decided to accept the transfer. Blake refound his form at First Division Wolves, scoring on his debut against Stockport County, ending the season with 11 goals. However, he missed out on another promotion as the club suffered a late slump to fall into the play-offs where they lost to Norwich City; the next season saw Blake better his tally, despite suffering a broken foot during a match against Portsmouth in November 2002, as his 12 goals helped the club go one step further as they won the play-offs.

Blake himself scored in the 3–0 final win over his former club Sheffield United, held in his homecity of Cardiff. His final crack at the Premier League was hindered by a year of niggling injuries that kept him sidelined for the majority of the games, he managed just one goal, against Newcastle United, from 13 appearances as the club proved unable to survive. This relegation gave Blake the unenviable distinction of the player suffering the most Premier League relegations with five different seasons ending in the drop, a record that has since been matched by Hermann Hreiðarsson. Blake left the club in acrimonious circumstances, having fallen out of favour, Blake fell out with manager Dave Jones after a proposed move to Portsmouth fell through when Wolves continually raised their asking price for Blake before cancelling the deal. Blake was released by Wolves upon their relegation in 2004, after making 85 appearances, scoring 26 times in all competitions, he joined fellow relegated club Leicester City on a one-year contract after having had a trial at Sunderland.

His opportunities here were only as a substitute and he never scored a league goal for the Foxes, but did score once in a League Cup defeat to Preston North End. Failing to make an impact, he was instead loaned out to Leeds United in January 2005, where he managed the final goal of his league career against Coventry City, his loan was cut short by a ruptured hamstring and he returned to Leicester, but did not feature again before being released by the club in June 2005. His professional career derailed as he was given a six-month suspension in August 2005 for testing positive for a recreational drug. After serving his suspension, he had a trial at Stoke City but decided he was unwilling to commit to playing full-time anymore. Instead, he spent two months playing for non-league Newport County, where he had been a trainee, before his deal ended in October 2006. Before breaking through as a footballer, Blake fell foul of the law and was prosecuted for theft from a fruit machine in London. Following his retirement from professional football in 2006, he set up and runs his own property management company in his native Wales.

On 27 January 2012 following several race related scandals in the English game, Blake came out to say whilst he was a player he was sent a racially motivated death threat after withdrawing from a Wales squad. Blake won the award for Best Supporting Actor at Film Fest Cymru 2


Twyning is a village and civil parish on the River Avon in the north of Gloucestershire, near Tewkesbury, England. The parish is first mentioned in the Liber Wigorniensis in about 1016, where it is called Tuinaeum, part of Gretestane in the county of Winchcombeshire and mentioned in Domesday Book, described as "Tuninge, Kings Land: Winchcombe Abbey." The name derives from the Old English for "between the rivers". The parish forms a land'isthmus' into the county of Worcestershire; the village is divided into two main parts, the older "Churchend", "Twyning Green". In addition, within the parish are the hamlets of Shuthonger which straddles the A38, Woodend and Stratford Bridge on the border with Worcestershire, it has two pubs, The Fleet at Twyning by the river and the Village Inn overlooking the village green. Boats have traditionally ferried people up the river Avon from Tewkesbury to enjoy the Fleet's hospitality; the service operates during summer months. The parish contains large amounts of common land including Brockeridge Common, extensive meadows bordering the River Avon.

There is a Spar shop which houses a post office, a primary school of 150 pupils. There are still a number of original white Tudor houses. There is recreation complex called TRAC, that contains a park, three tennis courts, a 5-a-side football pitch and a pavilion; the village is fortunate to escape the floods that blight this area, as it is situated on a slope up from the river. However, some properties were affected in the great flood of 2007; the village is surrounded by various places on the river for anglers. The village had been a crossing point on the River Avon since medieval times; the ferry service, an entitlement given to the riverside innkeeper, was protected in law in Court Rolls since the time of Henry VIII. The landlord was permitted to collect tolls from those wanting to cross the river. However, in 1963, the pub's new landlord halted the ancient ferry service claiming it was too dangerous to run. Despite opposition from villagers, the local parish council, district council and his statutory obligation enshrined in law, the ferry service ceased to operate.

In 1996, the ferry was reinstated by the pub's current landlords. The older part of the village, contains the village church, dedicated to St Mary Magdalene. An electoral ward of the same name exists; this stretches south from Twyning to Tewkesbury. The total population of this ward taken at the 2011 census was 1,668, it is thought that the Twining surname is descended from, or at least connected to, the name of the village. There are records of John Twynyng of Tewkesbury making a will in 1412, a John Twynnyng of Cirencester being sued for a debt in 1483. A 15th century Abbot at Winchcombe Abbey, in Gloucestershire, was called John Twining; the tea merchants, are thought to originate in Twyning. A branch of the family removed themselves to Painswick in the early Middle Ages and worked in the wool trade. In the 17th century Thomas Twining moved to London during a period of economic depression and began his tea business

Hollis E. Roberts

Hollis Earl Roberts was a Native American politician whose career was highlighted by his 19-year period as Chief of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. Hollis Roberts was born in Hochatown to Darrell E. Roberts, he attended Holly Creek Elementary and Idabel High School, graduating in 1961. Roberts married Helen R. Rodriguez in 1963, they had three children: one girl. Following his political career, Roberts died on October 2011 at the age of 68 years. Roberts remains an polarizing and controversial figure among Native Americans, his 19-year tenure as Chief of the Choctaw Nation came to end in 1997 amid convictions of sexual contact and sexual abuse. From these convictions, to his then-extravagant $120,000 per year salary, to his alleged corruption, he served for 19 years as chief of the one of the largest Native American tribes in the United States. He governed well including over 79,000 in Oklahoma. Roberts began his political career as a city council person in Hugo, Oklahoma where he served for 14 years.

Following his time in Hugo, Roberts served six years in the Oklahoma House of Representatives, representing Choctaw County. Choctaw County was only six percent Indian population, making his dramatic victory that much more captivating. Following his time as a member of the Oklahoma House Representative, Roberts served from 1975-1978 as Choctaw Chief David Gardner's assistant. Following the 1978 death of Chief David Gardner, Hollis Roberts was elected chief of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, his election into office came at the tail end of the Red Power movement. As a young and charismatic leader, Roberts embodied much of the Red Power Movement and became a guiding voice for change at a time when Indian sovereignty was at a countrywide high. Roberts ran against political rival Charles Brown. Brown was a popular, but older politician, well respected by Choctaws. Roberts won in a tight election. 1983 was big year for the Choctaw. Roberts proposed a new constitution to the Choctaw people. A major component of this new constitution was the removal of blood quantum for tribal membership, which increased the number of members of the Choctaw tribe.

The new constitution did not come without controversy. Additionally, women were given the right to vote with the new constitution; this new constitution was voted in 2,253 to 780 on July 9, 1983. As chief, it was Roberts job to appoint tribal judges. In 1983 Roberts appointed the first female Choctaw judge. Roberts was reelected in 1983. 1992 was another big year: in'92 the Choctaw, Cherokee and Seminole tribes signed a compact with State of Oklahoma. This compact equates to Indians paying a fee to the federal government each year instead of paying taxes on tobacco products sold to non-natives on their reservations; the end result was that the Choctaw paid 75% less to the federal government and were thus able to increase their profit on products sold on the reservations. Roberts worked to improve health standards, increase the tribe's population, promote a healthy economy. During his time in charge and infant mortality rates among the Choctaw decreased dramatically. Roberts used his influence and abilities to negotiate federal funding and to set up programs for his people.

Under his reign, the Choctaw Nation improved health standards, saw an increase in population, set forth intensive economic growth campaigns. Today many view Roberts as a criminal, but in his heyday many viewed him as a charismatic politician who brought much needed change to the Choctaw. On June 6, 1997, Roberts’ time as chief came to an end following his conviction in a federal court in Muskogee, Roberts was convicted on two counts of sexual contact and one count of aggravated sexual abuse involving two female employees of the tribe; the aggravated sexual abuse count carried a possible life sentence. The jury acquitted Mr. Roberts on four similar counts, three of them involving a former tribal employee who testified that Mr. Roberts had raped her. Hollis Roberts attempted an appeal to the U. S. Supreme Court on sexual-abuse convictions and his 11-year prison lost both appeals. One of his appeals was that the U. S. District Court lacked jurisdiction where the assaults took place because they happened in Tribal complex property, trust land and thus not Indian Country nor formally a part of the reservation.

The government ruled against this appeal claiming that the federal government owned the land in trust for Indians and it was thus Indian Country. Roberts argued that he should not have an enhanced sentence for abusing a position of trust. Hollis E. Roberts at