- "Pulau Sambu, Riau, Indonesia". travelingluck.com.
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1. Indonesian language – Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. It is a register of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world, of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. However, most formal education, and nearly all national mass media, governance, administration, judiciary, the Indonesian name for the language is Bahasa Indonesia or sometimes simplified as Bahasa. This term is occasionally found in English and other languages. Indonesian is a register of Riau Malay, which despite its common name is not the Malay dialect native to Riau. Originally spoken in Northeast Sumatra, Malay has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for half a millennium and it might be attributed to its ancestor, the Old Malay language. The Kedukan Bukit Inscription is the oldest surviving specimen of Old Malay, trade contacts carried on by various ethnic peoples at the time were the main vehicle for spreading the Old Malay language, which was the main communications medium among the traders. Ultimately, the Old Malay language became a lingua franca and was spoken widely by most people in the archipelago, Indonesian is essentially the same language as the official Malaysian, Singaporean and Brunei standards of Malay. However, it does differ from Malaysian in several respects, with differences in pronunciation and these differences are due mainly to the Dutch and Javanese influences on Indonesian. Indonesian was also influenced by the Melayu pasar, which was the lingua franca of the archipelago in colonial times, and thus indirectly by other spoken languages of the islands. Malaysian Malay claims to be closer to the classical Malay of earlier centuries, even though modern Malaysian has been influenced, in lexicon as well as in syntax. The question of whether High Malay or Low Malay was the parent of the Indonesian language is still in debate. Some linguists have argued that it was the more common Low Malay that formed the base of the Indonesian language, however, the language had never been dominant among the population of the Indonesian archipelago as it was limited to mercantile activity. The VOC adopted the Malay language as the language of their trading outpost in the east. Following the bankruptcy of the VOC the Dutch crown took control of the colony in 1799 and it was then that education in. Even then, Dutch administrators were reluctant to promote the use of Dutch compared to other colonial regimes. Dutch thus remained the language of a elite, in 1940Indonesian language – Traffic sign in Indonesia.
2. Chinese language – Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many ethnic groups in China. Nearly 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language, the varieties of Chinese are usually described by native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, but linguists note that they are as diverse as a language family. The internal diversity of Chinese has been likened to that of the Romance languages, There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese, of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin, followed by Wu, Min, and Yue. Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, although some, like Xiang and certain Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms, all varieties of Chinese are tonal and analytic. Standard Chinese is a form of spoken Chinese based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. It is the language of China and Taiwan, as well as one of four official languages of Singapore. It is one of the six languages of the United Nations. The written form of the language, based on the logograms known as Chinese characters, is shared by literate speakers of otherwise unintelligible dialects. Of the other varieties of Chinese, Cantonese is the spoken language and official in Hong Kong and Macau. It is also influential in Guangdong province and much of Guangxi, dialects of Southern Min, part of the Min group, are widely spoken in southern Fujian, with notable variants also spoken in neighboring Taiwan and in Southeast Asia. Hakka also has a diaspora in Taiwan and southeast Asia. Shanghainese and other Wu varieties are prominent in the lower Yangtze region of eastern China, Chinese can be traced back to a hypothetical Sino-Tibetan proto-language. The first written records appeared over 3,000 years ago during the Shang dynasty, as the language evolved over this period, the various local varieties became mutually unintelligible. In reaction, central governments have sought to promulgate a unified standard. Difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, in addition, many of the smaller languages are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult to reach, and are often also sensitive border zones. Without a secure reconstruction of proto-Sino-Tibetan, the structure of the family remains unclear. A top-level branching into Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often assumed, the earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BCE in the late Shang dynastyChinese language – The Tripitaka Koreana, a Korean collection of the Chinese Buddhist canon
3. Riau Islands – Riau Islands Province, is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the principal group of the Riau Archipelago along with other groups to the south. In Indonesian, Riau Islands and Riau Archipelago are synonymous and are distinguished by the word for province, originally part of the Riau province, the Riau Islands were split off as a separate province in September 2002. The island of Batam, which lies within the core group of islands. Since becoming part of a Demilitarized Zone with Singapore in 2006, other highly populated islands in the Riau Archipelago include Bintan and Karimun, while the archipelago also includes islands such as Bulan and Kundur. There are around 3,200 islands in the province, which has its capital at Tanjung Pinang in the south of Bintan Island, the 2015 census count was 1,968,313, less than estimated but nevertheless the second fastest growing province in Indonesia. The language of the Riau Islands is known as Riau Malay, Singapore island, that had been for centuries part of the same greater Malay kingdoms and sultanates, and under direct control of the Sultan of Johor, came under control of the British. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 consolidated this separation, with the British controlling all territories north of the Singapore strait, after the European powers withdrew from the region, the new independent governments had to reorganise and find balance after inheriting 100 years of colonial boundaries. Some level of unity returned in the Riau region for the first time after 150 years, but while bringing back some economical wealth to Riau, the Sijori Growth Triangle somewhat further broke the cultural unity within the islands. However, the upside of this shift is that Batam is more multi-cultural and than how it was before, with a greater potential for better economic. Batam has become an island with a booming tourism sector. There have been attempts at both independence and autonomy for this part of Indonesia since the founding of Indonesia in 1945. The rate of growth of Riau Islands Province in 2005 amounted to 6. 57%. GDP per capita in the Riau Islands province last five years tends to increase, in 2001 GDP per capita amounted to Rp.22.808 million, and in 2005 rose to become of Rp.29,348 million. However, in real terms GDP per capita in 2001 only amounted to Rp.20,397 million, as an island province, 96% of the province is covered with ocean. This condition is very conducive to the development of aquaculture enterprises ranging effort to use seeding cultivation technology, in the Karimun Island, there are snapper fish farming and seaweed cultivation. In Batam, Bintan Regency, Lingga and Natuna also has potential in the field of fisheries. In addition to capture fisheries in four districts were also developed aquaculture sea water, in the city of Batam, precisely in Setoko Island, there is even a grouper hatchery facility capable of producing more than 1 million seeds annuallyRiau Islands – Great Mosque of Batam
4. Indonesia – Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, Java, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is also the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, China, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and InsulindeIndonesia – A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur, c. 800 CE. Indonesian outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
5. Batam – Batam is the largest city of Riau Islands Province of Indonesia as well the name of an island. The city of Batam administrative area covers of several islands, Batam Island is the core urban, both Galang Island and Rempang Island are connected to Batam Island by short bridges, the 3 islands are collectively called Barelang. These latter two islands maintain their character, as does nearby Bulan Island, also administered as part of the municipality. Batam is an industrial boomtown, a transport hub, and part of a free trade zone the Indonesia–Malaysia–Singapore Growth Triangle. The Batam municipality has a population of 1.164.352 in the 2015 intercensal survey and it is the closest part of Indonesia to Singapore, at a minimum land distance of 5.8 km. During the 2010 national Census, Batam was the municipality in Indonesia the decade prior. Batam is an oval island with many bays, islets, and peninsulas, located west of Bintan Island, south of Singapore, north of Rempang and Galang. The Riau Strait separates Batam and Bintan, Batam Municipality covers 3,990 km2, of which 1, 040km2 is land, a figure which includes some land reclamation. However, Barelang Island covers roughly 715 km2 of that 1,040 km2, the bulk of the Municipal population resides on Batam island. Long before it became a boomtown, Batam was backwater of the Riau Archipelago, part of the Johor Sultanate, fishing, maritime trade and piracy were main activities, and the local language and culture was Riau Malay. Batam has a climate with average temperatures between 26 and 32 °C. Humidity on the ranges from 73% to 96%. The wet season spans from November to April, while the dry season is from May to October, the predominant ethnicities are Malays, Javanese, Batak, Minangkabau, and Chinese. As a municipality it exemplifies the motto of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika. The location of Batam close to Singapore is conducive to the development of economic, sociopolitical, in April 2012, Batam had a population of 1,153,860 inhabitants. The population is increasing rapidly, with a growth rate of more than 8% per year between 2001 and 2012. Islam is the majority religion in Batam, with 74. 25% of the population, followed by Christians, Buddhists, and Hinduism. The Great Mosque of Batam, located in the city adjacent to the main square, the mayors officeBatam – Great Mosque of Batam Mayor's Office, Baloi CBD, Nagoya Hill, Raja H. Fisabilillah Road
6. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotationGeographic coordinate system – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.