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Sambuca

Sambuca is an Italian anise-flavoured colourless, liqueur. Its most common variety is referred to as white sambuca to differentiate it from other varieties that are deep blue in colour or bright red. Like other anise-flavoured liqueurs, the ouzo effect is sometimes observed. Sambuca is flavoured with essential oils obtained from star anise, or less green anise. Other spices such as elderflower and others may be included, but are not required as per the legal definition, it is bottled at a minimum of 38% alcohol by volume. The oils are added to pure alcohol, a concentrated solution of sugar, other flavouring; the Oxford English Dictionary states that the term comes from the Latin word sambucus, meaning "elderberry". The word sambuca was first used as the name of another elderberry liquor, created in Civitavecchia about 130 years ago by Luigi Manzi. Sambuca may be served neat, it may be served on the rocks or with water, resulting in the ouzo effect from the anethole in the anise. Like other anise liqueurs, it may be consumed after coffee as an ammazzacaffè or added directly to coffee in place of sugar to produce a caffè corretto.

A serving of sambuca can be a shot with seven coffee beans. A shot with one coffee bean, called con la mosca, which means "with the fly", is as common; the traditional serving is with three coffee beans, each representing health and prosperity. The shot may be ignited to toast the coffee beans with the flame extinguished before drinking. List of anise-flavored liqueurs List of cocktails Media related to Sambuca at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of sambuca at Wiktionary

Constructed action and dialogue

Constructed action and constructed dialogue are pragmatic features of languages where the speaker performs the role of someone else during a conversation or narrative. Metzger defines them as the way people "use their body and eye gaze to report the actions, thoughts and expressions of characters within a discourse". Constructed action is when a speaker performs the actions of someone else in the narrative, while constructed dialogue is when a speaker acts as the other person in a reported dialogue; the difference between constructed action and constructed dialogue in sign language users is an important distinction to make, since signing can be considered an action. Recounting a past dialogue through sign is the communication of that occurrence so therefore it is part of the dialogue whereas the facial expressions and depictions of actions that took place are constructed actions. Constructed action is common cross-linguistically. Constructed action is common in many languages when telling stories or reporting the actions of others.

During a narrative, the speaker not only performs them as well. The actions performed are not the exact actions of the person but an action constructed by the speaker. Liddell gives the example of a speaker patting their pockets when talking about someone having lost their keys. Since the speaker has not lost their own keys, the only reason they would pat their pockets would be to illustrate the story they are telling; the addressee understands these actions not as the speaker's but of a character within the story. In sign languages across the world constructed action is used in a similar way, but is limited in the sense that communication must be continued with the individual's hands; those who use sign language will still have their hands telling the story, but the rest of their body and face will be expressing the actions of another individual in the story. The constructed action is said to start with a break in eye contact and the shifting of the signer's body; the constructed action in sign language adds more information to the story being told in the sense that the words being signed will give a part of the story while the rest of the body and face will tell a reaction or some other component about the individual the story is about.

Due to the added meaning from these bodily movements, constructed action is described as symbolic in sign language. Those who have learned American Sign Language show similar physical motions when using constructed action despite the differences in their education, as well as constructed action not being taught as a standard component in the sign language. Signers do not always define their extra body motions as constructed action, but the similarities to the term's definition as well as the function of the movements connects the two ideas together; the constructed actions are able to convey information in a faster and more efficient way than if they were to be signed out, are useful for faster relay in information. Because of this, constructed action is seen as a way to overcome the impairment that deaf individuals face and streamlines their communication much like people attempt to in spoken language. Constructed dialogue is, it includes role-shifting, directed gaze, body movement. For example, in American Sign Language, a speaker may utilize constructed dialogue by shifting their body to denote different characters and directing their gaze to particular points.

The signs produced are understood as the signing of the character, not of the speaker themselves. Constructed dialogue is used in storytelling, when a speaker recounts the words of another to an audience. Speakers will signal that they are retelling "by changing head and body orientation, as well as gaze direction." Verbal cues like "I said," "I was like," and "he goes," are used to signal that the speaker is retelling an occurrence. Stories are constructed dialogue by themselves, because there is still the act of retelling the story which means it will be altered to some degree by the story teller. Constructed dialogue is common in gossip, is begun with words such as: "Oh" "Like" and "Uh". While used in gossip, constructed dialogue influences how others will interpret the third-party being referenced; because of this, how someone uses constructed dialogue can cause an array of effects to the third-party. For example, the third-party group may be avoided from that point on, or they may be interacted with more.

Constructed dialogue does can be used positively, negatively or anywhere in between. Liddell, Scott. 2003. Grammar and Meaning in American Sign Language, 157–175. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Braga and Emily Talbot. 2009. Constructed Action & Constructed Dialogue and Lexical Variation in Black ASL. Accessed 25 November 2015

Josef Václav Myslbek

Josef Václav Myslbek was a Czech sculptor and medalist credited with founding the modern Czech sculpting style. Josef grew up poor in a suburb of Prague, his family pushed him to become a shoemaker but he shirked the duty by getting a job with a succession of Czech sculptors. There was no school program for sculpting so he studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague instead. Afterwards he opened his own sculpting studio, he became inspired by the French sculpting style as well as related arts such as photography and literature. Josef Václav Myslbek influenced an entire generation of Czech sculptors and his students include Stanislav Sucharda, Jan Štursa and Bohumil Kafka. Myslbek is buried in Prague's National Cemetery. Myslbek's most famous work is the Statue of Saint Wenceslas, located in the center of Wenceslas Square, it took him over 20 years to complete but has since become one of Prague’s most recognizable landmarks and a symbol of Czech statehood. In 1871, Myslbek produced some of his greater works including a commission to do a set of statues for the National Theater.

He would do busts and monuments of several famous Czechs such as Bedřich Smetana and František Palacký. His four pairs of statues for the Palacký Bridge have been relocated to the Vyšehrad: Libuše and Přemysl, depicts Přemysl, the Ploughman and Libuše Lumír and Píseň, depicts Lumír and Píseň Záboj and Slavoj, heroic brothers from the "Rukopis královédvorský" Ctirad and Šárka, characters from The Maidens' War, a traditional Bohemian tale Media related to Josef Václav Myslbek at Wikimedia Commons

El Tanbura

El Tanbura is an Egyptian band, formed in the 1980s. Its performances are based on traditional Egyptian music, featuring the simsimiyya and tanbura instruments. El Tanbura was formed in Port Said in the late 1980s by the organizer, his aim was to revive traditional Egyptian music. In 1989, a small nucleus of veteran performers recruited by Zakaria came together to form the fledgling El Tanbura group, augmented by younger singers. In the formative years, El Rayis Imbabi, one of the group members, was responsible for passing key repertoire from Port Said's past to the younger members. By 1996 the group's reputation had spread to Paris and a series of performances resulted in El Tanbura's first international CD, La Simsimiyya de Port Said, recorded live at Institute Du Monde Arabe. A second disc Between the Desert and the Sea followed a decade as the group began a long association with producer Michael Whitewood and the UK record label 30 IPS; the band performed to both public and critical success at the Barbican's Ramadan Nights festival in 2006 and across mainland Europe in 2007 finding time to collaborate with the film-makers 1 Giant Leap on 2008's "What About Me?"

In 2009, the latest album of El Tanbura, Friends of Bamboute, celebrating the band's 20th anniversary, was published. Early in 2011 the band participated in the Egyptian revolution, campaigning for social and cultural reform in Egypt and performing for the protesters in Cairo's Tahrir Square. Following the Revolution El Tanbura performed at WOMAD Abu Dhabi and returned to London in a show curated for the Barbican featuring the band alongside fellow musical revolutionaries Azza Balba, Mustafa Said and Ramy Essam; the band won the Roskilde Festival World Music Award for Zakaria's El Mastaba Centre for Egyptian Popular Music at WOMEX 2011 in Copenhagen. This instrument is specialized to the people of this region of the Arab world, despite it making appearances in other desert communities as well; the simsimiyya is a five-stringed instrument of the lyre family. The body was made of wood in a bowl/box shape, covered with stretched goat or camel skin; the strings, once various intestinal parts, are now made of wire.

Sometimes a can was used as an "amplifier." The instrument has five strings and is tuned using diatonic notes with a neutral third, minor third, or major third. The minor third is the most common tuning variation; the names of the strings are Buma, Watar and Sararah. The playing is rhythmic, given that there is an emphasis within the group on percussion; the form is predominantly call and response, an appreciative and active audience is expected. The repertoire selectively features songs from a variety of sources: the radio, folk tunes, songs from the Bedouin community; the simsimiyya is a fisherman's instrument. In modern contexts, it has been found in other coastal communities along the Red Sea; the tanbura is a large 6-string lyre. It was used in private healing ceremonies during the 19th century following the Egyptian conquest of Sudan; the Tanbura is similar to the Simsimiyya. However, compared to the Simsimiyya, the strings of the Tanbura are softer and it has the addition of tuning pegs which can expand melodic range and nylon replacing dried animal gut strings, allowing for more refined tuning and intricate performances.

The Tanbura became one of the fundamental instruments of El Tanbura. There are lots of performances with the Tanbura featured on Between the Desert and the Sea, played by Mohamed Shohib; the origins of both instruments are traced in Zakaria Ibrahim's short documentary film called The Siren, which shows at Egyptological events coinciding with El Tanbura tour dates. This first album of El Tanbura was published in 1999; this album was published in 2003. It was the gathering of the band's most requested songs from their weekly concerts at Port Said's Meqma Café, it was produced by the El Mastaba Center for Egyptian Folk Music in Cairo studio. The album material can be found in the soundtrack to Philippe Dib's film El Tanbura: Capturing a vanishing spirit; this is the third album of El Tanbura and was released in 2006. It involved a mix of Sufi verses and sea shanties from antiquity. El Tanbura underpinned; this is the latest album of El Tanbura and was released in 2009. The album was produced to celebrate their two decades as the guardians of simsimiyya.

It was recorded in Cairo and on location in Port Said, recounts tales of the 19th century Bambutiyya merchants who frequented the old-time cafés and smoking dens along the path of the Suez Canal and showcases devotional Sufi songs from the Egyptian Delta. Philosophical Party Music: Rachel Aspden Meets El Tanbura, an Egyptian Group Who Are Adapting Folk Traditions to the Upheaval of their Modern Surroundings. New Statesman. 1996. P. 40. – a description of a performance by El Tanbura in Port Said Ali, Ezzat. Egyptian folk arts: folk literature, music and handicraft, habits and customs. Cairo: Ministry of Information. P. 240. – on the transmission of Egyptian cultural heritage, with descriptions of the instruments used by El Tanbura Latifa, Fahmy. "Egyptian Music: tradition and'New Tradition'". 57: 49–54. Retrieved 2014-11-15. Dalia Said, Mostafa. "Popular Culture and Nationalism in Egypt:'Arab Lotfi and Egyptian Popular Music". Journal for Cultural Research. 16: 261–282. Doi:10.1080/14797585.2012.647673.

– "El Tanbura", El Mastaba Center For Egy

2000 Elite League speedway season

The Elite League is the top division of speedway in the United Kingdom and governed by the Speedway Control Board, in conjunction with the British Speedway Promoters' Association. In 2000, the league decreased to nine teams with the Hull Vikings dropping back down to the Premier League after just one season; the league operated on a standard format without play-offs. Oxford v Belle Vue not held; the 2000 Elite League Knockout Cup was the 62nd edition of the Knockout Cup for tier one teams. King's Lynn Stars were the winners of the competition. List of United Kingdom Speedway League Champions british-speedway.co.uk - Official league tables

SS Illinois (1873)

SS Illinois was an iron passenger-cargo steamship built by William Cramp & Sons in 1873. The last of a series of four Pennsylvania-class vessels and her three sister ships—Pennsylvania and Indiana—were the largest iron ships built in the United States at the time of their construction, amongst the first to be fitted with compound steam engines, they were the first ships to challenge British dominance of the transatlantic trade since the American Civil War. Though soon outclassed by newer and larger vessels, Illinois was destined to enjoy a long and distinguished career, first as a transatlantic passenger liner and as the U. S. Navy's auxiliary vessel USS Supply. In the 1870s, Illinois may have been the first ship to transport a shipment of fresh meat from the United States to Europe, twenty years before the introduction of refrigeration; as USS Supply, the ship served in both the Spanish–American War and the First World War, crew members may have been the first United States personnel to fire a hostile shot in the latter.

Illinois was scrapped in 1928. The four Pennsylvania class liners were constructed at a cost of $520,000 each by William Cramp & Sons on behalf of the American Steamship Company, a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company; the Railroad intended to utilize the vessels to bring European immigrants direct to Philadelphia, thus ensuring the company a steady stream of customers. In recognition of this purpose, the four ships—Pennsylvania, Indiana and Ohio—were named after the four states serviced by the Railroad. Design of the ships was entrusted to Charles H. Cramp of the Cramp & Sons shipyard, Barnabas H. Bartol, a director of the ASC. At 3,000 gross tons apiece, the ships were 1,000 tons larger than any iron ship constructed in the United States, Cramp & Sons was forced to undertake a substantial upgrade of its facilities to complete them; the company established an new shipyard for construction of the vessels, serviced by its own blacksmith, engine and carpentry shops, as well as providing it with a 700-foot outfitting wharf.

Cost of the real estate alone was in excess of $265,000, Cramp & Sons was obliged to incorporate as the William Cramp & Sons Engine and Ship Building Company in order to limit the financial risk involved. Fortuitously, Cramp & Sons had only built its first compound marine steam engine, the shipyard was able to install the vessels with the latest in engine technology; the original contract called for Pennsylvania to be completed by January 1, 1873, but the schedule proved optimistic. A short-lived shipbuilding boom in the early 1870s made it difficult for the Cramp shipyard to obtain iron plates and other materials, the yard was affected by shortages of skilled labor; as a result, the ship would not be ready for delivery until a year later. Illinois was launched in June 1873, she commenced her maiden voyage on January 23, 1874 on the Philadelphia–Queenstown–Liverpool route, a route she would maintain for the next twelve years. Like her sister ships Pennsylvania and Ohio, Illinois had an eventful first year of operation.

In April 1874, she was making her way down the Delaware River when, just opposite the Philadelphia Naval Yard, she encountered four canal boats coming in the opposite direction. Illinois promptly sank all four vessels in short order. No lives were lost, the hull of Illinois was undamaged by the collisions, enabling her to continue the voyage to Liverpool. After the wooden bridge of Illinois' sister ship Pennsylvania was destroyed in an 1874 hurricane, a new iron bridge was installed on all four of the Pennsylvania class vessels. In 1875, a decision was made to increase the first class complement of all Pennsylvania class vessels from 75 to 100. With the American Line struggling to turn a profit in the wake of the 1873 financial panic, the company decided to experiment with some novel exports. A glut of peaches in the summer of 1875 encouraged the company to try and export some of the surplus fruit to Great Britain on the Ohio, but the experiment was a costly failure. Undeterred, the company next tried a shipment of fresh meat.

Illinois was loaded with 30 head of dressed beef, 140 sheep carcasses and some poultry and oysters for a November 1875 voyage. A high pressure engine was installed to circulate a current of cold air chilled by eight tons of ice; this time the ice lasted through the voyage, the meat arrived in Liverpool in excellent condition, encouraging the client, Fuller & Company, to make a second shipment of 100 head of dressed beef. These may have been the first successful shipments of fresh meat from the United States to Europe, but another twenty years would pass before the invention of refrigeration made regular, reliable shipments possible. In 1882, the wooden pilothouse in the bow of all four Pennsylvania class ships was replaced with an iron one for safety reasons. In 1883–84, inspections revealed that all four Pennsylvania class ships required immediate maintenance to their hulls, which needed strengthening; the repairs were carried out at a cost of $25,000 per vessel, but the additional costs contributed to the Pennsylvania Railroad's decision to wind up the American Steamship Company, which because of the after effects of the 1873 panic had always struggled to make a profit.

With the demise of the ASC, Illinois and her three sister ships were transferred to management of the PRR's other shipping line, the Red Star Line, but Illinois continued to service her familiar Liverpool–Philadelphia route until 1886. Her last such voyage commenced July 7 of that year. On December 17, she began the first of twenty crossings on the Antwerp–New York route. Illinois had a major refit in 1891 with the installation o