Taraba is a state in North Eastern Nigeria, named after the Taraba River which traverses the southern part of the state. Taraba's capital is Jalingo; the state was created out of the former Gongola State on 27 August 1991, by the military government of General Ibrahim Babangida. Taraba State is bounded in the west by Nasarawa State and Benue State, northwest by Plateau State, north by Bauchi State and Gombe State, northeast by Adamawa State and south by Cameroon. Taraba State lies within the middle of Nigeria and consists of undulating landscape dotted with a few mountainous features; these include the prominent Mambilla Plateau. The state lies within the tropical zone and has a vegetation of low forest in the southern part and grassland in the northern part; the Mambilla Plateau with an altitude of 1,800 meters above sea level has a temperate climate all year round. The Benue, Donga and Ibi are the main rivers in the state, they rise from the Cameroonian mountains, straining the entire length of the state in the North and South direction to link up with the River Niger.
Taraba State consists of sixteen Local Government Areas. They are governed by elected chairmen, they are as follows: The major occupation of the people of Taraba State is agriculture. Cash crops produced in the state include coffee, tea and cotton. Crops such as maize, sorghum, millet and yam are produced in commercial quantity. In addition, cattle and goats are reared in large numbers on the Mambilla Plateau, along the Benue and Taraba valleys; the people undertake other livestock production activities like poultry production, rabbit breeding and pig farming in large scale. Communities living on the banks of River Benue, River Taraba, River Donga and Ibi engage in fishing all year round. Other occupational activities such as pottery, cloth-weaving, mat-making, carving and blacksmithing are carried out in various parts of the State; the government has made concerted efforts to improve areas of tourist attractions like Mambilla Tourist Center, Gumpti Park and game reserve in Gashaka. Other festivals are Purma of the Chamba in Donga and jibu culture dance in Bali, the Puje of Jukuns, Kuchecheb of Kutebs in Takum and Ussa, Kati of the Mambilla and host of others.
Taraba is called "Nature's gift to the nation" as the state is rich and have many ethnic groups, including Jenjo, Kuteb Chamba, Mumuyes, Wurkums, Jukun, Tiv, Panso, Wawa, Tikari and Ndola. A striking historical fact about the State is that it encompasses part of the Mambilla Region, famed as the Bantu cradle, having been occupied for some five millennia to date. Official website Nigerian Post Office- with map of LGAs of the state
A touchdown is a scoring play in both American and Canadian football. Whether running, returning a kickoff or punt, or recovering a turnover, a team scores a touchdown by advancing the ball into the opponent's end zone. To score a touchdown, one team must take the football into the opposite end zone. In all gridiron codes, the touchdown is scored the instant the ball touches or "breaks" the plane of the goal line while in possession of a player whose team is trying to score in that end zone; this particular requirement of the touchdown is the exact opposite of the prerequisite to score most sports in which points are scored by moving a ball or equivalent object into a goal where the whole of the relevant object must cross the whole of the goal line for a score to be awarded. The play is dead and the touchdown scores the moment the ball touches plane in possession of a player, or the moment the ball comes into possession of an offensive player in the end zone; the slightest part of the ball touching or being directly over the goal line is sufficient for a touchdown to score.
However, only the ball counts, not a player's foot, or any other part of the body. Touching one of the pylons at either end of the goal line with the ball constitutes "breaking the plane" as well. Touchdowns are scored by the offense by running or passing the ball; the former is called a rushing touchdown, in the latter, the quarterback throws a touchdown pass or passing touchdown to the receiver, who makes a touchdown reception. However, the defense can score a touchdown if they have recovered a fumble or made an interception and return it to the opposing end zone. Special teams can score a touchdown on a kickoff or punt return, or on a return after a missed or blocked field goal attempt or blocked punt. In short, any play in which a player carries the ball across the goal line scores a touchdown, the manner in which he gained possession is inconsequential. In the NFL, a touchdown may be awarded by the referee as a penalty for a "palpably unfair act," such as a player coming off the bench during a play and tackling the runner, who would otherwise have scored.
A touchdown is worth six points. The scoring team is awarded the opportunity for an extra point or a two-point conversion. Afterwards, the team that scored the touchdown kicks off to the opposing team, if there is any time left. Unlike a try scored in rugby, contrary to the event's name, the ball does not need to touch the ground when the player and the ball are inside the end zone; the term touchdown is a holdover from gridiron's early days when the ball was required to be touched to the ground as in rugby, as rugby and gridiron were still similar sports at this point. This rule was changed to the modern-day iteration in 1889; when the first uniform rules for American football were enacted by the newly formed Intercollegiate Football Association following the 1876 Rugby season, a touchdown counted for 1⁄4 of a kicked goal and allowed the offense the chance to kick for goal by placekick or dropkick from a spot along a line perpendicular to the goal line and passing through the point where the ball was touched down, or through a process known as a "punt-out", where the attacking team would kick the ball from the point where it was touched down to a teammate.
If the teammate could fair catch the ball, he could follow with a try for goal from the spot of the catch, or resume play as normal. The governing rule at the time read: "A match shall be decided by a majority of touchdowns. A goal shall be equal to four touchdowns. In 1881, the rules were modified so that a goal kicked from a touchdown took precedence over a goal kicked from the field in breaking ties. In 1882, four touchdowns were determined to take precedence over a goal kicked from the field. Two safeties were equivalent to a touchdown. In 1883, points were introduced to football, a touchdown counted as four points. A goal after a touchdown counted as four points. In 1889, the provision requiring the ball to be touched to the ground was removed. A touchdown was now scored by possessing the ball beyond the goal line. In 1897, the touchdown scored five points, the goal after touchdown added another point. In 1900, the definition of touchdown was changed to include situations where the ball becomes dead on or above the goal line.
In 1912, the value of a touchdown was increased to six points. The end zone was added. Before the addition of the end zone, forward passes caught beyond the goal line resulted in a loss of possession and a touchback; the increase from five points to six did not come until much in Canada, the touchdown remained only five points there until 1956. In addition, the score continued to be called a try in Canada until the second half of the twentieth century; the ability to score a touchdown on the point-after attempt was added to NCAA football in 1958, high school football in 1969, the CFL in 1975 and the NFL in 1994. The short-lived World Football League, a professional American football league that operated in 1974 and 1975, gave touchdowns a 7-point value. American football scoring Conversion Touchdown celebration Touchdown Jesus Touchdown pass Conversion
Marty Simpson (comedian)
Martin Sherard "Marty, Simpson is an American comedian, actor and motivational speaker from Columbia, South Carolina Marty was featured in World Magazine in the summer of 2011.. He is a notable performer in the genre of Christian Comedy. While playing football in high school, Marty set 3 different State Records. All in the field goal kicking category; the first, in 1988, was a record tying 57 yard field goal. In 1989, Marty converted 55 P. A. T.'s in a row. In October 1989, he broke his tied record of 57 yards with a 61-yard field goal versus Hilcrest of Dazel; the Spring Valley Vikings won the AAAA State Championship 3 to 0 versus Gaffney on a 27-yard field goal, by Simpson, in overtime on the last play of the game. Before Marty's senior season, he was named a pre-season Street and Smith's first team All-American place-kicker. Marty became the first South Carolinian to be named USA Today first team All-USA at the end of his senior season; the second All-USA selection from South Carolina was Derwin Jeffcoat, a teammate of Simpson's at the University of South Carolina.
Marty was named to Parade Magazine's first team selections at the end of the season. After reviewing more than 40 full scholarship offers from Division 1 schools, Marty decided to stay home and play football for the University of South Carolina for rookie head coach Sparky Woods. In 1992, Marty became the first Gamecock to score points in the Southeastern Conference. Simpson's 26 yard field goal versus Georgia in the first quarter of the inaugural S. E. C. Game gave the Gamecocks the lead 3 to 0; the Gamecocks would go on to lose that ball game 28 to 6. This little known fact was errantly reported in a book chronicling the 100-year history of South Carolina football; the error was a mistake on the author's part, crediting the first points in the S. E. C. to a player named a name that never played for South Carolina. Before being a stand-up comedian, Marty coached at Ben Lippen School in Columbia, South Carolina, where he served as N. F. L. Veteran, Samkon Gado's head coach. Marty was featured in a World Magazine article in the summer of 2011.
Marty's comedy career break came in February 2009 when Black Entertainment Television hosted an open call audition for a new television series called "A Time to Laugh." Marty was the only Caucasian Comedian chosen for the show. The show taped in March 2009 and was slated to air sometime in late spring or early summer of 2009, but new information suggests that the show will be a part of B. E. T.'s January 2010 new line-up. Marty was featured as one of 30 stand-up comedians to perform and was in 6 comedy sketches which will air as parts of other episodes. Marty was a popular blogger/author for the Rivals.com affiliate site www. GamecockCentral.com. His articles were a mix of satire football observations as well as hard-core chalk-talk style break-down articles. An example of one of those articles can be found at www. GamecockCentral.com. Marty's DVD "Clean if it Kills Me" drew critical acclaim upon its release in the late spring of 2014 from Christian Media outlets like www. ChristianPost.com and other various Christian television shows.
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
Training camp (National Football League)
In the National Football League, training camp refers to the time before the season commences. During this time, teams will sometimes congregate at an outside location a university, to conduct training camp for at least the first few weeks; this is similar to baseball's spring training. Training camp is used in several different ways. New players and coaches use it to acclimate themselves to new systems. For younger players, it serves as a period of evaluation. Training camp is divided into several different components; the first is scrimmages. These are pseudo-games. Sometimes, two practice sessions are held on the same day; this concept is referred to as two-a-days. Other parts of training camp include drills, meetings with coaches and other players at one's position, weight training, pre-season games; the latter half of training camp leads directly into the exhibition season. With NFL training camps starting in late-July, the biggest concern has been dehydration. In 2001, Minnesota Vikings player Korey Stringer died of a medical condition based from dehydration and heatstroke.
The death of Stringer prompted the NFL to change their training policies. At each practice, every team must have the team doctor and trainers on the field. With NFL training camps beginning in late July, severe weather can affect practice and exhibition games. In 2002, a Cleveland Browns exhibition game ended due to lightning near Cleveland Browns Stadium, severe storms have been known to disrupt training camps. Fans are able to visit their favorite team's training camp to catch an early look at the players. NFL teams sell souvenirs and concessions at camp sites along with offering activities and events to make training camp a more fan-friendly experience. Official NFL training camps should be distinguished from private training camps for certain tactics or positions; the NFL has let teams have off-season training sessions called "organized team activities". Many teams use the OTAs to help make them better; these training sessions are in early June. The OTAs are the only practices between the end of the previous season and the start of training camp.
Players new to the NFL lectures organized by the NFL from mid-June to mid-July. For veteran players, they use the off-time to sponsor football camps for children, golf outings for charity, or some family time. Unlike Major League Baseball spring training, where teams congregate at locations in two states, NFL teams train all over the United States. However, an increasing number of teams do so in the same facilities at which they practice all year long - 19 teams in 2014, 20 in 2015, up from five in 2000. Most teams have abandoned remote locations to "come home" for training camp for practicality reasons. Many clubs have constructed state-of-the-art practice facilities, replete with amenities that can not be provided or matched at other distant locations Most if not all of these new team practice facilities were in fact designed with hosting training camp in mind, they are able to accommodate the expanded training camp roster sizes. In addition, the cost of temporarily relocating and accommodating the entire team organization to another location is substantial.
The attitudes about how to run training camp have evolved - leading more teams to stay home. With Organized Team Activities, mini-camps, conditioning during the off-season, players remain in top physical shape year-round; the focus of training camp is no longer getting players back in shape, but more of fostering camaraderie. For example, the Lions' camp was long held at Saginaw Valley State College, the Broncos trained at the University of Northern Colorado, the Patriots at Bryant University in Smithfield, Rhode Island, the Redskins moved in from Dickinson College, the former site of Carlisle Indian School. Tampa Bay used to train at the University of Tampa at the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex before moving permanently back to their headquarters. After many years on the road, the Jets and the Giants both moved back to team headquarters. There are still a handful of teams that use somewhat distant locations at the fringes of their markets to promote their team. For instance, the Buffalo Bills moved their training camp from SUNY Fredonia to Saint John Fisher College in suburban Rochester.
The Dallas Cowboys have hosted their training camp in locales distant from their home market before they were given the moniker "America's Team" in the late 1970s. The Cowboys' arrangement with Oxnard ended when the Los Angeles Rams returned to southern California and the Cowboys constructed a conside
In team sports, captain is a title given to a member of the team. The title is honorary, but in some cases the captain may have significant responsibility for strategy and teamwork while the game is in progress on the field. In either case, it is a position that indicates honor and respect from one's teammates – recognition as a leader by one's peers. In association football and cricket, a captain is known as a skipper. Depending on the sport, team captains may be given the responsibility of interacting with game officials regarding application and interpretation of the rules. In many team sports, the captains represent their respective teams when the match official does the coin toss at the beginning of the game. Various sports have differing responsibilities for team captains; some of the greatest captains in history are the ones with the most subtle of traits that are required for success. From Sam Walker in his book "The Captain Class" he states that a captain is "the most important factor for a team's success".
The responsibilities of a captain vary from sport to sport. In sports like cricket or volleyball, the decision for the two teams to be on either defense or offense is determined with a coin toss and a decision made by the captains; this decision is crucial for the captain because they will decide the beginning of the game and quite how it all plays out. A captain is the first one a referee looks to while explaining the results of a play or giving a foul, or flag. Oftentimes a referee will not discuss these matters with any other player than a coach; this is important because the reaction of the captain may or may not determine how the referee will proceed. A captain must stay calm and cool headed when talking with a referee to ensure the most accurate determinants of the game. Manager Captain Captain Captain Captain Captain
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original