Sammy Davis Jr.

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Sammy Davis Jr.
Sammy Davis Jr 1989 (cropped).jpg
Davis in 1989
Born Samuel George Davis Jr.
(1925-12-08)December 8, 1925
Harlem, New York, United States
Died May 16, 1990(1990-05-16) (aged 64)
Beverly Hills, California, United States
Cause of death Throat cancer
Resting place Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale, California
Occupation
  • Singer
  • dancer
  • actor
  • comedian
Years active 1928–1990
Spouse(s)
Children 4
Parent(s)
Website www.sammydavis-jr.com
Musical career
Genres
Instruments
  • Vocals
  • piano
  • drums
Labels
Associated acts

Samuel George Davis Jr. (December 8, 1925 – May 16, 1990) was an American singer, dancer, actor and comedian. He was noted for his impressions of actors, musicians and other celebrities. At the age of three, Davis began his career in vaudeville with his father and Will Mastin as the Will Mastin Trio, which toured nationally. After military service, Davis returned to the trio. Davis became an overnight sensation following a nightclub performance at Ciro's (in West Hollywood) after the 1951 Academy Awards. With the trio, he became a recording artist. In 1954, he lost his left eye in a car accident, and several years later, he converted to Judaism.[1]

Davis's film career began as a child in 1933. In 1960, he appeared in the Rat Pack film Ocean's 11. After a starring role on Broadway in Mr Wonderful (1956), he returned to the stage in 1964's Golden Boy. In 1966 he had his own TV variety show, titled The Sammy Davis Jr. Show. Davis's career slowed in the late 1960s, but he had a hit record with "The Candy Man" in 1972 and became a star in Las Vegas, earning him the nickname "Mister Show Business".[2][3]

Davis was a victim of racism throughout his life, particularly during the pre-Civil Rights era, and was a large financial supporter of the Civil Rights Movement. Davis had a complex relationship with the black community, and drew criticism after publicly supporting President Richard Nixon in 1972 (although he later returned to being a Democrat). One day on a golf course with Jack Benny, he was asked what his handicap was. "Handicap?" he asked. "Talk about handicap. I'm a one-eyed Negro Jew."[4][5] This was to become a signature comment, recounted in his autobiography, and in countless articles.[6]

After reuniting with Sinatra and Dean Martin in 1987, Davis toured with them and Liza Minnelli internationally, before he died of throat cancer in 1990. He died in debt to the Internal Revenue Service,[7] and his estate was the subject of legal battles.[8] Davis was awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP and was nominated for a Golden Globe Award and an Emmy Award for his television performances. He was the recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 1987, and in 2001, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

Early life[edit]

Davis, Jr. was born on December 8, 1925, in the Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City, the son of entertainer and stage performer, Sammy Davis Sr. (1900–1988), an African-American entertainer, and Elvera Sanchez (1905–2000),[9] an Afro-Cuban tap dancer. During his lifetime, Davis stated that his mother was Puerto Rican and born in San Juan. However, in the 2003 biography In Black and White, author Wil Haygood writes that Davis's mother was born in New York City to parents of Cuban, Afro-Cuban, and African-American descent, and that Davis claimed he was Puerto Rican because he feared anti-Cuban backlash would hurt his record sales.[10][11][12] Davis's parents were vaudeville dancers. As an infant, he was reared by his paternal grandmother. When he was three years old, his parents separated. His father, not wanting to lose custody of his son, took him on tour.

Davis learned to dance from his father and his "uncle" Will Mastin. Davis joined the act as a child and they became the Will Mastin Trio. Throughout his career, Davis included the Will Mastin Trio in his billing. Mastin and his father shielded him from racism, such as by explaining race-based snubs as jealousy. However, when Davis served in the United States Army during World War II, he was confronted by strong prejudice. He later said: "Overnight the world looked different. It wasn't one color any more. I could see the protection I'd gotten all my life from my father and Will. I appreciated their loving hope that I'd never need to know about prejudice and hate, but they were wrong. It was as if I'd walked through a swinging door for 18 years, a door which they had always secretly held open."[13] At age 7 Davis played the title role in the film Rufus Jones for President, in which he sang and danced with Ethel Waters.[citation needed] He lived for several years in Boston's South End, and reminisced years later about "hoofing and singing" at Izzy Ort's Bar & Grille.[14]

Career[edit]

Sammy Davis Jr. during the 1963 March on Washington

During service in World War II, the Army assigned Davis to an integrated entertainment Special Services unit and he found that the spotlight lessened the prejudice. Even prejudiced white men admired and respected his performances. "My talent was the weapon, the power, the way for me to fight. It was the one way I might hope to affect a man's thinking," he said.[15] After his discharge, Davis rejoined the family dance act, which played at clubs around Portland, Oregon. He also recorded blues songs for Capitol Records in 1949, under the pseudonyms Shorty Muggins and Charlie Green.[16]

On March 23, 1951, the Will Mastin Trio appeared at Ciro's as the opening act for headliner Janis Paige. They were to perform for only 20 minutes but the reaction from the celebrity-filled crowd was so enthusiastic, especially when Davis launched into his impressions, that they performed for nearly an hour, and Paige insisted the order of the show be flipped.[17] Davis began to achieve success on his own and was singled out for praise by critics, releasing several albums.[18] He was hired to sing the title song for the Universal Pictures film Six Bridges to Cross in 1954.[19][20] In 1956, he starred in the Broadway musical Mr. Wonderful .

In 1959, Davis became a member of the Rat Pack, led by his friend Frank Sinatra, which included fellow performers Dean Martin, Joey Bishop, and Peter Lawford, a brother-in-law of John F. Kennedy. Initially, Sinatra called the gathering "the Clan", but Davis voiced his opposition, saying that it reminded people of the Ku Klux Klan. Sinatra renamed the group "the Summit". One long night of poker that went on into the early morning saw the men drunken and disheveled. As Angie Dickinson approached the group, she said, "You all look like a pack of rats." The nickname caught on, and they were called the Rat Pack, the name of its earlier incarnation led by Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall, who originally made the remark of the "pack of rats" about the group around her husband Bogart.

The group around Sinatra made several movies together, including Ocean's 11 (1960), Sergeants 3 (1962), and Robin and the 7 Hoods (1964), and they performed onstage together in Las Vegas.

Davis was a headliner at The Frontier Casino in Las Vegas, but he was required (as were all black performers in the 1950s) to lodge in a rooming house on the west side of the city, instead of in the hotels as his white colleagues did. No dressing rooms were provided for black performers, and they had to wait outside by the swimming pool between acts. Davis and other black artists could entertain but could not stay at the hotels where they performed, gamble in the casinos, or dine or drink in the hotel restaurants and bars. Davis later refused to work at places which practiced racial segregation.[21]

Sammy Davis Jr. (left) with Walter Reuther (center) and Roy Wilkins (right) at the 1963 March on Washington

In 1964, Davis was starring in Golden Boy at night and shooting his own New York-based afternoon talk show during the day. When he could get a day off from the theater, he recorded songs in the studio, performed at charity events in Chicago, Miami, or Las Vegas, or appeared on television variety specials in Los Angeles. Davis felt he was cheating his family of his company, but he said he was incapable of standing still.

Although he was still popular in Las Vegas, he saw his musical career decline by the late 1960s. He had a No. 11 hit (No. 1 on the Easy Listening singles chart) with "I've Gotta Be Me" in 1969. He signed with Motown to update his sound and appeal to young people.[22] His deal to have his own label with the company fell through. He had an unexpected No. 1 hit with "The Candy Man" with MGM Records in 1972. He did not particularly care for the song and was chagrined that he had become known for it, but Davis made the most of his opportunity and revitalized his career.

Although he enjoyed no more Top 40 hits, he did enjoy popularity with his 1976 performance of the theme song from the Baretta television series, "Baretta's Theme (Keep Your Eye on the Sparrow)" (1975–1978), which was released as a single (20th Century Records). He appeared on the television shows The Rifleman, I Dream of Jeannie, All in the Family (during which he famously kisses Archie Bunker (Carroll O'Connor) on the cheek), and Charlie's Angels (with his wife, Altovise Davis). He appeared in Japanese commercials for Suntory whiskey in the 1970s.

Davis performing in 1966.

On December 11, 1967, NBC broadcast a musical-variety special featuring Nancy Sinatra, daughter of Frank Sinatra, titled Movin' with Nancy. In addition to the Emmy Award-winning musical performances, the show is notable for Nancy Sinatra and Davis greeting each other with a kiss, one of the first black-white kisses in U.S. television.[23]

Davis had a friendship with Elvis Presley in the late 1960s, as they both were top-draw acts in Vegas at the same time. Davis was in many ways just as reclusive during his hotel gigs as Elvis was, holding parties mainly in his penthouse suite which Elvis occasionally attended. Davis sang a version of Presley's song "In the Ghetto" and made a cameo appearance in Presley's concert film Elvis: That's the Way It Is. One year later, he made a cameo appearance in the James Bond film Diamonds Are Forever, but the scene was cut. In Japan, Davis appeared in television commercials for coffee, and in the United States he joined Sinatra and Martin in a radio commercial for a Chicago car dealership.

On May 27–28, 1973, Davis hosted (with Monty Hall) the first annual, 20-hour Highway Safety Foundation telethon. Guests included Muhammad Ali, Paul Anka, Jack Barry, Dr. Joyce Brothers, Ray Charles, Dick Clark, Roy Clark, Howard Cosell, Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee, Joe Franklin, Cliff Gorman, Richie Havens, Danny Kaye,[24] Jerry Lewis, Hal Linden, Rich Little, Butterfly McQueen, Minnie Pearl, Boots Randolph, Tex Ritter, Phil Rizzuto, The Rockettes, Nipsey Russell, Sally Struthers, Mel Tillis, Ben Vereen, and Lawrence Welk. It was a financial disaster. The total amount of pledges was $1.2 million. Actual pledges received were $525,000.[25]

Davis was a huge fan of daytime television, particularly the soap operas produced by the American Broadcasting Company. He made a cameo appearance on General Hospital and had a recurring role as Chip Warren on One Life to Live, for which he received a 1980 Daytime Emmy Award nomination. He was also a game show fan, appearing on Family Feud in 1979 and Tattletales with his third wife, Altovise Davis, in the 1970s.

Davis was an avid photographer who enjoyed shooting pictures of family and acquaintances. His body of work was detailed in a 2007 book by Burt Boyar titled Photo by Sammy Davis, Jr.[26] "Jerry [Lewis] gave me my first important camera, my first 35 millimeter, during the Ciro's period, early '50s," Boyar quotes Davis. "And he hooked me." Davis used a medium format camera later on to capture images. Boyar reports that Davis had said, "Nobody interrupts a man taking a picture to ask ... 'What's that nigger doin' here?'" His catalog includes rare photos of his father dancing onstage as part of the Will Mastin Trio and intimate snapshots of close friends Jerry Lewis, Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra, James Dean, Nat "King" Cole, and Marilyn Monroe. His political affiliations also were represented, in his images of Robert Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr. His most revealing work comes in photographs of wife May Britt and their three children, Tracey, Jeff and Mark.

Davis was an enthusiastic shooter and gun owner. He participated in fast-draw competitions. Johnny Cash recalled that Davis was said to be capable of drawing and firing a Colt Single Action Army revolver in less than a quarter of a second.[27] Davis was skilled at fast and fancy gunspinning and appeared on television variety shows showing off this skill. He also demonstrated gunspinning to Mark on The Rifleman in "Two Ounces of Tin." He appeared in Western films and as a guest star on several television Westerns.

Personal life[edit]

Accident and conversion[edit]

Davis nearly died in an automobile accident on November 19, 1954, in San Bernardino, California, as he was making a return trip from Las Vegas to Los Angeles.[28] During the previous year, he had started a friendship with comedian and host Eddie Cantor, who had given him a mezuzah. Instead of putting it by his door as a traditional blessing, Davis wore it around his neck for good luck. The only time he forgot it was the night of the accident.[29] The accident occurred at a fork in U.S. Route 66 at Cajon Boulevard and Kendall Drive (34°12′26″N 117°23′08″W / 34.2072°N 117.3855°W / 34.2072; -117.3855).[30] Davis lost his left eye to the bullet-shaped horn button (a standard feature in 1954 and 1955 Cadillacs) as a result. His friend, actor Jeff Chandler, said he would give one of his own eyes if it would keep Davis from total blindness.[31] Davis wore an eye patch for at least six months following the accident.[32][33] He was featured with the patch on the cover of his debut album and appeared on What's My Line? wearing the patch (March 13, 1955).[34] Later, he was fitted for a glass eye, which he wore for the rest of his life.

Eddie Cantor talked to Davis in the hospital about the similarities between the Jewish and black cultures. Davis, who was born to a Catholic mother and Protestant father, began studying the history of Jews. He converted to Judaism several years later in 1961.[4][35] One passage from his readings (from the book A History of The Jews by Abram L. Sachar), describing the endurance of the Jewish people, interested him in particular: "The Jews would not die. Three millennia of prophetic teaching had given them an unwavering spirit of resignation and had created in them a will to live which no disaster could crush."[36] The accident marked a turning point in Davis's career, taking him from a well-known entertainer to a national celebrity.[37]

Marriages[edit]

In 1957, Davis was involved with Kim Novak, a young, white actress under contract with Columbia Pictures. Harry Cohn, the president of Columbia, worried that their relationship would have a negative effect on the studio due to their racial difference. He called his friend John Roselli, who was told to inform Davis that he must stop seeing Novak. To try to scare Davis, Roselli had him kidnapped for a few hours. Davis's quick, brief marriage to black dancer Loray White in 1958 was an attempt to quiet the controversy.[38] A BBC documentary in 2014 said that Cohn arranged for Davis to be threatened with the loss of his other eye or a broken leg if he didn't marry a black woman within two days. At the wedding with Loray White, Davis became so inebriated that he had to be helped into bed by his friend, Arthur Silber. Checking on him later, Silber found Davis with a gun to his head. The marriage was never consummated.

Davis had offered to pay White $10,000 to enter into a fake marriage.[39] In 1960, Davis caused controversy again when he married white, Swedish-born actress May Britt. Davis received hate mail while starring in the Broadway adaptation of Golden Boy during 1964–1966 (for which he received a Tony Award nomination for Best Actor). At the time Davis appeared in the play, interracial marriages were forbidden by law in 31 states (but were legal in New York), and only in 1967 were those laws ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States.[40] Davis and Britt had one daughter, Tracey, and adopted two sons.[1]

Davis performed almost continuously and spent little time with his wife. They divorced in 1968, after Davis admitted to having had an affair with singer Lola Falana. That year, Davis started dating Altovise Gore, a dancer in Golden Boy. They were married on May 11, 1970, by the Reverend Jesse Jackson. Kathy McKee replaced Altovise in Davis's nightclub act. They adopted a son, Manny, in 1989. Davis and Altovise remained married until his death in 1990.

Political beliefs[edit]

Sammy Davis Jr. in the Yellow Oval Room of the White House with President Richard Nixon, March 4, 1973

Davis was a registered Democrat and supported John F. Kennedy's 1960 election campaign as well as Robert F. Kennedy's 1968 campaign.[41] However, he became a close friend of President Richard Nixon and publicly endorsed him at the 1972 Republican National Convention.[41] Davis also made a USO tour to South Vietnam at Nixon's request. Previously, Davis had won Nixon's respect with his participation in the Civil Rights Movement.

Nixon invited Davis and his wife, Altovise, to sleep in the White House in 1973, the first time African-Americans were invited to do so. The Davises spent the night in the Queens' Bedroom.[42] Davis later said he regretted supporting Nixon, accusing Nixon of making promises on civil rights that he did not keep.[43] Davis was a long-time donor to the Reverend Jesse Jackson's Operation PUSH organization.[44]

Cancer and death[edit]

Grave of Sammy Davis Jr. in the Garden of Honor, Forest Lawn Glendale

In August 1989, doctors found a tumor in Davis' throat. Davis died in Beverly Hills, California, on May 16, 1990, aged 64, of complications from throat cancer.[45] Earlier, when he was told that surgery (laryngectomy) offered him the best chance of survival, Davis replied he would rather keep his voice than have a part of his throat removed; he subsequently was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation.[46] However, a few weeks prior to his death, his entire larynx was removed during surgery.[12] Davis had often smoked four packs of cigarettes a day as an adult.[47] He was interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park. On May 18, 1990, two days after Davis's death, the neon lights of the Las Vegas Strip were darkened for 10 minutes as a tribute to him.

Legacy[edit]

Sammy's youngest son, Manny Davis, is the executor of his estate, as well as the majority rights holder of his intellectual property.

Manny Davis also worked with Josh Elliot and the commissioners of Clark County in Las Vegas to name a street after Sammy. The Sammy Davis, Jr. Drive intersects with both Dean Martin Drive and Frank Sinatra Drive.[citation needed]

Portrayals[edit]

Impersonations[edit]

  • Comedian Eddie Griffin has made his impersonation of Davis a major part of his act.
  • Midwest radio personality Kevin Matthews impersonated Sammy Davis, Jr. many times on his radio show.

Other[edit]

  • On later episodes of The Cosby Show, Cliff Huxtable (Bill Cosby) wore an "SDjr" pin as a tribute to Davis, who, in its 5th season, made a guest appearance in the episode "No Way, Baby" (1989).
  • A black-and-white portrait of Davis, drawn by Jim Blanchard, adorns the cover of avant-garde rock band Oxbow's second album King of the Jews (1991).
  • "Sammy" is a song dedicated to Davis on the 1997 Gwar album Carnival of Chaos.
  • Actor Phaldut Sharma created the comedy web-series I Gotta Be Me (2015), following a frustrated soap star as he performs as Sammy in a Rat Pack tribute show.[49]
  • In January 2017, Davis's estate joined the producing team led by Lionel Richie, Lorenzo di Bonaventura and Mike Menchel to make a movie based on Davis’ extraordinary life and show-biz career.[50]

Discography[edit]

Honors and awards[edit]

Grammy Awards[edit]

Year 2018 Category Song Result Notes
2002 Grammy Hall of Fame Award "What Kind of Fool Am I?" Inducted Recorded in 1962
2001 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award Winner
1972 Pop Male Vocalist "Candy Man" Nominee
1962 Record of the Year "What Kind of Fool Am I?" Nominee
1962 Male Solo Vocal Performance "What Kind of Fool Am I?" Nominee

Emmy Awards[edit]

Year Category Program Result
1990 Outstanding Variety, Music or Comedy Sammy Davis Jr.'s 60th Anniversary Celebration Winner[51]
1989 Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series The Cosby Show Nominee
1980 Outstanding Cameo Appearance in a Daytime Drama Series One Life to Live Nominee
1966 Outstanding Variety Special The Swinging World of Sammy Davis Jr. Nominee
1956 Best Specialty Act — Single or Group Sammy Davis Jr. Nominee

Other honors[edit]

Year Category Organization Program Result
2008 International Civil Rights Walk of Fame Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site Inducted
2006 Las Vegas Walk of Stars[52] front of Riviera Hotel Inducted
1989 NAACP Image Award NAACP Winner
1987 Kennedy Center Honors John F. Kennedy Center for
the Performing Arts
Honoree
1977 Best TV Actor — Musical/Comedy Golden Globe Sammy and Company (1975) Nominee
1974 Special Citation Award National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Winner
1968 NAACP Spingarn Medal Award NAACP Winner
1965 Best Actor — Musical Tony Award Golden Boy Nominee
1960[53] Hollywood Walk of Fame Star at 6254 Hollywood Blvd.

Filmography[edit]

Stage[edit]

Television[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sammy Davis Jr. Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  2. ^ Casey Kasem's American Top 40 – The 70's from April 29 & May 6, 1972
  3. ^ Sammy Davis Jr.: Mr. Show Business. Legacy.com. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  4. ^ a b Religion: Jewish Negro Time February 1, 1960
  5. ^ Sammy Davis Jr. "Is My Mixed Marriage Mixing Up My Kids", Ebony, October 1966, p. 124.
  6. ^ Rebecca Dube, "Menorah Illuminates Davis Jr.'s Judaism", The Jewish Daily Forward, May 29, 2009.
  7. ^ Sammy Davis, Jr.'s 'Music, Money, Madness' - NPR
  8. ^ GlobeNewswire (May 6, 2010). "LegalZoom Will Upheld In Sammy Davis, Jr. Estate Battle". 
  9. ^ "Elvera Sanchez Davis, obituary, September 8, 2000". The New York Times. September 8, 2000. Retrieved September 18, 2009. 
  10. ^ "What Made Sammy Dance?". Time. October 23, 2003. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  11. ^ "Extra! Extra! Late-Breaking News From The World Of Entertainment". Daily News. New York. October 14, 1996. Retrieved September 18, 2009. [dead link]
  12. ^ a b Haygood, Wil (2003). In Black and White: The Life of Sammy Davis Junior. New York: A. A. Knopf (Random House). p. 516. ISBN 0-375-40354-X. Retrieved April 29, 2006. 
  13. ^ Davis, Sammy; Boyar, Jane; Boyar, Burt (2000). Sammy: An Autobiography: with Material Newly Revised from Yes I Can and Why Me?. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-0-374-29355-0. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  14. ^ Santosuosso, Ernie (May 17, 1990). "Sammy Davis Jr., Entertainer for Six Decades, Dies at 64". The Boston Globe. 
  15. ^ "Sammy Davis Jr". Oral Cancer Foundation. February 6, 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  16. ^ Eagle, Bob L.; Leblanc, Eric (2013). Blues: A Regional Experience. ABC-CLIO. p. 261. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  17. ^ Kashner, Sam, "The Color of Love", Vanity Fair, September 2013.
  18. ^ E.g. Billboard, July 25, 1953, p. 11.
  19. ^ Haygood, Wil (October 7, 2003). In Black and White: The Life of Sammy Davis, Jr. A. A. Knopf. p. 156. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  20. ^ Fishgall, Gary (September 30, 2003). Gonna Do Great Things: The Life of Sammy Davis Jr. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-7432-2741-4. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  21. ^ Sammy Davis Jr., Burt Boyar, and Jane Boyar, Sammy: The Autobiography of Sammy Davis Jr. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000).
  22. ^ Chadbourne, Eugene. "Sammy Davis Jr. Now". AllMusic. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  23. ^ Nancy Sinatra (June 17, 2000). "Nancy Sinatra Reminisces; Alan Dershowitz Talks About Justice; Hamilton Jordan Discusses Cancer; Lou Cannon Puts Reagan in Perspective" (transcript). Larry King Live. CNN. 
  24. ^ Davis Jr., Sammy (June 22, 1973). "Advertisement thanking the participants". Daily News (New York). New York. p. 55. 
  25. ^ Staff Writer (1973). "The Highway Safety Foundation: A Chronology". Documenting reality. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  26. ^ Boyar, Burt (2007). Photo by Sammy Davis, Jr. New York: Regan Books. p. 338. ISBN 9780061146053. 
  27. ^ Hurst, Jack (August 26, 1994). "Johnny Cash's War Within". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  28. ^ Cannon, Bob (20 November 1992). "The Unflappable Sammy Davis Jr". EW.com. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  29. ^ "Why JFK Refused to Let Sammy Davis Jr. Perform at White House". ABC News. April 18, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  30. ^ Price, Mark J. (November 25, 2012). "Local History: Akron Legend About Sammy Davis Jr. Turns Out to Be True". Akron Beacon Journal. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  31. ^ Davis, Jr., Sammy; Boyar, Jane & Burt (1990). Yes I Can: The Story of Sammy Davis, Jr. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-52268-5. 
  32. ^ "Nice Fellow". Time. April 18, 1955. Retrieved September 18, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Pamphlet from Birdland Jazz Club". 1955. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved September 18, 2009. 
  34. ^ Sammy Davis Jr. eye-patched on YouTube
  35. ^ Green, David B. (May 16, 2013). "This Day in Jewish History 1990: Sammy Davis Jr., Famous Convert to Judaism, Dies". Haaretz. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  36. ^ Weiss, Beth (March 19, 2003). "Sammy Davis, Jr". The Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  37. ^ Sammy Davis Jr. Turns Near Tragedy into Triumph, San Bernardino Sun, September 28, 2008 Archived December 9, 2012, at Archive.is
  38. ^ Reid, Ed; Demaris, Ovid (1963). The Green Felt Jungle. Cutchogue, New York: Buccaneer Books. LCCN 63022217. 
  39. ^ December 2014 BBC documentary, Sammy Davis, Jr. The Kid in the Middle.
  40. ^ Loving v. Virginia.
  41. ^ a b "Sammy Davis Jr. Succumbs To Cancer". Philadelphia Inquirer. May 17, 1990. Retrieved October 11, 2015. 
  42. ^ Harris, Gardiner (November 9, 2008). "The Underside of the Welcome Mat". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Sammy Davis Jr. Dies at 64; Top Showman Broke Barriers". www.nytimes.com. 
  44. ^ "Davis supports Jackson", Minden Press-Herald, February 6, 1984, p. 1
  45. ^ Peter B. Flint (May 17, 1990). "Sammy Davis Jr. Dies at 64. Top Showman Broke Barriers". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2014. Sammy Davis Jr., a versatile and dynamic singer, dancer and actor who overcame extraordinary obstacles to become a leading American entertainer, died of throat cancer yesterday at his home in Los Angeles. He was 64 years old and had been in deteriorating health since his release from Cedar-Sinai Medical Center on March 13. 
  46. ^ Sue Rochman (2007). "The Cancer That Silenced Mr. Wonderful's Song". Cancer Research Magazine. 2 (3). Retrieved November 19, 2015. 
  47. ^ "Sammy Davis Jr. - Los Angeles Sentinel". July 30, 2009. 
  48. ^ Rival Rat Pack Reopens West End Whitehall, 18 Sep – News Archived June 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Whatsonstage.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  49. ^ "HOME". I GOTTA BE ME. 
  50. ^ Hipes, Patrick. "Sammy Davis Jr Biopic Aligns With Estate, Moves Foward [sic] With Producers Lionel Richie & Lorenzo Di Bonaventura". Deadline. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  51. ^ The Envelope. "Awards Database: Sammy Davis Jr". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 14, 2008. 
  52. ^ "Las Vegas Walk of Stars" (PDF). Lasvegaswalkofstars.com. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Sammy Davis, Jr". Retrieved June 11, 2010. inducted on August 2, 1960 
  54. ^ "Fantasy Island - Season 7, Episode 21: Bojangles and the Dancer / Deuces Are Wild - TV.com". www.tv.com. Retrieved 2015-11-21. 

Further reading[edit]

Autobiographies[edit]

Biographies[edit]

  • Haygood, Wil (2003). In Black and White: The Life of Sammy Davis, Jr. New York: A. A. Knopf (Random House). ISBN 0-375-40354-X. 
  • Birkbeck, Matt (2008), Deconstructing Sammy. Amistad. ISBN 978-0-06-145066-2
  • Silber, Jr., Arthur (2003), "Sammy Davis, Jr: Me and My Shadow, Samart Enterprises, ISBN 0-9655675-5-9

Other[edit]

External links[edit]