Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle. For some people, motorcycling may be the only affordable form of individual motorized transportation, small-displacement motorcycles are the most common motor vehicle in the most populous countries, including India and Indonesia. In developing countries, motorcycles are overwhelmingly utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all motorcycles, 58% are in the Asia Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. Motorcycles are a luxury good in developed nations, where they are used for recreation, as a lifestyle accessory or a symbol of personal identity. Beyond being a mode of motor transportation or sport, motorcycling has become a subculture and lifestyle. Although a solo activity, motorcycling can be social and motorcyclists tend to have a sense of community with each other. For most riders, a motorcycle is a cheaper and more convenient form of transportation which causes less commuter congestion within cities and has less environmental impact than automobile ownership.
Others ride as a way to relieve stress and to "clear their minds" as described in Robert M. Pirsig's book Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. Pirsig contrasted the sense of connection experienced by motorcyclists with the isolation of drivers who are "always in a compartment", passively observing the passing landscape. Pirsig portrayed motorcycling as being in "completely in contact with it all... in the scene."The connection to one's motorcycle is sensed further, as Pirsig explained, by the frequent need to maintain its mechanical operation. Pirsig felt that connection deepen when faced with a difficult mechanical problem that required walking away from it until the solution became clear. Motorcyclists experience pleasure at the feeling of being far more connected to their motor vehicles than in a motorcar, as being part of it rather than in it. Speed draws many people to motorcycling because the power-to-weight ratio of a low-power motorcycle is in league with that of an expensive sports car.
The power-to-weight ratio of many modestly priced sport bikes is well beyond any mass-market automobile and rivals that of supercars for a fraction of the price. The fastest accelerating production cars, capable of 0 to 60 mph in under 3.5 seconds, or 0 to 1⁄4 mile in under 12 seconds is a select club of exotic names like Porsche and Lamborghini, with a few extreme sub-models of popular sports cars, like the Shelby Mustang, made since the 1990s. Conversely, the fastest accelerating motorcycles meeting the same criteria is a much longer list and includes many non-sportbikes, such as the Triumph Tiger Explorer or Yamaha XT1200Z Super Ténéré, includes many motorcycles dating back to the 1970s. Hunter S. Thompson's book Hell's Angels includes an ode to the joys of pushing a motorcycle to its limits, "with the throttle screwed on there is only the barest margin, no room at all for mistakes... that's when the strange music starts... fear becomes exhilaration only sounds are the wind and a dull roar floating back from the mufflers" and T. E. Lawrence wrote of the "lustfulness of moving swiftly" and the "pleasure of speeding on the road".
A sensation he compared to feeling "the earth moulding herself under me... coming alive... and heaving and tossing on each side like a sea." While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or reducing the effects of urban congestion. Where permitted, lane splitting, known as filtering, allows motorcycles to move between vehicles in slow or stationary traffic. In the UK, motorcycles are exempt from the £11.50 per day London congestion charge that other vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. Motorcycles are exempt from toll charges at such river crossings as the Dartford Crossing, Mersey Tunnels; such cities as Bristol allow motorcycles to use bus lanes. In the United States, motorcycles may use high-occupancy vehicle lanes in accordance with federal law and pay a lesser fee on some toll roads.
Other countries have similar policies. In New Zealand, motorcycle riders need not pay for parking, controlled by a barrier arm. Many car parks that are thus controlled so supply special areas for motorcycles to park as to save space. In many cities that have serious parking challenges for cars, such as Melbourne, motorcycles are permitted to park on the sidewalk, rather than occupy a space on the street which might otherwise be used by a car. Melbourne presents an example for the rest of the world with its free motorcycle footpath parking, enshrined in their Future Melbourne Committee Road Safety Plan Statistically, there is a large difference between the car-dominated developed nations, the more populous developing countries where cars are less common than motorcycles. In developed nations, motorcycles are owned in addition to a car, thus used for recreation or when traffic density means a motorcycle confers travel time or parking advantages as a mode of transport. In the developing world a motorcycle is more to be the primary mode of transport for its owner, the owner's family as well.
It is not uncommon for riders to transport multiple passengers or large goods aboard small motorcycles and scooters because there is no better alternative. Cost of ownership considerations regarding maintenance and parts in remote areas pl
The Austin 7 is an economy car, produced from 1922 until 1939 in the United Kingdom by Austin. It was nicknamed the "Baby Austin" and was at that time one of the most popular cars produced for the British market and sold well abroad, its effect on the British market was similar to that of the Model T Ford in the US, replacing most other British economy cars and cyclecars of the early 1920s. It was licensed and copied by companies all over the world; the first BMW car, the BMW Dixi, was a licensed Austin 7, as were the original American Austins. In France they were sold as Rosengarts. In Japan, Nissan used the 7 design as the basis for their first cars, although not under licence; this led to a 1952 agreement for Nissan to build and sell Austins in Japan under the Austin name. Many Austin 7s were rebuilt as "specials" after the Second World War, including the first race car built by Bruce McLaren, the first Lotus, the Mark I; such was the power of the Austin 7 name that the company re-used it for early versions of the A30 in 1951 and Mini in 1959.
Until the First World War Austin built large cars, but in 1909 they sold a single-cylinder small car built by Swift of Coventry called the Austin 7 hp. After this they returned to bigger cars. In 1920 Sir Herbert Austin commenced working on the concept of a smaller car to meet the needs of young families aspiring to own an affordable motor car; this idea was spurred on by the introduction of the Horsepower Tax in 1921. His design concept marked a departure from his company's conservative motoring past and Austin received considerable opposition from his board of directors and creditors; because the company was in receivership Austin decided to carry out the project himself on his own account and in 1921 hired an 18-year-old draughtsman, Stanley Edge, from the Austin factory at Longbridge, Birmingham to aid in the drawing of detailed plans. This work was carried out in the billiard room of Austin's Lickey Grange home. Edge convinced Austin to use a small four-cylinder engine; the original side valve engine design featured a capacity of 696cc giving a RAC rating of 7.2 hp, the cast cylinder block featured a detachable head and was mounted on an aluminium crankcase.
The crankshaft used the big-ends were splash lubricated. Edge carried out the design of other mechanical components such as the three speed gearbox and clutch assembly. Austin was responsible for styling the Seven's design, influenced by the design of the Peugeot Quadrilette; the "A" frame chassis design was believed to have been influenced by the design of an American truck used in the Longbridge factory in the early 1920s. The design was completed in 1922 and three prototypes were constructed in a special area of the Longbridge factory, announced to the public in July 1922. Austin had put a large amount of his own money into the design and patented many of its innovations in his own name. In return for his investment he was paid a royalty of two guineas, on every car sold. Nearly 2,500 cars were made in the first year of production, not as many as hoped, but within a few years the "big car in miniature" had wiped out the cyclecar industry and transformed the fortunes of the Austin Motor Co.
By 1939 when production ended, 290,000 cars and vans had been made. The Austin 7 was smaller than the Ford Model T; the wheelbase was only 6 ft 3 inches, the track only 40 inches. It was lighter – less than half the Ford's weight at 794 pounds; the engine required for adequate performance was therefore reduced and the 747 cc sidevalve was quite capable with a modest 10 hp output. The chassis took the form of an "A" with the engine mounted between the channel sections at the narrow front end; the rear suspension was by quarter elliptic springs cantilevered from the rear of the chassis while at the front the beam axle had a centrally mounted half elliptic transverse spring. Early cars did not have any shock absorbers. Brakes were on all wheels but at first the front brakes were operated by the handbrake and the rear by the footbrake, becoming coupled in 1930. In late 1931 the chassis was lengthened by 6" with a corresponding increase in the rear track. Steering is by wheel mechanism; the original 1922 four-cylinder Austin Seven engine had a bore of 2.125" and stroke of 3", giving a capacity of 696 cc and RAC rating of 7.2 hp.
From March 1923 the bore was increased to 2.2" giving 10.5 hp. The side-valve engine was composed of an aluminium crankcase, cast iron cylinder block and cast iron cylinder head. Cooling was by thermosiphon, without a water pump, the dynamo was driven from the timing gears; the big end bearings were lubricated by jets from an oil gallery in the crankcase, the oil striking the crankshaft webs which were drilled accordingly. The journal diameter was 1.125". The three bearing engine used a white metal centre bearing; the splash-lubricated crankshaft at first ran in two bearings changing to three in 1936. An electric starter was fitted from November 1923; the early cars used magneto ignition, but this was changed to coil in 1928. The 3-speed and reverse gearbox was integral with the engine, had a variety of ratios depending on application. A four-speed gearbox was introduced in 1932 and in 1933 synchromesh was added to third and top ratios extending to second gear in 1934; the back axle was of spiral bevel type with ratios between 4.4:1 and 5.6:1.
A short torque tube ran forward from the differential housing to a bearing and bracke
University College London
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight.
UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the'Father of the Nation' of each of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2018, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England
Guildford is a large town in Surrey, England, 27 miles southwest of London on the A3 trunk road midway between the capital and Portsmouth. The town has a population of about 80,000 and is the seat of the wider Borough of Guildford which had an estimated 146,100 inhabitants in 2015. Guildford has Saxon roots and historians attribute its location to the existence of a gap in the North Downs where the River Wey was forded by the Harrow Way. By AD 978 it was home to an early English Royal Mint. With the building of the Wey Navigation and the Basingstoke Canal, Guildford was connected to a network of waterways that aided its prosperity. In the 20th century, the University of Surrey and Guildford Cathedral, an Anglican cathedral, were added. Due to recent development running north from Guildford, linking to the Woking area, Guildford now forms the southwestern tip of the Greater London Built-up Area, as defined by the Office for National Statistics; the root of the first part may be the word'gold' rather than Guild, a society or meeting of tradesmen: the only known 10th-century record uses Guldeford and in the 11th century Geldeford.
Local historians with an interest in toponyms cite the lack of gold in the region's sedimentary rocks and have suggested that the mention of'gold' may refer to golden flowers found by the ford itself, or the golden sand. Rural Celtic Bronze Age pieces have been found in the town; some of the tiles built into Guildford Castle may be Roman, a Roman villa has been found on Broad Street Common at the end of Roman Farm Road just west of Guildford's Park Barn neighbourhood. It is proven by archaeology and contemporary accounts that Guildford was established as a small town by Saxon settlers shortly after Roman authority had been removed from Britain; the settlement was most expanded because of the Harrow Way crosses the River Wey by a ford at this point. Alfred the Great referred to the town in his will. Guildford was the location of the Royal Mint from 978 until part-way through the reign of William the Conqueror. Guildford Castle is of Norman design, its situation overlooks the pass through the hills taken by the Pilgrims' Way, once overlooked the ancient ford across the Wey, thus giving a key point of military control of this long distance way across the country..
Guildford appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Geldeford and Gildeford, a holding of William the Conqueror. The King held the 75 hagae in which lived 175 homagers and the town rendered £32. Stoke, a suburb within today's Guildford, appears in the Book as Stoch and was held by William, its Domesday assets were: 1 church, 2 mills worth 5s, 16 ploughlands with two Lord's plough teams and 20 mens plough teams, 16 acres of meadow, woodland worth 40 hogs. Stoke was listed as being in the King's park, with a rendering of £15. William the Conqueror had the castle built in the classic Norman style. A major purpose of Norman castle building was to overawe the conquered population, it had £26 spent on it in 1173 under the regency of the young Henry II. As the threat of invasion and insurrection declined, the castle's status was demoted to that of a royal hunting lodge: Guildford was, at that time, at the edge of Windsor Great Park, it was visited on several occasions by King John, Eleanor of Aquitaine and King Henry III.
In 1611 the castle was granted to Francis Carter whose grandson's initials EC and the year 1699 were above the entrance way. The surviving parts of the castle were restored in Victorian times and again in 2004. In 1995, a chamber was discovered in the High Street, considered to be the remains of the 12th-century Guildford Synagogue. While this remains a matter of contention, it is to be the oldest remaining synagogue in Western Europe. Guildford elected two members of the Unreformed House of Commons. From the 14th century to the 18th century the borough corporation prospered with the wool trade. In the 14th century the Guildhall was constructed and still stands today as a noticeable landmark of Guildford; the north end was extended in 1589 and the Council Chamber was added in 1683. In 1683 a projecting clock was made for the front of the building: it can be seen throughout the High Street; the town's Royal Grammar School was built in 1509 and became Royal gaining the patronage of Edward VI in 1552.
In the years around 1550, a pupil at the school was John Derrick who in life became a Queen's Coroner for the county of Surrey. In 1597, Derrick made a legal deposition that contains the earliest definite reference to cricket being played anywhere in the world. In 1619 George Abbot founded the Hospital of the Holy Trinity, now known as Abbot's Hospital, one of the finest sets of almshouses in the country, it is sited at the top end of the High Street, opposite Holy Trinity church. The brick-built, three-storey entrance tower faces the church. On each corner of the tower there is an octagonal turret rising an extra floor, with lead ogee domes. One of the greatest boosts to Guildford's prosperity came in 1653 with the completion, after many wrangles, of the Wey Navigation; this allowed Guildford businesses to access the Thames at Weybridge by boat, predated the major canal building program in Britain by more than a century. In 1764 the navigation was extended as far as Godal
The Alvis 12/50 is a car introduced by British business Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd in 1923. It went through a series of versions, with the last ones being made in 1932. A range of factory bodies could be specified in two- or four-seat form, with either open or closed bodies; the first 12/50s were produced in late 1923 for the 1924 model year. The cars from this first year of production were designated SA and SB; the SA had a 1496 cc 4-cylinder overhead valve engine in a chassis with a wheelbase of 108.5 in, while the SB had a wheelbase of 112.5 in. The SB was fitted with the 1496cc engine, but after the introduction of a 1598 cc version of the OHV engine this became the standard fitment; the engines of these early cars were carried in a subframe bolted to the slender ladder chassis. The SA carried two-seat bodywork the Super Sports 2/3-seater nicknamed "duck's back" because of its pointed rear end, said to resemble that of a duck; the majority of SB cars carried Super Sports four-seater bodywork, but a good number were fitted with touring bodies from the standard Alvis range.
The SA and SB 12/50s were built with brakes on the rear wheels only. All the 12/50s had a four speed non-synchromesh gearbox with right hand change; the clutch was a fabric-faced aluminium cone. The cars were right hand drive; the SC arrived in Autumn 1924 for the 1925 model year with the larger 1598 cc engine as standard. Most SC 12/50s were built on the longer chassis, which would be standard for the 12/50 until the end of production. Front wheel brakes were offered as an option on this model: a front axle of new design could be supplied with or without brakes. Power transmission was via a roller-bearing prop shaft of new design; the 12/50 was redesigned for the 1926 model year. From Autumn 1925 a new stronger chassis was used for the TE, which had its engine enlarged again to 1645 cc, the TF of the same year with a short stroke version of the same engine, displacing 1496 cc. A single-plate clutch replaced the previous cone type, for these and all subsequent 12/50s the engine was bolted directly to the flange-frame chassis, dispensing with the subframe of previous models.
From the TE and TF models onwards four-wheel brakes were fitted as standard, single-shoe drums on the rear replacing the double-shoe drums of the previous model. The TE and was superseded for the 1927 model year by the TG. Confusingly, the short-stroke TF was replaced in the 1927 range by a car with an'S' prefix: the SD; the TG was the standard'touring' model, while the SD - powered by the 1496 cc engine, now fitted with a large-port cylinder head - satisfied the needs of the sporting motorist. Available in this year was the TH, which had the gearbox and rear axle ratios of the'touring' TG, but the sub-1500 cc engine of the SD; the TG and SD models were available until 1929. The TG and TH models can be recognised by their taller radiators, with a noticeably deeper top section. Cars from the 1928 and 1929 model years sported higher-set lamps, with horizontal crossbar, in accordance with the fashion of the time; the 12/50 was withdrawn between 1929 and 1930 when the company decided that the future lay with the front-wheel drive FD and FE models, but when these did not reach the hoped for volumes a final version of the 12/50 was announced for the 1931 model year as TJ.
Fitted with the 1645 cc engine this continued in production until 1932. The'post-vintage' TJ is referred to by Alvis historians as being from the'revival period', it differs from its predecessor in a number of ways, notably coil instead of magneto ignition, deep chromed radiator shell, rear petrol tank in place of the scuttle-mounted tank on most older 12/50s; the TJ was joined in the range by a more sporting version of the same chassis, but this car was marketed not as a 12/50, but as the 12/60. The TK 12/60 was available in 1931, the TL 12/60 in 1932. Alvis Register on the 12/50
Major Sir Malcolm Campbell was a British racing motorist and motoring journalist. He gained the world speed record on land and on water at various times during the 1920s and 1930s using vehicles called Blue Bird, including a 1921 Grand Prix Sunbeam, his son, Donald Campbell, carried on the family tradition by holding both land speed and water speed records. Campbell was born in Chislehurst, Kent. on 11 March 1885, the only son of William Campbell, a Hatton Garden diamond seller. He attended the independent Uppingham School. In Germany, learning the diamond trade, he gained an interest in races. Returning to Britain, he worked for two years at Lloyd's of London for no pay for another year at £1 a week. Between 1906 and 1908, he won all three London to Lands End Trials motorcycle races. In 1910 he began racing cars at Brooklands, he christened his car Blue Bird, painting it blue, after seeing the play The Blue Bird by Maurice Maeterlinck at the Haymarket Theatre. Campbell divorced two years later.
Campbell married Dorothy Evelyn Whittall in 1920 and their son Donald was born in 1921, their daughter, Jean, in 1923. They divorced in 1940. Campbell married Betty Nicory in 1945 in Chelsea. At the outbreak of World War I, Campbell enlisted as a motorcycle dispatch rider and fought at the Battle of Mons in August 1914. Shortly afterwards he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 5th Battalion, Queen's Own, a Territorial Force unit, on 2 September 1914, he was soon drafted into the Royal Flying Corps, where he served as a ferry pilot, as his instructors believed he was too clumsy to make the grade as a fighter pilot. During the late 1930s he commanded the provost company of the 56th Division of the Territorial Army. From 1940 to 1942 he commanded the military police contingent of the Coats Mission tasked with evacuating King George VI, Queen Elizabeth and their immediate family from London in the event of German invasion. On 23 January 1943 he was transferred from the Corps of Military Police to the General List.
On 16 December 1945, having attained the age limit of 60, Campbell relinquished his commission and was granted the honorary rank of major. Campbell competed in Grand Prix motor racing, winning the 1927 and 1928 Grand Prix de Boulogne in France driving a Bugatti T37A. Campbell broke the land speed record for the first time in 1924 at 146.16 mph at Pendine Sands near Carmarthen Bay in a 350HP V12 Sunbeam, now on display at the National Motor Museum, Beaulieu. He broke nine land speed records between 1924 and 1935, with three at Pendine Sands and five at Daytona Beach, his first two records were driving a racing car built by Sunbeam. On 4 February 1927 Campbell set the land speed record at Pendine Sands, covering the Flying Kilometre at 174.883 mph and the Flying Mile in 174.224 mph, in the Napier-Campbell Blue Bird. He set his final land speed record at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah on 3 September 1935, was the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph, averaging 301.337 mph in two passes.
Campbell flotation-tested Blue Bird on Tilgate Lake, in Tilgate Park, Crawley. He set the water speed record four times, his highest speed being 141.740 mph in the Blue Bird K4. He set the record on 19 August 1939 on Coniston Water, England. Campbell stood for Parliament without success at the 1935 general election in Deptford for the Conservative Party, despite his links to the British Union of Fascists, he once adorned his car with a Fascist pennant of the London Volunteer Transport Service, though there has been no photographic evidence to support this claim. Campbell died after a series of strokes in 1948 in Reigate, aged 63 years, he was one of the few land speed record holders of his era to die of natural causes, as so many had died in crashes. His versatile racing on different vehicles made him internationally famous. In recognition of his service during World War I, Campbell was appointed a Member of the Military Division of the Order of the British Empire on 3 June 1919. In 1931 on his return from Daytona where he set a land speed record of 245.736 mph, he was given a civic welcome and a Mansion House banquet in London, was knighted at Buckingham Palace by King George V on 21 February 1931.
He was awarded the Segrave Trophy in 1933 and 1939. He was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1990, he was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1994. In 2010 an English Heritage blue plaque commemorating Campbell and his son was installed at Canbury School, Kingston Hill, Kingston upon Thames, where Donald was born in March 1921 and the Campbell family lived until late 1922. Www. SirMalcolmCampbell.com Newspaper articles and pic of 1935 land speed record www.racingcampbells.com – dedicated to the memory of Campbell and his son Donald Biography Malcolm Campbell at Find a Grave Leather Cap and Goggles at A History of Central Florida Podcast Newspaper clippings about Malcolm Campbell in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Alvis Car and Engineering Company
Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd was a British manufacturing company in Coventry from 1919 to 1967. In addition to automobiles designed for the civilian market, the company produced racing cars, aircraft engines, armoured cars and other armoured fighting vehicles. Car manufacturing ended after the company became a subsidiary of Rover in 1965, but armoured vehicle manufacture continued. Alvis became part of British Leyland and in 1982 was sold to United Scientific Holdings, which renamed itself Alvis plc; the original company, T. G. John and Company Ltd. was founded in 1919 by Thomas George John. Its first products were stationary engines and motorscooters. Following complaints from the Avro aircraft company whose logo bore similarities to the original winged green triangle, the more familiar inverted red triangle incorporating the word "Alvis" evolved. On 14 December 1921 the company changed its name to The Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd. Geoffrey de Freville designed the first Alvis engine and is responsible for the company name.
The origin of the name Alvis has been the subject of a great deal of speculation over the years. Some have suggested that de Freville proposed the name Alvis as a compound of the words "aluminium" and "vis", or it may have been derived from the Norse mythological weaponsmith, Alvíss. De Freville however vigorously rejected all of these theories. In 1921 he stated that the name had no meaning whatsoever, was chosen because it could be pronounced in any language, he reaffirmed this position in the early 1960s, stating that any other explanations for the source of the name were purely coincidental. Production was relocated to Holyhead Road in Coventry, where from 1922 to 1923 they made the Buckingham car. In 1922 George Thomas Smith-Clarke left his job as assistant works manager at Daimler and joined Alvis as chief engineer and works manager. Smith-Clarke was accompanied by William M. Dunn, who left his job as a draughtsman at Daimler to become chief draughtsman at Alvis; this partnership lasted for nearly 28 years and was responsible for producing some of the most successful products in the company's history.
Smith-Clarke left in 1950, Dunn assumed Smith-Clarke's position as chief engineer, remaining in that position until 1959. De Freville's first engine design was a four-cylinder engine with aluminium pistons and pressure lubrication, unusual for that time; the first car model using de Freville's engine was the Alvis 10/30. It was an instant success and established the reputation for quality workmanship and superior performance for which the company was to become famous; the original 10/30 side-valve engine was improved, becoming by 1923 the overhead valve Alvis 12/50, a successful sports car, produced until 1932. Around 700 of the 12/50 models and 120 of the Alvis 12/60 models survive today.1927 saw the introduction of the six-cylinder Alvis 14.75 and this engine became the basis for the long line of luxurious six-cylinder Alvis cars produced up to the outbreak of the Second World War. These cars were full of technical innovations. Independent front suspension and the world's first all-synchromesh gearbox came in 1933 followed by servo assisted brakes.
The Alvis 12/75 model was introduced in 1928, a model bristling with innovation, such as front-wheel drive, in-board brakes, overhead camshaft and, as an option, a Roots type supercharger. As with many upmarket engineering companies of the time, Alvis did not produce their own coachwork, relying instead on the many available coachbuilders in the Midlands area, such as Carbodies, Charlesworth Bodies, Cross & Ellis, Duncan Industries, E. Bertelli Ltd, Gurney Nutting, Lancefield Coachworks, Martin Walter, Mayfair Carriage Co, Tickford, Vanden Plas, Weymann Fabric Bodies, Arnold of Manchester. Several cars survive with quite exotic one-off bodywork from other designers such as Holbrook, a U. S. coachbuilder. In 1936 the company name was shortened to Alvis Ltd, aircraft engine and armoured vehicle divisions were added to the company by the beginning of the Second World War. Smith-Clarke designed several models during the 1930s and 1940s, including the six-cylinder Speed 20, the Speed 25, the Alvis 4.3 Litre model.
Car production was suspended in September 1939 following the outbreak of war in Europe, but was resumed and production of the 12/70, Crested Eagle, Speed 25, 4.3 Litre continued well into 1940. The car factory was damaged on 14 November 1940 as a result of several bombing raids on Coventry by the German Luftwaffe, although the armaments factory suffered little damage. Much valuable cutting gear and other equipment was lost and car production was suspended for the duration of the war, only resuming during the latter part of 1946. Despite this, Alvis carried out war production on aircraft engines and other aircraft equipment in its shadow factories. Car production resumed with a four-cylinder model, the TA 14, based on the pre-war 12/70. A solid and attractive car, the TA 14 fitted well the mood of sober austerity in post-war Britain, but much of the magic attaching to the powerful and sporting pre-war models had gone and life was not easy for a specialist car manufacturer. Not only had Alvis lost their car factory but many of the pre-war coachbuilders had not survived either and those that had were acquired by other manufacturers.
The post-war history of Alvis was dominated by the quest for reliable and reasonably priced coachwork. Smith-Clarke retired in 1950 and Dunn took over as chief engineer. Before retiring Smith-Clarke came up with the Alvis 3L3, TA21 proto