Drama (regional unit)
Drama is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Region of East Macedonia and Thrace and its capital is the town of Drama. The regional unit is the northernmost within the region of Macedonia. The northern border with Bulgaria is formed by the Rhodope Mountains, the northern part of the regional unit, bordering Bulgaria, is very mountainous. The main mountain ranges are Orvilos in the northwest, Falakro in the north, the Nestos is the longest river, flowing in the northeast. The northern portion holds a treasure known as Karantere. Drama is surrounded by the units of Xanthi to the east, Kavala to the south, Serres to the southwest and to the west. Arable lands are located in the southern and the portion of Drama. The southern part mainly has a Mediterranean climate, the climate is more continental with cold winters in higher elevations and in the northern part. The Drama regional unit is subdivided into 5 municipalities, the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit.
At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, the main roads of Drama regional unit are Greek National Road 12, Greek National Road 14 and Greek National Road 57. The Thessaloniki–Svilengrad railway passes through Drama and Paranesti, list of settlements in the Drama regional unit Former toponyms of places in Drama Prefecture
Elis (regional unit)
Elis or Ilia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Western Greece and it is situated in the western part of the Peloponnese peninsula. The northernmost point of Elis is 38° 06′N, the westernmost is 22° 12′E, the southernmost is 37° 18′N, the length from north to south is 100 km, and from east-to-west is around 55 km. The modern regional unit is not completely congruent with ancient Elis, Lampeia belonged to ancient Arcadia, the longest river is the Alfeios. Other rivers are the Erymanthos and Neda, Alfeios and Neda flow into the Ionian Sea in Elis. Less than 1% of the prefecture is open water, most of it found in reservoirs and dams, in the north. The Pineios Dam supplies water for Northern Elis, the water is not safe for drinking, because it contains some contaminants. A second, smaller reservoir in the river Alfeios near Olympia, the eastern part of the regional unit is forested, with mostly pine trees in the south. There are forest preserves in Foloi and the ranges of Eastern Elis.
In the north is the Strofylia forest which has pine trees, mountain ranges include Movri, Divri and more. About one-third of the land is fertile, the rest is mountainous, swamplands used to cover 1-1. 5% of the region, especially in the Samiko area. Most of them have been drained for agricultural purposes, only 10 km² has been kept and is now protected, here lie the ancient ruins of Elis and Olympia, known for the ancient Olympic Games which started in 776 BC. There is a museum with statues that relate to the history of Olympia, another museum is in Elis, but it is very small. Monasteries are scattered around the region, Elis has a Mediterranean climate, with hot, sunny summers. Temperatures over 40 °C have been recorded, the mountainous interior is colder, and snow covers the mountains in winter. Elis is more humid than the eastern Peloponnese, Elis is located in a seismically active zone, and there are several earthquakes each year. In February 2008, frost devastated many crops in Manolada, Nea Manolada, in August 2007, there were enormous forest fires which led to tens of deaths and a massive environmental and economic disaster.
The final toll for the prefecture was,45 dead,100,000 affected by the fire,3,500 left homeless by the fire,25,000 dead animals,8,500 hectares of burnt forests,2,300 hectares of burnt farmland
Icaria, spelled Ikaria, is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea,10 nautical miles southwest of Samos. According to tradition, it derives its name from Icarus, the son of Daedalus in Greek mythology, Icarian forms a separate municipality within the Ikaria regional unit, which is part of the North Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Agios Kirykos, the historic capitals of the island include Oenoe and Evdilos. It is one of the islands of the northern Aegean,255.303 square kilometres in area with 102 miles of coastline. The topography is a contrast between verdant slopes and barren steep rocks, the island is mountainous for the most part. It is traversed by Aetheras range, whose highest summit is 1,037 metres, most of its villages are nestled in the plains near the coast, with only some of them on the mountains. Icaria has a tradition of producing strong red wine, many parts of the island, especially the ravines, are covered in large bushes, making the landscape lush with green.
Aside from domestic and domesticated species such as goats, there are a number of wild animals to be found, such as martens, jumping spiders. Icaria exhibits a typical Mediterranean climate, Icaria has been inhabited since at least 7000 BC, when it was populated by the Neolithic pre-Hellenic race of Pelasgians. Around 750 BC, Greeks from Miletus colonized Icaria, establishing a settlement in the area of present-day Campos, which became the ancient capital city of Oenoe. Icaria, in the 6th century BC, became part of Polycrates sea empire, and, in the 5th century BC, in the 2nd century, the island was colonized by Samos. At this time, the Tauropolion, the temple of Artemis was built at Oenoe, coins of the city represented Artemis and a bull. There was another, smaller temenos that was sacred to Artemis Tauropolos, at Nas, Nas had been a sacred spot to the pre-Greek inhabitants of the Aegean and an important island port in antiquity, the last stop before testing the dangerous seas around Icaria.
It was a place for sailors to make sacrifices to Artemis Tauropolos, among other functions, was a patron of seafarers, here. The temple stood in good repair until the middle of the 19th century when the marble was pillaged, for their local church, in 1939, it was excavated by the Greek archeologist Leon Politis. During the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II, many of the artifacts that were unearthed by Politis disappeared, local custom states that there are still marble statues embedded in the sand off the coast. The Knights of St. John, who had their base in Rhodes, exerted some control over Icaria until 1521, the inshore waters, Georgirenes asserted, provided the best cockles in the Archipelago. Goats and sheep roamed virtually untended in the rocky landscape, cheeses were made for consumption in each household
Argolis or the Argolid is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese, situated in the part of the Peloponnese peninsula and part of the tripoint area of Argolis. Much of the territory of region is situated in the Argolid Peninsula. Most arable land lies in the part of Argolis. Its primary agricultural resources are oranges and olives, Argolis has a coastline on the Saronic Gulf in the northeast and on the Argolic Gulf in the south and southeast. Notable mountains ranges are the Oligyrtos in the northwest and Ktenia in the west, Argolis has land borders with Arcadia to the west and southwest, Corinthia to the north, and the Islands regional unit to the east. Parts of the history of the area can be found in the articles on Argos, Epidaurus, Troezen, Kranidi, from 1833 to 1899, Argolis was part of Argolidocorinthia, which included present Corinthia, Hydra and Kythira. It joined Corinthia to form Argolidocorinthia again in 1909, forty years later, in 1949, Argolis was finally separated from Corinthia.
The regional unit Argolis is subdivided into 4 municipalities and these are, Argos-Mykines Epidaurus Ermionida Nafplio As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Argolis was created out of the former prefecture Argolis. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit
Chalcidice or Chalkidike or Chalkidiki or Halkidiki, is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. The autonomous Mount Athos region constitutes the easternmost part of the peninsula, the capital of Chalkidiki is the main town of Polygyros, located in the centre of the peninsula. Chalkidiki today is a summer tourist destination. Aristotle was born here in 384 B. C, the Cholomontas mountains lie in the north-central part of Chalkidiki. Chalkidiki consists of a peninsula in the northwestern Aegean Sea. Chalkidiki borders on the unit of Thessaloniki to the north. Its largest towns are Nea Moudania, Nea Kallikrateia and the town of Polygyros. Chalcidice, Chalkidiki, or Chalkidike, is the given to this peninsula from a group of people native to this region. The area was colony of the ancient Greek city-state of Chalkis, the ancient city of Stageira was the birthplace of the great philosopher Aristotle. Chalkidiki was an important theatre of war during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, the Greek colonies of the peninsula were conquered by Philip II of Macedon and Chalkidiki became part of Macedonia.
After the end of the wars between the Macedonians and the Romans, the became part of the Roman Empire, along with the rest of Greece. At the end of the Roman Republic a Roman colony was settled in Cassandreia, during the following centuries, Chalkidiki was part of the Byzantine Empire. On a chrysobull of Emperor Basil I, dated 885, the Holy Mountain was proclaimed a place of monks, with the support of Nikephoros II Phokas, the Great Lavra monastery was founded soon afterwards. Athos with its monasteries has been self-governing ever since, after a short period of domination by the Latin Kingdom of Thessalonica, the area became again Byzantine until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1430. During the Ottoman period, the peninsula was important for its gold mining, in 1821, the Greek War of Independence started and the Greeks of Chalkidiki revolted under the command of Emmanouel Pappas, a member of Filiki Eteria, and other local fighters. The revolt was progressing slowly and unsystematically, the insurrection was confined to the peninsulas of Mount Athos and Kassandra.
One of the goals was to restrain and detain the coming of the Ottoman army from Istanbul. Finally, the resulted in a decisive Ottoman victory at Kassandra
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the countrys thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government. They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan. In the 2011 changes, the general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level. The regional organs of the government were in turn replaced by seven decentralized administrations. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one region, Mount Athos.
It is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula, ISO 3166-2, GR Administrative divisions of Greece
Karlovasi is a town and a former municipality on the island of Samos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Samos and it is located on the northwest side of the island. According to the 2011 census, the population of the unit was 9,855 inhabitants. Its land area is 100.330 km², the municipal unit shares the island of Samos with the municipal units of Vathy and Marathokampos. Karlovasi is a town with a cultural and industrial history, being a flourishing tannery. Many magnificent neoclassical mansions can be seen from that period as well as the remains of the large factories at the Ormos seaside. The towns economy shifted to trade after World War II and the collapse of the leather market, the connection of the Karlovasi Port with Seferihisars Sığacık, in Turkey, brings a large number of travelers in the island. Lykourgos Logothetis, the leader during the Greek War of Independence was born here in 1772. The main touristic sights are the Tannery Museum, the Folklore Museum, the 11th century church of Metamorfosis, the waterfalls of Potami and the nearby beaches of Mikro and Megalo Seitani are among the islands most popular attractions.
Official Website School of Sciences My Samos directory - History e-samos webpage - History & Culture
Chania (regional unit)
Chania is one of the four regional units of Crete, it covers the westernmost quarter of the island. Its capital is the city of Chania, Chania borders only one other regional unit, that of Rethymno to the east. The western part of Crete is bounded to the north by the Cretan Sea, the regional unit includes the southernmost island of Europe, Gavdos. Chania regional unit, often informally termed Western Crete, is a beautiful, districts include verdant Apokoronas, mountainous Sfakia, and Selino in the far South West corner. Some other notable towns in the Chania prefecture are Hora Sfakion, Kastelli-Kissamos, Maleme, Vamos and Kalives. The natural park of Samariá Gorge, a major tourist attraction, the White Mountains or Lefka Ori, through which the Samaria, Aradena and other gorges run, are the limestone peaks topped by snow until May that occupy much of Chania regional unit. They contain more than 40 peaks over 2,000 meters high, the highest peak in this area is Pachnes, at 2,453 meters above sea level.
The regional unit includes three headlands, known as the three heads of Crete. From east to west, they are, Rodopos, Western Crete is popular with tourists for its spring flowers that linger on into early May in the mountains. Birdwatching is popular, with the lammergeier and golden eagle especially sought for, as an island, Crete has many endemic species of plant and animal. Cretes only freshwater lake, Lake Kournas, is in the regional unit close to the border with Rethymno regional unit,47 km from Chania and it is relatively large, with a perimeter of 3.5 km. The lake used to be called Korisia after ancient Korion, a city thought to be in the area with a temple to Athena, the lake used to be reportedly full of eels but now is better known for its terrapins and tourists. Tavernas and pedalo rental shops line part of the shore, however, the lake retains its beauty, the White Mountains reflected in the mirror-like waters. Chania is the unit of Crete that receives the most precipitation. The regional unit Chania is subdivided into 7 municipalities, as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the Chania regional unit was created out of the former prefecture.
The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below
Evros (regional unit)
Evros is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace and its name is derived from the river Evros, which appears to have been a Thracian hydronym. Evros is the northernmost regional unit and it borders Turkey to the east, across the river Evros, and it borders Bulgaria to the north and the northwest. Together with the regional units Rhodope and Xanthi, it forms the region of Western Thrace. Evros is one of the largest regional units of Greece and it forms the eastern part of the geographical region Western Thrace, and includes the island Samothrace in the northern Aegean Sea. Its length is about 150 km from north to south and its width ranges from 70 to 100 km from east to west. The most important rivers are the Evros and its tributary Arda, the Rhodope Mountains lie in the west and the southwest. The Aegean Sea lies to the south, the coastal area has a predominantly Mediterranean climate, whereas the northern part and the mountains have a colder continental climate.
The Evros regional unit is subdivided into 5 municipalities and these are, Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli Evros was established as a prefecture in 1930, when the former Thrace Prefecture was divided into the Rhodope and Evros prefectures. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was transformed into a unit within the East Macedonia and Thrace region. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, as a part of Western Thrace, the territory of the Evros regional unit followed the fate of that region. At 1821, several parts of Evros region, such as Lavara and it became part of Greece in 1920, when it was ceded by Bulgaria as a result of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. Initially it was part of the Thrace Prefecture, which was subdivided in 1930, during the Greco-Turkish War, many Greek refugees settled in the Evros, and new towns bere built, including Orestiada. The Evros river valley was flooded several times, notably in 1997,2005, another line connects Alexandroupoli with Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria via Didymoteicho and Orestiada, with a branch line from Didymoteicho to Uzunköprü, Turkey.
The Alexandroupolis International Airport is served by national flights
Tunnel of Eupalinos
The Tunnel of Eupalinos or Eupalinian aqueduct is a tunnel of 1,036 m length in Samos, built in the 6th century BC to serve as an aqueduct. The tunnel is the second tunnel in history which was excavated from both ends, and the first with a geometry-based approach in doing so. Today it is a popular tourist attraction, in the sixth century BC, Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates. This was of utmost defensive importance, as the aqueduct ran underground it was not easily found by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the water supply, the Eupalinian aqueduct was used for a thousand years, as proved from archaeological findings. It was rediscovered in 1882-1884 and today is open to visitors, the tunnel took water from an inland spring, which was roofed over and thus concealed from enemies. A buried channel, with periodic inspection shafts, winds along the hillside to the tunnel mouth. A similar hidden channel, buried just below the surface of the ground, in the mountain itself, the water used to flow in pipes in a separate channel several metres below the human access channel, connected to it by shafts or by a trench.
The southern half, by contrast, benefits from being dug through a rock stratum. The two headings meet at a dogs-leg, a technique which was used to avoid the two tunnels missing each other, as explained in the paragraph Surveying techniques. The method Eupalinos employed to make the two meet in the middle of the mountain, is documented by Hermann J. Kienast. In planning the digging, Eupalinos used what are now well-known principles of geometry, with a length of 1,036 metres, the Eupalinian subterranean aqueduct is famous today as one of the masterpieces of ancient engineering. Eupalinos was aware that error in measurement and staking could make him miss the point of the two teams, either horizontally or vertically. He therefore employed the techniques, Since two parallel lines never meet, Eupalinos recognized that an error of more than two metres horizontally, would make him miss the meeting point. However, Eupalinos could not take a chance and he increased the possibility of the two tunnels meeting each other, by increasing the height of both tunnels.
His precautions in the vertical sense proved unnecessary, since measurements show that there was very little error, however recent research has shown that Eupalinos used three straight lines for his navigation. He connected a “south line” to the line at the south side going straight into the mountain around which Eupalinos undulated the south tunnel. At the north side a “north line” is connected to the mountain line and this line guided the cut into the mountain from the north side. After 273 meters Eupalinos directed the tunnel to the west obviously because of a combination of water, weak rock, when leaving the north line Eupalinos used for navigating an equal legged triangle with angles 22.5,45 and 22.5 degrees in theory
Municipalities and communities of Greece
The municipalities of Greece are the lowest level of government within the organizational structure of that country. Since the 2011 Kallikratis reform, there are 325 municipalities, thirteen regions form the largest unit of government beneath the State. Within these regions are 74 second-level areas called regional units, regional units are divided into municipalities. The new municipalities can be subdivided into units, which are subdivided into municipal communities or local communities. Leadership of municipalities and communities is elected by universal and secret ballot, municipalities may voluntarily or be mandated by law to work together to provide certain services, but elected representatives from the participating groups govern these partnerships. The national Greek government supervises local government agencies, but is not to interfere in any local initiatives or actions, the State is required to provide funds necessary to fulfill the mandate of local government agencies. Communities are governed by a community made up of 7 to 11 members. A deputy chairperson from a communal quarter may take part in meetings when specific issues of a communal interest are being discussed. A municipal council and town hall committee led by a mayor governs municipalities, depending on the size of the municipality, municipal councils are made up of anywhere from 11 to 41 council members representing municipal departments.
In addition, the council elects 2 to 6 town hall committee members, in the case of mergers, local village or town councils may still exist to provide feedback and ideas to the larger governing body. Council members are elected via public election every four years on the basis of a party system. Three-fifths of all seats go to the party winning a plurality of the vote, the municipal council elects the town hall committee for a term of two years. Citizens have very few opportunities for direct participation in decision-making outside the elections held four years. Beyond national referendums that may be called for issues, citizens cannot request local referendums. The only other possibility for direct input by citizens is if the local municipality establishes district councils or if the community president calls an assembly to discuss issues of concern. The organization of these opportunities, however, is solely at the discretion of the community or municipal leadership. Ordinary revenue is derived from the State budget, property revenues, by law, the State funds first level governments on the basis of a fixed formula, 20% of legal persons’ income tax, 50% of traffic duties and 3% of property transfer duties.
For smaller populated communities and municipalities, the State has allocated additional revenue based on other expenses, local governments are required to direct any property or resource fees to related expenses