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Sample-based synthesis

Sample-based synthesis is a form of audio synthesis that can be contrasted to either subtractive synthesis or additive synthesis. The principal difference with sample-based synthesis is that the seed waveforms are sampled sounds or instruments instead of fundamental waveforms such as sine and saw waves used in other types of synthesis. Before digital recording became practical, instruments such as the Welte Lichtton Orgel and the Mellotron used analog optical disks or analog tape decks to play back sampled sounds; when sample-based synthesis was first developed, most affordable consumer synthesizers could not record arbitrary samples, but instead formed timbres by combining pre-recorded samples from ROM before routing the result through analog or digital filters. These synthesizers and their more complex descendants are referred to as ROMplers. Sample-based instruments have been used since the Computer Music Melodian, the Fairlight CMI and the NED Synclavier; these instruments were correspondingly expensive.

The first recording using a sampling synthesizer was "Stevie Wonder's Journey Through "The Secret Life of Plants"" which used the Computer Music Melodian to create complex melodies and rhythms from sampled sounds from nature. The first tune Wonder recorded was "The First Garden" where he used a sampled bird chirp as the lead sound in the song. More affordable sample-based synthesizers available for the masses with the introduction of the Ensoniq Mirage, Roland D-50 and the Korg M1, which surfaced in the late eighties; the M1 introduced the music workstation concept. The concept has made it into sound cards for the multimedia PC, under the names such as wavetable card or wavetable daughterboard; the principal advantage of sample-based synthesis over other methods of digital synthesis such as physical modelling synthesis or additive synthesis is that processing power requirements are much lower. This is because most of the nuances of the sound models are contained in the prerecorded samples rather than calculated in realtime.

In a contrast to analog synthesizers, the circuitry does not have to be duplicated to allow more voices to be played at once. Therefore the polyphony of sample-based machines is a lot higher. A downside is, that in order to include more detail, multiple samples might need to be played back at once; this reduces the polyphony again, as sample-based synthesizers rate their polyphony based on the number of multi-samples that can be played back simultaneously. A sample-based synthesizer's ability to reproduce the nuances of natural instruments is determined by its library of sampled sounds. In the earlier days of sample-based synthesis, computer memory was expensive and samples had to be as short and as few as possible; this was achieved by looping a part of the sample, using a volume envelope curve to make the sound fade away. An amplifying stage would translate key velocity into gain so that harder playing would translate into louder playback. In some cases key velocity modulates the attack time of the instrument, leading to a faster attack for loud passages.

As memory became cheaper, it became possible to use multisampling. This provides a more natural progression from the lower to the higher registers, it is possible to sample the same note at several different levels of intensity, reflecting the fact that both volume and timbre change with playing style. For instance, when sampling a piano, 3 samples per key can be made; every possible volume in between can be made by blending the samples. For sample-based models of instruments like the Rhodes piano, this multisampling is important; the timbre of the Rhodes changes drastically from left to right on the keyboard, it varies depending on the force with which the key is struck. The lower registers bark; the bark will be more distinct. For the model to be sufficiently expressive, it is therefore necessary that multisamples be made across both pitch and force of playing. A more flexible sample-based synthesis design allowing the user to record arbitrary waveforms to form a sound's basic timbre is called a sampler.

Early samplers were expensive, had low sample rates and bit depth, resulting in grainy and aliased sound. Since the late-1980s, samplers have featured specifications at least as good as CDs. By the late 1990s, the huge increases in computer processor speed permitted the widespread development of software synthesizers and software samplers; the vast storage capacity of modern computers was ideally suited to sample-based synthesis, many samplers have thus migrated to software implementations or been superseded by new software samplers

Gold Box

Gold Box is a series of role-playing video games produced by SSI from 1988 to 1992. The company acquired a license to produce games based on the Advanced Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game from TSR, Inc; these games shared a common engine that came to be known as the "Gold Box Engine" after the gold-colored boxes in which most games of the series were sold. In the mid-1980s TSR, after seeing the success of the Ultima series and other computer role-playing games, offered its popular Advanced Dungeons & Dragons property to video game companies. Ten companies, including Electronic Arts, Ultima creator Origin Systems, Sierra Entertainment applied for the license. Strategic Simulations, Inc. president Joel Billings had, along with many other companies, earlier contacted TSR about licensing AD&D, but TSR was not interested at that time. Although smaller and less technically advanced than other bidders, SSI unexpectedly won the license in 1987 because of its computerized wargaming experience, instead of releasing a single AD&D game as soon as possible, the company proposed a broad vision of multiple series of games and spinoffs that might become as sophisticated as TSR's tabletop original.

After winning the AD&D license, the number of SSI's in-house developers increased from seven to 25, including the company's first full-time computer-graphic artists. TSR participated in the games' development, including designing a tabletop module that the first SSI game would be based on. Using Wizard's Crown's detailed combat system as a base for their work, the development of the Gold Box engine and the original games was managed by SSI's Chuck Kroegel and George MacDonald. Versions were led by Victor Penman and Ken Humphries; the first game produced in the series was Pool of Radiance, released in 1988. This was followed by Curse of the Azure Bonds, Secret of the Silver Blades, Pools of Darkness, the games forming one continuous story rooted in the once-glorious city of Phlan encompassing the entire Moonsea Reaches and four outer planes: Dalelands, Cormyr and Thar; the original four titles were developed in-house at SSI, the first three titles were the best selling Gold Box games. A series of TSR novels paralleled the stories in the games.

Released in 1990, Champions of Krynn was the first of SSI's Gold Box spin-offs based on TSR's popular Dragonlance universe, in the novels by Margaret Weis and Tracy Hickman. Chronologically, it was the third Gold Box game and employed some innovations that showed up in games, like the moon phases for mages, the choice of deities for clerics, the level difficulty selector; the following titles were The Dark Queen of Krynn. While the games give players a chance to meet Dragonlance characters like Tanis Half-Elven and Raistlin Majere, the gameplay is far more linear; when SSI began working on the Dark Sun game in 1989, all the programmers in-house had to stop the development of Gold Box games and start working on the Dark Sun engine. After Secret of the Silver Blades came out, Chuck Kroegel passed the Gold Box engine and the Forgotten Realms location to Beyond Software, they set their first Forgotten Realms Gold Box title, Gateway to the Savage Frontier, in the Savage Frontier, an area to the extreme west of the previous games location.

Following the events of the first game, Treasures of the Savage Frontier added a weather system and an innovative romance system between party members and NPCs. SSI adapted the Gold Box engine from fantasy to science fiction for a pair of Buck Rogers games: Countdown to Doomsday and Matrix Cubed, they were based on the Buck Rogers XXVc tabletop RPG by TSR, with rules based on those of the company's flagship game. According to Keith Brors, the company was pressured by TSR into developing their Buck Rogers computer game against their better judgment; the games didn't performed as well as the fantasy settings, but they represent some enhancements to the Gold Box engine. Apart from the main games, Spelljammer: Pirates of Realmspace was launched in 1992. Based on the 2nd edition's Spelljammer rule set, it combined real-time ship combat, turn-based melee battles, interplanetary trade. Besides the innovations, many gamers and critics took issue with its occasional bugs and lengthy load times. Sales declined over time, as the engine—originally designed for the Commodore 64—aged, SSI released too many games.

When SSI and TSR extended the original contract expiring in January 1993 for 18 months, SSI was required to discontinue the engine, moving to new developing technologies. So, in March of the same year, SSI's last release was Forgotten Realms: Unlimited Adventures, an editor that allows players to create their own games using the Gold Box engine. Game developers had access to 127 different monsters, 100 different event triggers, a framework that could hold an adventure consisting of four different wilderness areas or 36 dungeon levels, it included a miniadventure called The Heirs to Skull Crag. An active community grew up around this game, including hacks that expanded its powers and its graphical capabilities. All of the online RPGs of the 1980s were text-based MUDs, describing the action in the style of Rogue or Will Crowther's original Adventure game. Stormfront's Don Daglow had been designing games for AOL for several years, the new alliance of SSI, TSR, America On-Line, Stormfront led to the development of Neverwinter Nights, the first graphical MMORPG, which ran on AOL from 1991 to 1997.

NWN was a multi-player implementation of the Gold Box engine, was the most popular features on AOL

Santo Rosario Sapang Palay College

Sto. Rosario Sapang Palay College, Inc. is a Catholic educational institution in San Jose del Monte City, Philippines. It is operated by the Diocese of Malolos, it offers the Bachelor of Bachelor of Science degrees. It offers preschool through high school education. Sto. Rosario Sapang Palay College, Inc. SRSPC, a Catholic educational Institution, inspired by the charism of the Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, forms Christ-centered and service-oriented individuals through the harmonious integration of knowledge and faith. Guided by its vision, SRSPC commits to produce graduates who are intellectually bright and morally upright members of the society. Sto. Rosario Sapang Palay College is a Catholic Diocesan Institution of the Diocese of Malolos, a member of the Malolos Diocesan Association and Catholic Education of the Philippines. SRSPC was known as Assumption Sapang Palay College, Inc., linked with the Sapang Palay Resettlement and Sto. Rosario Parish of Sapang Palay; the dove signifies the Triune God.

The infant Jesus at the center carried in the loving arms of the Blessed Mother is the revelation of the Holy Trinity. It symbolizes the Roman's sun day. However, as early as the second century, Christian called Christ as the Sun; this day is attributed to the day of Christ's resurrection. It represents the location of the school, mountainous, it is in one of the barangays of the City of San Jose del Bulacan. The small river/rivulet or brook called "sapa" in Tagalog depicts the location of the school at Sapang Palay. Water is associated with the triple pouring of water at baptism, it represents the paddies where the "palay" are harvested. Rice is a staple food of the Filipinos, it denotes the exact site of the school. It is called "Sapa ng Palay", it is linked with the Israelites story in Exodus, their hasty departure from Egypt, from slavery to freedom. This yields a harvest for the grapes; these wheat and grapes are made into the bread and wine which are transformed into the body and blood of Christ in the Holy Eucharist in the process called transubstantiation.

These represent the basic ecclesiastical communities, the Catholic Christian Community of Sapang Palay

Cortinarius kaputarensis

Cortinarius kaputarensis is a species of truffle-like fungus in the family Cortinariaceae. Described as a new species in 2010, it is known only from New South Wales in Australia. Australian mycologists Melissa Danks, Teresa Lebel and Karl Vernes first described the species in the journal Persoonia in 2010; the type collection was made near Mount Kaputar, in New South Wales in July 2007. Although some of the characteristics of the fruit body suggest a placement in the section Dermocybe of Cortinarius, molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences indicates affinity with species in the section Phlegmacium, along with the Australian species C. austrovaginatus and C. sinapicolor. The specific epithet kaputarensis refers to the type locality; the fruit body of Cortinarius kaputarensis is sequestrate, meaning that its spores are not forcibly discharged from the basidia, it remains enclosed during development, including at maturity. The shape of the caps ranges from conical to spherical, they measure 1.2–3.0 cm long by 1.5–2.5 cm in diameter.

The colour of the outer skin of the cap is yellow-brown to orange-brown, it is smooth and somewhat sticky when fresh. Scattered remnants of the dark brown universal veil cover mush of the cap surface, they are not rubbed off with handling; the flesh is 0.3 -- 2 mm thick. The internal spore-bearing tissue of the cap is bright cinnamon brown at first, but darkens as the spores mature. A pale yellow, slender stipe extends into the fruit body, sometimes through its entire length; the partial veil is yellow. Fruit bodies have no distinctive odour; the spores are egg - to measure 9.9 -- 12.1 by 5.4 -- 7.4 μm. They are covered with irregular nodules up to 1.5 μm high. The basidia are hyaline, club-shaped to cylindrical four-spored, have dimensions of 19–37 by 6–9 μm. There are clamp connections present in the hyphae of the cap. Cortinarius kaputarensis is known only from the type locality. Fruit bodies were found in the ground and emerging from the earth under litterfall in wet sclerophyll forest on high slopes of the Kaputar Plateau in New South Wales.

Associated plant species were E. laevopinea and E. viminalis. List of Cortinarius species Cortinarius kaputarensis in Index Fungorum

Q.B. Cooler

The Q. B. Cooler is a vintage tiki cocktail invented by Donn Beach that calls for a mixture of several rums, two syrups, fruit juices, honey, mixed with club soda and dashes of Pernod and grenadine. Another version purported to be from 1937 is different and calls for varying rum proportions and ginger syrup in place of the fassionola and Pernod. Beach created the Q. B. Cooler for his Don the Beachcomber restaurants, which he limited to two per customer. An aviation themed drink similar to Beach's Test Pilot, Beach had served in the US Army Air Corp. during World War II. The "Q. B." stood for Quiet Birdmen, or more "ye Anciente and Secret Order of Quiet Birdmen", a fraternity of male aviators dating back to the first world war. Beach is acknowledged as the father of the "Tiki bar", his obituary in the New York Times alleged he had invented 84 bar drinks, but the Mai Tai cocktail was claimed to be created by both Beach and Victor Bergeron. Although Trader Vic's won an out of court settlement as to the naming rights for cocktail, the drink's true origin continues to be debated.

According to Mick Brownlee, who worked with Donn for over 10 years, the drink Bergeron named the Mai Tai was created in his efforts to try to emulate the flavor of a Q. B. Cooler

Derby County Baseball Club

The Derby County Baseball Club was a short-lived baseball club in Derby, that played baseball until 1898 when football became the dominant sport. Baseball was introduced to Derby by Francis Ley, an industrialist who owned Ley's Malleable Castings. Following a visit to the United States of America in 1889, Ley decided that, as a way of ensuring a healthier and more productive workforce, an investment should be made in promoting recreation for his workers. During his journey to the States, Ley had seen the way in which baseball fields had been laid out by companies and factories for the use by their workers and decided to follow suit on his return to Derby. Ley had the Baseball Ground built; the club ran away with the first championship after the National Baseball League of Great Britain and Ireland was established in 1890. However, pressure from other teams in the league over the number of American players on the Derby team forced Derby to resign at the end of the league's first season, though the baseball club itself lasted until 1898.

The Baseball Ground continued to be used under that name as the home of football's Derby County F. C. from 1895 to 1997. Steve Bloomer Jack Robinson British Champions: 3 1895, 1897, 1898 Baseball in the United Kingdom Article about Exhibition Game at Baseball Ground