A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument which uses sound recordings of real instrument sounds, excerpts from recorded songs or found sounds. The samples are recorded by the user or by a manufacturer; these sounds are played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device to perform or compose music. Because these samples are stored in digital memory, the information can be accessed. A single sample may be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords. Samplers offer filters, effects units, modulation via low frequency oscillation and other synthesizer-like processes that allow the original sound to be modified in many different ways. Most samplers have Multitimbrality capabilities – they can play back different sounds simultaneously. Many are polyphonic – they are able to play more than one note at the same time. Prior to computer memory-based samplers, musicians used tape replay keyboards, which store recordings on analog tape.
When a key is pressed the tape head plays a sound. The Mellotron was the most notable model, used by a number of groups in the late 1960s and the 1970s, but such systems were expensive and heavy due to the multiple tape mechanisms involved, the range of the instrument was limited to three octaves at the most. To change sounds a new set of tapes had to be installed in the instrument; the emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical. The earliest digital sampling was done on the EMS Musys system, developed by Peter Grogono, David Cockerell and Peter Zinovieff at their London Studio c. 1969. The system ran on Digital Equipment PDP-8's; these had a pair of fast D/A and A/D converters, 12,000 bytes of core memory, backed up by a hard drive of 32k and by tape storage. EMS equipment was used to control the world's first digital studio, their earliest digital sampling was done on that system during 1971–1972 for Harrison Birtwistle's "Chronometer" released in 1975; the first commercially available sampling synthesizer was the Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendell, while the first polyphonic digital sampling synthesizer was the Australian-produced Fairlight CMI, first available in 1979.
These early sampling synthesizers used wavetable sample-based synthesis. Since the 1980s, samplers have been using pulse-code modulation for digital sampling; the first PCM digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic. The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM; the LMD-649 was used by other Japanese synthpop artists in the early 1980s, including Chiemi Manabe and Logic System. Sampling keyboards were notable for their high price, out of reach for the majority of working musicians – with the early Fairlight starting at $30,000; the E-mu Emulator brought the price down to under $10,000 but it was not until the mid-1980s that genuinely affordable keyboard samplers began to hit the market with the Ensoniq Mirage in 1985 and the E-mu Emax the following year, which had a sub-$2000 price point.
The Korg DSS-1 and Roland's S-Series followed shortly afterwards. The E-mu SP-1200 percussion sampler, upon its release in August 1987, popularized the use of digital samplers within hip hop music in the late 1980s. Akai pioneered many processing techniques, such as crossfade looping and "time stretch" to shorten or lengthen samples without affecting pitch and vice versa; the Akai MPC60, released in 1988, went on to become the most influential sampler in hip hop music. That same year, the Ensoniq EPS – the successor to the Mirage – was launched and was the first sampling keyboard, designed for live performance rather being a purely studio based tool as most samplers had been hitherto. During the 1980s, hybrid synthesizers began to utilize short samples along with digital synthesis to create more realistic imitations of instruments than had been possible. Examples are the Korg M1, Roland U-110, Yamaha's SY series, the Kawai K series of instruments. Limiting factors at the time were the cost of physical memory and the limitations of external data storage devices, this approach made best use of the tiny amount of memory available to the design engineers.
The 2010s-era music workstation uses sampling, whether simple playback or complex editing that matches all but the most advanced dedicated samplers, includes features such as a sequencer. Samplers, together with traditional Foley artists, are the mainstay of modern sound effects production. Using digital techniques various effects can be pitch-shifted and otherwise altered in ways that would have required many hours when done with tape. A sampler is controlled by an attached music keyboard or other external MIDI controller or source; each note-message received by the sampler accesses a particular sample. Multiple samples are arranged across the keyboard, each assigned to a note or group of notes. Keyboard tracking allows samples to be shifted in pitch by an appropriate amount in semitones and tones; each group of notes to which a single sample has been assigned is called a "keyzone", the resultant set of zones is called a keymap. For
Reese's Xtreme Cup Challenge was an attraction, installed in 2006 at Hersheypark, where it became the first competitive, interactive dark ride. It was built by a popular dark ride manufacturer; the ride experience theme was sports, the building exterior was themed on the Hersheypark Arena, directly behind, outside Hersheypark. This ride is not to be confused with the free Hershey's Chocolate World tour ride; the ride replaced a building which housed the park's first aid and ride department offices, as well as a practice skating rink. On August 2, 2018, Hersheypark announced the addition of Reese's Cupfusion for the Summer of 2019, which will replace Reese's Xtreme Cup Challenge. Since the Cupfusion entered the park, the Reese's Xtreme Cup Challenge Has Closed Forever, it was announced that the Reese's Xtreme Cup Challenge has closed as of September 3, 2018. The ride's "backstory" featured two sports stars, Sonny Palaski, a pro surfer, Kip Callahan, an all-star quarterback. Sonny started in California as a surfing star, appearing on the cover of Surf Dude Magazine 36 times.
When interviewed about what made him so good, he claims that before going to the beach, he would have a few spoonfuls of peanut butter. Kip started in Western Pennsylvania as quarterback for the Allegheny High School Hawks, his stardom was due to him having a Hershey's chocolate bar before every game. They were brought together in 1998 to host the Xtreme Games. Kip's son, was competing as a snowboarder, Sonny's daughter, was an in-line skater; the two became friends and started dating. Their parents were elated, attributed their child's success to the things they liked to eat the most: chocolate and peanut butter. However, they couldn't agree on, better; this rivalry caused the Xtreme Games to be in danger of going off the air. But Zack and Skyler showed their parents that chocolate and peanut butter could get along just fine by introducing them to Reese's Peanut Butter Cups, they agreed to start a new X-game. Riders were split into two groups of four and given a ride through; the guests makes the vehicles spin.
The adventure begins. Targets were placed in large scenes with spinning obstructions placed in front. Targets lit up with yellow lights that disappear when hit, but these lights turned orange for a short period, yielding double points if hit. One popular tactic was to aim for targets hit by other players; the shooting scenes were broken down into three sections. In the final section, all targets were the vehicle moves faster. Another dark tunnel lights up and takes them back to show the players their points. Stacking would occur, leaving the riders on the course to continue to shoot while the cars remain stationary, which prevented cars from bumping into each other. Unlike a typical dark ride, RXCC's cars traveled on a track similar to a roller coaster; this can not be defined as a coaster. When the ride first opened, individual Reese's cups were given out at the end of the ride. If a rider was allergic to peanuts, a standard Hershey's chocolate bar was substituted. In the year, all players received Hershey's chocolate bars.
Che Hishamuddin Hassan is a retired Malaysian football player. Starting his career with Kelantan TNB, Kedah and Kelantan JKR, he moved to Negeri Sembilan FA, he helped Negeri Sembilan to the 2006 Malaysia Cup final, where they were beaten by Perlis FA 2-1. For the 2006-2007 season, he moved to Terengganu FA. Hishamuddin represent Kelantan FA in the 2009 season. With Kelantan, he played for two seasons, helping them to 2009 Malaysia Cup final where they were beaten by Hishamuddin's old team Negeri Sembilan 3-1; the next season, Kelantan won the 2010 Malaysia Cup, getting revenge against Negeri Sembilan 2-1 in the final, although Hishamuddin's appearances were infrequent in that season. His contract were not renewed after the season. Hishamuddin played for Betaria FC in the 2011 Malaysia FAM League season, he retired after only one season with Betaria. However, in 2013, he joined Tumpat FA, a Kelantan-based club affiliated with Kelantan FA, for the 2013 Malaysia FAM League season