Food sampling is a process used to check that a food is safe and that it does not contain harmful contaminants, or that it contains only permitted additives at acceptable levels, or that it contains the right levels of key ingredients and its label declarations are correct, or to know the levels of nutrients present. A food sample is carried out by subjecting the product to physical analysis. Analysis may be undertaken by or on behalf of a manufacturer regarding their own product, or for official food law enforcement or control purposes, or for research or public information. To undertake any analysis, unless the whole amount of food to be considered is small so that the food can be used for testing in its entirety, it is necessary for a portion of it to be taken – this process is known as food sampling. In most cases with food to be analysed there are two levels of sampling – the first being selection of a portion from the whole, submitted to a laboratory for testing, the second being the laboratory’s taking of the individual amounts necessary for individual tests that may be applied.
It is the former, ‘food sampling’: the latter is analytical laboratory ‘sub-sampling’ relying upon initial homogenisation of the entire submitted sample. Where it is intended that the results of any analysis to relate to the food as a whole it is crucially important that the sample is representative of that whole – and the results of any analysis can only be meaningful if the sampling is undertaken effectively; this is true whether the ‘whole’ is a manufacturer’s entire production batch, or where it is a single item but too large to all be used for the test. Factors relevant in considering the representativeness of a sample include the homogeneity of the food, the relative sizes of the sample to be taken and the whole, the potential degree of variation of the parameter in question through the whole, the significance and intended use of the analytical result. Food manufacturers and producers would need to satisfy themselves that any sample taken for analysis is sufficiently representative of the food for the analytical result to be meaningful.
This is true whether the data are to be used as the basis of labelling declarations, assurance of compliance with legislative or other standards, monitoring of production as part of HACCP, or for routine quality control. In the United Kingdom although various guidance is available, either from manufacturers’ associations or from sources of standards such as British Standards Institution, some of which may be relevant to certain food types, it is down to manufacturers to make their own evaluations of need and suitability. This must be translated into an assessment both of sample portion size and number, the frequency of taking samples. To ensure food safety and quality, some food samples which are perishable require certain tests and analyses; the following tests and analyses can be conducted: Food allergen testing Food chemical analysis Food contact tests Food contaminant testing Nutritional analysis and testing GMO testing Melamine contamination testing Microbiological tests Spiral plating for bacterial count Pesticide residue testing Veterinary drug residue testing PCR food testing In the United Kingdom, enforcement is under the Food Safety Act 1990.
Food sampling is undertaken by local authorities and port health authorities for submission to public analysts for analysis. Much of the legislation relates to food as supplied to a consumer, meaning that every portion of a size of perishable food and foods at risk as may be supplied to a consumer has to comply, so that in such cases the sample submitted for analysis could be an entire consumer-sized portion. There are exceptions, such as the sampling of nut products for the presence of aflatoxins, which stipulate a primary sample size related to the size of the consignment – with associated requirements for initial homogenisation to produce a smaller sample to be sent for analysis; the Food Safety Act 1990 affords a right for defence analysis, for referee analysis in case of disputed analytical results, by stipulating that except where to do so would prevent effective analysis the sample must be divided into three parts. The UK Food Standards Agency provides supplementary guidance to the enforcement authorities to assist with the sampling process and associated decisions by sampling officers.
There is no set frequency or rate for the sampling of food for law enforcement in the UK. Between the 1930s and 1990s there had been a guideline minimum rate for sampling for chemical analysis of 2.5 samples per annum per 1000 head of population, however, an arbitrary figure and more recent thinking suggested that the selection of a frequency for sampling should be based on risk. In this context risk includes all'consumer protection' issues such as pecuniary disadvantage from substandard or counterfeit products, as well as risk to health; the Association of Public Analysts was commissioned by the Food Standards Agency to look into this, culminating in a scheme for Risk Based Sampling, though it has not yet been adopted by the enforcement authorities. Food grading
Occupational hygiene is the anticipation, evaluation and confirmation of protection from hazards at work that may result in injury, illness, or affect the well being of workers. These hazards or stressors are divided into the categories biological, physical and psychosocial; the risk of a health effect from a given stressor is a function of the hazard multiplied by the exposure to the individual or group. For chemicals, the hazard can be understood by the dose response profile most based on toxicological studies or models. Occupational hygienists work with toxicologists for understanding chemical hazards, physicists for physical hazards, physicians and microbiologists for biological hazards Environmental and occupational hygienists are considered experts in exposure science and exposure risk management. Depending on an individual's type of job, a hygienist will apply their exposure science expertise for the protection of workers, consumers and/or communities; the British Occupational Hygiene Society defines that "occupational hygiene is about the prevention of ill-health from work, through recognizing and controlling the risks".
The International Occupational Hygiene Association refers to occupational hygiene as the discipline of anticipating, recognizing and controlling health hazards in the working environment with the objective of protecting worker health and well-being and safeguarding the community at large. The term "occupational hygiene" is synonymous with industrial hygiene; the term "industrial hygiene" traditionally stems from industries with construction, mining or manufacturing and "occupational hygiene" refers to all types of industry such as those listed for "industrial hygiene" as well as financial and support services industries and refers to "work", "workplace" and "place of work" in general. Environmental hygiene addresses similar issues to occupational hygiene, but is to be about broad industry or broad issues affecting the local community, broader society, region or country; the profession of occupational hygiene uses strict and rigorous scientific methodology and requires professional judgment based on experience and education in determining the potential for hazardous exposure risks in workplace and environmental studies.
These aspects of occupational hygiene can be referred to as the "art" of occupational hygiene and is used in a similar sense to the "art" of medicine. In fact "occupational hygiene" is both an aspect of preventive medicine and in particular occupational medicine, in that its goal is to prevent industrial disease, using the science of risk management, exposure assessment and industrial safety. Professionals seek to implement "safe" systems, procedures or methods to be applied in the workplace or to the environment. Occupational hygienists have been involved with changing the perception of society about the nature and extent of hazards and preventing exposures in the workplace and communities. Many occupational hygienists work day-to-day with industrial situations that require control or improvement to the workplace situation however larger social issues affecting whole industries have occurred in the past e.g. since 1900, asbestos exposures that have affected the lives of tens of thousands of people.
Occupational hygienists have become more engaged in understanding and managing exposure risks to consumers from products with new regulations such as REACh. More recent issues affecting broader society are, for example in 1976, legionnaires' disease or legionellosis. More again in the 1990s radon and in the 2000s the effects of mold from indoor air quality situations in the home and at work. In the part of the 2000s concern has been raised about the health effects of nanoparticles. Many of these issues have required the coordination over a number of years of a number of medical and para professionals in detecting and characterizing the nature of the issue, both in terms of the hazard and in terms of the risk to the workplace and to society; this has involved occupational hygienists in research, collection of data and to develop suitable and satisfactory control methodologies. The occupational hygienist may be involved with the assessment and control of physical, biological or environmental hazards in the workplace or community that could cause injury or disease.
Physical hazards may include noise, temperature extremes, illumination extremes, ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, ergonomics. Chemical hazards related to dangerous goods or hazardous substances are investigated by occupational hygienists. Other related areas including indoor air quality and safety may receive the attention of the occupational hygienist. Biological hazards may stem from the potential for legionella exposure at work or the investigation of biological injury or effects at work, such as dermatitis may be investigated; as part of the investigation process, the occupational hygienist may be called upon to communicate regarding the nature of the hazard, the potential for risk, the appropriate methods of control. Appropriate controls are selected from the hierarchy of control: by elimination, engineering and personal protective equipment to control the hazard or eliminate the risk; such controls may involve recommendations as
A product sample is a sample of a consumer product, given to the consumer free of cost so that he or she may try a product before committing to a purchase. A free sample or "freebie" is a portion of food or other product given to consumers in shopping malls, retail stores, or through other channels. Sometimes samples of non-perishable items are included in direct marketing mailings; the purpose of a free sample is to acquaint the consumer with a new product, is similar to the concept of a test drive, in that a customer is able to try out a product before purchasing it. Although an expensive method of targeting customers, conversions to sales can be as high as 90% making it one of the main marketing strategies for certain markets. With effective sampling, marketers can create brand loyalty and assist in the launch of a product through the word of mouth. Many consumer product companies now offer free samples through their websites, to encourage consumers to use the products and to gather data for mailing lists of interested customers.
Paint chips are samples of paint colors. Companies such as C. A. Courtesy, Sam's Club, Food Courts and Grocery Stores give out free samples to customers to persuade a customer to buy the product; the expansion of online marketing with regards to promotional giveaways has facilitated the rise of "Freebie sites" that seek to aggregate all promotional free sample offers in one place. These sites will compile free product samples from all over the World Wide Web and categorize them by type; some product sample offers may require consumers to complete a survey or refer a friend in order to qualify for the freebies. When all requirements are fulfilled, the product samples are shipped to the consumer; some sample products might be digital goods, where sample might be related to a product trial. 19th Century soap manufacturer Benjamin T. Babbitt was one of the first known people, though not the first to offer free samples of his products. Innkeepers are portrayed offering free samples in the 14th-century poem Piers Plowman: "Tauerners'a tast for nouht' tolden the same".
In 1987 C. A. Courtesy became the first demonstration company to secure exclusivity with a retailer, it is possible to purchase products in small "trial size" containers. This is common with toiletries such as shampoo, which are useful for vacations or other travel, where large bottles or other containers would be impractical; these are often provided in hotel and motel rooms for the guests. Samples may be loaned to the customer if they are too valuable to be given for free, such as samples of a countertop or of carpet to be used for remodeling. Sometimes companies in b2b market will offer sample of data or service for free before engaging business relationship. Other type of samples may include industrial samples, such as in the plastic industry, provided to companies for trial molding to see if the selected material is suitable for manufacturing the application; such samples may not be free of charge. International Convention to Facilitate the Importation of Commercial Samples and Advertising Material Sample Mailing list Test drive Shareware
In general, a sample is a limited quantity of something, intended to be similar to and represent a larger amount of that thing. The things could be countable objects such as individual items available as units for sale, or an uncountable material. Though the word "sample" implies a smaller quantity taken from a larger amount, sometimes full biological or mineralogical specimens are called samples if they are taken for analysis, testing, or investigation like other samples. An act of obtaining a sample is called "sampling," which can be performed manually by a person or via an automated method. Samples of material can be taken or provided for testing, investigation, quality control, demonstration, or trial use. Sometimes, sampling may be continuously ongoing. In the field of science, a representative liquid sample taken from a larger amount of liquid is sometimes called an "aliquot." The material may be solid, gas. If a material sample is not countable as individual items, the quantity of the sample may still be describable in terms of its volume, size, or other such dimensions.
A solid sample can come in one or a few discrete pieces, or it can be fragmented, granular, or powdered. A section of a rod, cord, sheeting, or tubing may be considered a sample. Samples which are not a solid piece are kept in a container of some sort. Core sample Ice core Specimen
Sampler (musical instrument)
A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument similar in some respects to a synthesizer, but instead of generating new sounds with voltage-controlled oscillators, it uses sound recordings of real instrument sounds, excerpts from recorded songs or other sounds. The samples are recorded by the user or by a manufacturer; these sounds are played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device to perform or compose music. Because these samples are stored in digital memory, the information can be accessed. A single sample may be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords. Samplers offer filters, effects units, modulation via low frequency oscillation and other synthesizer-like processes that allow the original sound to be modified in many different ways. Most samplers have Multitimbrality capabilities – they can play back different sounds simultaneously. Many are polyphonic – they are able to play more than one note at the same time.
Prior to computer memory-based samplers, musicians used tape replay keyboards, which store recordings on analog tape. When a key is pressed the tape head plays a sound; the Mellotron was the most notable model, used by a number of groups in the late 1960s and the 1970s, but such systems were expensive and heavy due to the multiple tape mechanisms involved, the range of the instrument was limited to three octaves at the most. To change sounds a new set of tapes had to be installed in the instrument; the emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical. The earliest digital sampling was done on the EMS Musys system, developed by Peter Grogono, David Cockerell and Peter Zinovieff at their London Studio c. 1969. The system ran on Digital Equipment PDP-8's; these had a pair of fast D/A and A/D converters, 12,000 bytes of core memory, backed up by a hard drive of 32k and by tape storage. EMS equipment was used to control the world's first digital studio, their earliest digital sampling was done on that system during 1971-1972 for Harrison Birtwistle's "Chronometer" released in 1975.
The first commercially available sampling synthesizer was the Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendell, while the first polyphonic digital sampling synthesizer was the Australian-produced Fairlight CMI, first available in 1979. These early sampling synthesizers used wavetable sample-based synthesis. Since the 1980s, samplers have been using pulse-code modulation for digital sampling; the first PCM digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic. The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM; the LMD-649 was used by other Japanese synthpop artists in the early 1980s, including Chiemi Manabe and Logic System. The E-mu SP-1200 percussion sampler, upon its release in August 1987, popularized the use of digital samplers within hip hop music in the late 1980s.
Akai pioneered many processing techniques, such as crossfade looping and "time stretch" to shorten or lengthen samples without affecting pitch and vice versa. The Akai MPC60, released in 1988, went on to become the most influential sampler in hip hop music. During the 1980s, hybrid synthesizers began to utilize short samples along with digital synthesis to create more realistic imitations of instruments than had been possible. Examples are the Korg M1, Roland U-110, Yamaha's SY series, the Kawai K series of instruments. Limiting factors at the time were the cost of physical memory and the limitations of external data storage devices, this approach made best use of the tiny amount of memory available to the design engineers; the 2010s-era music workstation uses sampling, whether simple playback or complex editing that matches all but the most advanced dedicated samplers, includes features such as a sequencer. Samplers, together with traditional Foley artists, are the mainstay of modern sound effects production.
Using digital techniques various effects can be pitch-shifted and otherwise altered in ways that would have required many hours when done with tape. A sampler is controlled by an attached music keyboard or other external MIDI controller or source; each note-message received by the sampler accesses a particular sample. Multiple samples are arranged across the keyboard, each assigned to a note or group of notes. Keyboard tracking allows samples to be shifted in pitch by an appropriate amount in semitones and tones; each group of notes to which a single sample has been assigned is called a "keyzone", the resultant set of zones is called a keymap. For example, in Fig 1, a keymap has been created with four different samples; each sample, if pitched, should be associated with a particular center pitch. The first sample is distributed across three different notes, G2, G#2, A2. If the note G#2 is received the sampler will play back the Violin G#2 sample at its original pitch. If the note received is G2 the sampler will shift the sample down a semitone while the note A2 will play it back a semitone tone higher.
If the next note is input the sampler will select the Violin B2 sample, playing it a semitone lower than its center pitch of B2. In gene
In medicine, sampling is gathering of matter from the body to aid in the process of a medical diagnosis and/or evaluation of an indication for treatment, further medical tests or other procedures. In this sense, the sample is the gathered matter, the sampling tool or sampler is the person or material to collect the sample. Sampling is a prerequisite for many medical tests, but not for medical history, physical examination and radiologic tests. Obtaining excretions or materials that leave the body anyway, such as urine, sputum, or vomitus, by direct collection as they exit. A sample of saliva can be collected from the mouth. Excision, a common method for the removal of solid or soft tissue samples. Puncture followed by aspiration is the main method used for sampling of many types of tissues and body fluids. Examples are thoracocentesis to sample pleural fluid, amniocentesis to sample amniotic fluid; the main method of centesis, in turn, is fine needle aspiration, but there are somewhat differently designed needles, such as for bone marrow aspiration.
Puncture without aspiration may suffice in, for capillary blood sampling. Scraping or swiping. In a Pap test, cells are scraped off a uterine cervix with a special spatula and brush or a special broom device, inserted through a vagina without having to puncture any tissue. Epithelial cells for DNA testing can be obtained by swiping the inside of a cheek in a mouth with a swab. In terms of sampling technique, a biopsy refers to a preparation where the normal tissue structure is preserved, availing for examination of both individual cells and their organization for the study of histology, while a sample for cytopathology is prepared for the examination of individual cells, not preserving the tissue structure. Examples of biopsy procedures are brain biopsy, skin biopsy and liver biopsy. Different types of matter that are sampled can be categorized by solidness versus fluidity, such as: Solid tissue, such as in bone marrow biopsy Soft tissue, such as in a muscle biopsy Body fluids Body fluid sampling include: Blood sampling for any blood test, including: Arterial blood sampling, such as by radial artery puncture.
This can be done for arterial blood gas analysis. Capillary blood sampling by using a blood lancet for puncture, followed by sampling by capillary action with a test strip or small pipe; this is common for routine diabetic monitoring for glucose. Venous blood sampling called venipuncture. Other than routine diabetic monitoring for glucose, the majority of blood tests are done on samples of venous blood taken by a phlebotomist or similar worker; such samples are collected in capped test tubes with a small amount of some sort of preservative. Cerebrospinal fluid sampling by lumbar puncture Pleural fluid sampling by thoracocentesis Amniotic fluid sampling by amniocentesis Peritoneal fluid sampling by peritoneocentesis, it can be used for cytology to detect spread of gynecologic cancers. The sampled matter can be analyzed for various components, for example: Electrolytes Proteins cells, such as white blood cells in blood sampling Microbiological agents, such as bacteria or fungi Microbiological sampling include: Blood sampling for blood cultures, performed as that for tests on the fluid itself above Throat swab for throat culture.
It is performed by applying a cotton swab to the surface of the throat. Sampling of sputum from the lungs for sputum culture, it can be performed by special techniques of coughing, or by a protected specimen brush, a brush that can be retracted into a plastic tube to prevent contamination of bacteria in the throat while inserting and removing the instrument
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose, it is most used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance achieved through treatment of the water, can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact, drinking water. In the setting of standards, agencies make political and technical/scientific decisions about how the water will be used. In the case of natural water bodies, they make some reasonable estimate of pristine conditions. Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental conditions. Environmental scientists work to understand how these systems function, which in turn helps to identify the sources and fates of contaminants. Environmental lawyers and policymakers work to define legislation with the intention that water is maintained at an appropriate quality for its identified use.
The vast majority of surface water on the Earth is neither toxic. This remains true. Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not. In fact, water quality is a complex subject, in part because water is a complex medium intrinsically tied to the ecology of the Earth. Industrial and commercial activities are a major cause of water pollution as are runoff from agricultural areas, urban runoff and discharge of treated and untreated sewage; the parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use. Work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water, treated for human consumption, industrial use, or in the environment. Contaminants that may be in untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria. Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, overuse; the United States Environmental Protection Agency limits the amounts of certain contaminants in tap water provided by US public water systems.
The Safe Drinking Water Act authorizes EPA to issue two types of standards: primary standards regulate substances that affect human health. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water that must provide the same protection for public health. Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants; the presence of these contaminants does not indicate that the water poses a health risk. In urbanized areas around the world, water purification technology is used in municipal water systems to remove contaminants from the source water before it is distributed to homes, businesses and other recipients. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or aquifer and that has no treatment will be of uncertain quality. Dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for a range of domestic purposes; the most familiar of these is the presence of ions of calcium and magnesium which interfere with the cleaning action of soap, can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposits in water heaters or boilers.
Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening process substitutes sodium cations. Hard water may be preferable to soft water for human consumption, since health problems have been associated with excess sodium and with calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Softening may increase cleaning effectiveness. Various industries' wastes and effluents can pollute the water quality in receiving bodies of water. Environmental water quality called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes and oceans. Water quality standards for surface waters vary due to different environmental conditions and intended human uses. Toxic substances and high populations of certain microorganisms can present a health hazard for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation, fishing, rafting and industrial uses; these conditions may affect wildlife, which use the water for drinking or as a habitat. Modern water quality laws specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require, as a minimum, retention of current quality standards.
There is some desire among the public to return water bodies to pristine, or pre-industrial conditions. Most current environmental laws focus on the designation of particular uses of a water body. In some countries these designations allow for some water contamination as long as the particular type of contamination is not harmful to the designated uses. Given the landscape changes in the watersheds of many freshwater bodies, returning to pristine conditions would be a significant challenge. In these cases, environmental scientists focus on achieving goals for maintaining healthy ecosystems and may concentrate on the protection of populations of endangered species and protecting human health; the complexity of water quality as a subject is reflected in the many types of measu