Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals; the term can be used in other countries with a legislature named "Congress", such as the Congress of the Philippines. In the United States, Acts of Congress are designated as either public laws, relating to the general public, or private laws, relating to specific institutions or individuals. Since 1957, all Acts of Congress have been designated as "Public Law X-Y" or "Private Law X-Y", where X is the number of the Congress and Y refers to the sequential order of the bill. For example, P. L. 111-5 was the fifth enacted public law of the 111th United States Congress. Public laws are often abbreviated as Pub. L. No. X-Y; when the legislation of those two kinds is proposed, it is called public bill and private bill respectively. The word "act", as used in the term "Act of Congress", is a common, not a proper noun.
The capitalization of the word "act" is deprecated by some dictionaries and usage authorities. Some writers, in particular the U. S. Code, capitalize "Act"; this is a result of the more liberal use of capital letters in legal contexts, which has its roots in the 18th century capitalization of all nouns as is seen in the United States Constitution. "Act of Congress" is sometimes used in informal speech to indicate something for which getting permission is burdensome. For example, "It takes an Act of Congress to get a building permit in this town." An Act adopted by simple majorities in both houses of Congress is promulgated, or given the force of law, in one of the following ways: Signature by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception while the Congress is in session, or Reconsideration by the Congress after a presidential veto during its session. The President promulgates Acts of Congress made by the first two methods. If an Act is made by the third method, the presiding officer of the house that last reconsidered the act promulgates it.
Under the United States Constitution, if the President does not return a bill or resolution to Congress with objections before the time limit expires the bill automatically becomes an Act. In addition, if the President rejects a bill or resolution while the Congress is in session, a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Congress is needed for reconsideration to be successful. Promulgation in the sense of publishing and proclaiming the law is accomplished by the President, or the relevant presiding officer in the case of an overridden veto, delivering the act to the Archivist of the United States. After the Archivist receives the Act, he or she provides for its publication as a slip law and in the United States Statutes at Large. Thereafter, the changes are published in the United States Code. An Act of Congress that violates the Constitution may be declared unconstitutional by the courts; the judicial declaration of an Act's unconstitutionality does not remove the law from the statute books.
However, future publications of the Act are annotated with warnings indicating that the statute is no longer valid law. Legislation List of United States federal legislation for a list of prominent acts of Congress. Procedures of the United States Congress Act of Parliament Coming into force Enactment Federal Register http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/glossary.html
China Relief Expedition Medal
The China Relief Expedition Medal was a decoration of the United States military, issued to members of both the United States Navy and the United States Marines for service in the China Relief Expedition between 1900 and 1901 during the Boxer Rebellion. The medal was authorized by General Orders of the Department of the Navy on June 27, 1908. General Order 81 established the medal authorized for Naval personnel while General Order 82 authorized the medal for the Marine Corps. To be awarded the China Relief Expedition Medal, a service member was required to perform duty within the borders of China as part of the China Relief Expedition; the eligibility dates of the China Relief Expedition Medal were from May 24, 1900 to May 17, 1901. The medal was issued as a one time award and there were no devices authorized for multiple bestowals; the United States Army equivalent of the China Relief Expedition Medal was the China Campaign Medal. A similar medal, known as the China Service Medal was authorized by the Navy in 1941.
The ribbon of the Navy and Marine Corps version of the medal bore a yellow and black motif. The colors were changed in 1915 to yellow and blue to correspond with those of the U. S. Army medal issued for similar service; the first 400 medals struck bear the date "1901." The die in use became replaced with a re-engraved die. This one, had the date "1900" which appears on all subsequent copies. List of military decorations Awards and decorations of the United States military "China Relief Expeditionary Medal". Naval Historical Center. 13 June 1998. Retrieved 2007-10-17
Cuban Pacification Medal (Navy)
The Cuban Pacification Medal is a military award of the United States Navy, created by orders of the United States Navy Department on 13 August 1909. The medal was awarded to officers and enlisted men who served ashore in Cuba between the dates of 12 September 1906 and 1 April 1909, or who were attached to a specific number of ships, for the Cuban Pacification; the crews of the following ships were awarded the Cuban Pacification Medal for service during the noted periods of time
The Cardenas Medal was an award approved by an act of Congress of the United States on May 3, 1900. The award recognizes the crew of the USRC Hudson, who showed gallantry in action at the Battle of Cárdenas during the Spanish–American War; the statute awarding the medal is listed as follows: Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in recognition of the gallantry of First Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb, of the Revenue-Cutter Service, commanding the revenue cutter Hudson, his officers and the men of his command, for their intrepid and heroic gallantry in the action at Cardenas, Cuba, on the eleventh day of May, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, when the Hudson rescued the United States naval torpedo boat Winslow in the face of a most galling fire from the enemy's guns, the Winslow being disabled, her captain wounded, her only other officer and half her crew killed; the commander of the Hudson kept his vessel in the center of the hottest fire of the action, although in constant danger of going ashore on account of the shallow water, until he got a line made fast to the Winslow and towed that vessel out of range of the enemy's guns.
In commemoration of this signal act of heroism it is hereby enacted that the Secretary of the Treasury be authorized and directed to cause to be and to present to First Lieutenant Frank H. Newcomb, Revenue-Cutter Service, a gold medal, to each of his officers a silver medal, to each member of his crew a bronze medal; the medal was struck in silver for the officers and bronze for the men of Hudson. The medal was designed by Charles E. Barber; the obverse of the medal depicts Victory wearing a winged cap. In her right hand she in her left an olive branch. In the background is the scene of Hudson tying up to the Winslow. At the bottom is the inscription CARDENAS MAY 11, 1898; the reverse of the medal bears the inscription in eleven lines: JOINT RESOLUTIONS OF CONGRESS APPROVED MAY 3, 1900. IN RECOGNITION OF THE GALLANTRY OF THE OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE HUDSON WHO IN THE FACE OF GALLING FIRE TOWED THE WINSLOW OUT OF RANGE OF THE ENEMY'S GUNS. To the right of the inscription is a nude female figure holding a chisel and hammer, to the left is a palm leaf and laurel branch.
At the bottom is a tablet flanked by laurels where recipients' names are engraved. The medal was struck as a non-wearable table top medal, it was converted to a wearable medal. The Cardenas Medal of Honor appears in regulations on order of wear as late as 1930
United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy is a statutory officer and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Navy must be a civilian by law, at least 5 years removed from active military service; the Secretary is appointed by the President and requires confirmation by a majority vote of the Senate. The Secretary of the Navy was, from its creation in 1798, a member of the President's Cabinet until 1949, when the Secretary of the Navy was by amendments to the National Security Act of 1947 made subordinate to the Secretary of Defense; the Department of the Navy consists of two Uniformed Services: the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. The Secretary of the Navy is responsible for, has statutory authority to "conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Navy", i.e. as its chief executive officer, subject to the limits of the law, the directions of the President and the Secretary of Defense.
In effect, all authority within the Navy and Marine Corps, unless exempted by law, is derivative of the authority vested in the Secretary of the Navy. Enumerated responsibilities of the SECNAV in the before-mentioned section are: recruiting, supplying, training and demobilizing; the Secretary oversees the construction and repair of naval ships and facilities. SECNAV is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs that are consistent with the national security policies and objectives established by the President or the Secretary of Defense; the Secretary of the Navy is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board, chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics. Furthermore, the Secretary has several statutory responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice with respect to the administration of the military justice system for the Navy & the Marine Corps, including the authority to convene general courts-martial and to commute sentences.
The principal military advisers to the SECNAV are the two service chiefs of the naval services: for matters regarding the Navy the Chief of Naval Operations, for matters regarding the Marine Corps the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The CNO and the Commandant act as the principal executive agents of the SECNAV within their respective services to implement the orders of the Secretary; the United States Navy Regulations is the principal regulatory document of the Department of the Navy, any changes to it can only be approved by the Secretary of the Navy. Whenever the United States Coast Guard operates as a service within the Department of the Navy, the Secretary of the Navy has the same powers and duties with respect to the Coast Guard as the Secretary of Homeland Security when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy; the Office of the Secretary of the Navy known within DoD as the Navy Secretariat or just as the Secretariat in a DoN setting, is the immediate headquarters staff that supports the Secretary in discharging his duties.
The principal officials of the Secretariat include the Under Secretary of the Navy, the Assistant Secretaries of the Navy, the General Counsel of the Department of the Navy, the Judge Advocate General of the Navy, the Naval Inspector General, the Chief of Legislative Affairs, the Chief of Naval Research. The Office of the Secretary of the Navy has sole responsibility within the Department of the Navy for acquisition, auditing and information management, legislative affairs, public affairs and development; the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps have their own separate staffs, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters Marine Corps. Military awards of the United States Department of the Navy Secretary of the Navy Council of Review Boards Stephen Mallory, the only Secretary of the Navy of the Confederate States of America Official website
Mexican Service Medal
The Mexican Service Medal is an award of the United States military for service in Mexico from 1911 to 1919. The Mexican Service Medal awarded by the Army was established by General Orders of the United States War Department on December 12, 1917; the Navy's Mexican Service Medal was established by Navy Department General Orders Number 365 on February 11, 1918, as amended by Navy Department General Orders No. 464 of April 27, 1919. The Mexican Service Medal recognizes those service members who performed military service against Mexican forces between the dates of April 12, 1911 and June 16, 1919. To be awarded the Mexican Service Medal, a service member was required to perform military duty during the time period of eligibility and in one of the following military engagements. Veracruz Expedition: April 21 to November 23, 1914 Punitive Expedition into Mexico: March 14, 1916 to February 7, 1917 Buena Vista, Mexico: December 1, 1917 The punitive expedition in the aftermath of the Brite Ranch raid on San Bernardino Canyon, Mexico: December 26, 1917 La Grulla, Texas: January 8 – January 9, 1918 The aftermath of the Neville Ranch raid that resulted in a small action in the village of Pilares, Chihuahua: March 28, 1918 For actions in Nogales, Arizona during the Battle of Nogales or Battle of Ambos Nogales: November 1–26, 1915, or August 27, 1918 El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua for the Battle of Ciudad Juárez: June 15 – June 16, 1919The United States Navy issued the Mexican Service Medal to members of the Navy and Marines who participated in any of the above actions, as well as to service members who served aboard U.
S. naval vessels patrolling Mexican waters between April 21 and November 26, 1914, or between March 14, 1916, February 7, 1917. The Mexican Service Medal was awarded to any service member, wounded or killed while participating in action any against hostile Mexican forces between April 12, 1911 and February 7, 1917. Although a single decoration, both the Army and Navy issued two different versions of the Mexican Service Medal; the Army Mexican Service Medal displayed an engraving of a yucca plant, while the Navy version depicts the San Juan de Ulúa fortress in Veracruz harbor. Both medals displayed the annotation "1911 - 1917" on the bottom of the medal; the Mexican Service Medal was a one time decoration and there were no service stars authorized for those who had participated in multiple engagements. For those Army members, cited for gallantry in combat, the Citation Star was authorized as a device to the Mexican Service Medal. There were no devices authorized for the Navy's version of the decoration.
A similar decoration, known as the Mexican Border Service Medal existed for those who had performed support duty to Mexican combat expeditions from within the United States. General of the Armies John J. Pershing General of the Army Douglas MacArthur Fleet Admiral William Halsey Jr. USN General George S. Patton Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, USN Major General John H. Russell Jr. USMC Awards and decorations of the United States military Border War
The Dewey Medal was a military decoration of the United States Navy, established by the United States Congress on June 3, 1898. The medal recognizes the leadership of Admiral of the Navy George Dewey, during the Spanish–American War, the Sailors and Marines under his command; the Dewey Medal was created to recognize the forces of the U. S. Navy and United States Marine Corps. To be awarded the Dewey Medal, a service member must have served on one of the following naval vessels on May 1, 1898: USS Baltimore USS Boston USS Concord USRC McCulloch USS Olympia USS Petrel USS RaleighThe colliers USS Nanshan and USS Zafiro were part of Dewey's squadron and supported the Manila Bay operation but are not listed in Navy regulations having their crew members eligible for the Dewey Medal; this is because 1. The ships were not engaged in the battle and 2, they were, at civilian manned ships purchased to support the Navy. Nanshan was commanded by Lieutenant Benjamin W. Hodges, USN but technically remained a merchant ship so she could resupply at neutral ports which simplified the squadron's logistics.
Zafiro was commanded by Ensign Henry A. Pearson, USN and, like Nanshan, was technically a merchant ship at the time of the battle. Both ships were commissioned in the Navy; the Dewey Medal was a one-time only decoration and there were no devices or campaign stars authorized to the medal. The medal consists of a circular medallion, upon which rests an image of Admiral George Dewey, suspended from a blue and yellow ribbon. Admiral Dewey was awarded the medal, out of modesty, he always wore it with the medal's reverse displayed which depicted a sailor sitting on a gun. Dewey had the rare distinction of being one of only four Americans entitled to wear a medal with their own image on it; the others were Rear Admiral William T. Sampson, Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd and General of the Armies John J. Pershing; the medal was recognized as being given for active military duty. When worn on a military uniform the Dewey Medal was considered senior to the Sampson Medal, although there were no individuals who received both medals.
The Dewey Medal is one of a few United States military awards to have fewer recipients than the Medal of Honor. This medal was designed by celebrated artist Daniel Chester French, who sculpted the statue of a seated Lincoln in Washington's Lincoln Memorial and the Minuteman statue at Concord, Mass; the medal was struck by Co.. The front, or obverse, depicts a bust of Commodore George Dewey. On the back, or reverse, is included the name of the vessel on which the recipient served; the name of the recipient is engraved on the medal's lower rim, this being one of only two service medals issued named to the recipient