Antioch College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Yellow Springs, Ohio. Founded in 1850 by the Christian Connection, the college began operating in 1852, it was the founding, constituent college of Antioch University System, which Antioch College remained a part of until 2008. The college remained closed for three years before reopening in 2011, separated from the university as an independent institution by 2014. Antioch is one of only a few liberal-arts institutions in the United States featuring a cooperative education work program mandatory for all students. Democracy and shared governance as a means to activism and social justice, are at the heart of the college. Since 1921 Antioch's educational approach has blended practical work experience with classroom learning, participatory community governance. Students receive narrative evaluations and academic letter grades. Antioch College is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association, the Colleges That Change Lives, the Global Liberal Arts Alliance, the Southwestern Ohio Council for Higher Education.
The college has produced two Nobel Prize winners. José Ramos-Horta, the 1996 laureate for Peace, obtained his Master of Arts at Antioch in 1984. Mario Capecchi, the 2007 laureate for Medicine, earned the Bachelor of Science from Antioch in 1961. Antioch College offers nine majors leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree: Anthropology, Literature, Media Arts, Visual Arts, Philosophy and Political Economy. Additionally, Antioch offers two majors leading to the Bachelor of Science: Biomedical Science and Environmental Science. Students may develop a self-designed major in either the arts or sciences. Courses are offered on a quarter-based academic calendar. All students are required to take at least two courses in each of the Antioch-designated Liberal Arts traditions: the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, as well as four interdisciplinary "Global Seminar" courses from the topics of Water, Energy, Health and Education. Additionally, students must achieve "novice-high proficiency" in a second language.
Antioch College offers coursework in Spanish and Japanese. Students may test out of taking the language requirement by taking the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Oral Proficiency Interview, or have passed an AP exam with a score of 4 or 5. Students must complete a co-op program in each year. All Antioch students spend four quarters over four years in meaningful domestic and international work experiences in the college's co-op program as part of their academic requirements for graduation. Antioch College held continuous accreditation from 1927 through the late 1970s as the undergraduate college of Antioch University. Accreditation remained with Antioch University when it closed the college in 2008. Following Antioch College's reopening and separation from the university, it underwent a multi-year, multi-phase process seeking to gain accreditation as an independent institution. While the college sought accreditation, Antioch College has been authorized by the Ohio Board of Regents to offer Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in the aforementioned programs of study.
On June 30, 2016, the Higher Learning Commission granted Antioch College accreditation. The college will host a review for reaffirmation of accreditation in 2019-2020; every student admitted between fall 2011 through fall 2014 receives the Horace Mann Fellowship, which covers the full cost of tuition for four years. The Huffington Post has recognized Antioch College on its list of "Top Non-Traditional Colleges" alongside Brown University, the New School, Wesleyan University, among others. Antioch has been included in the guidebook Colleges That Change Lives which declares that "there is no college or university in the country that makes a more profound difference in a young person's life or that creates more effective adults."During her remarks to the college in 2004, alumna Coretta Scott King stated that "Antioch students learn that it’s not enough to have a great career, material wealth and a fulfilling family life. We are called to serve, to share, to give and to do what we can to lift up the lives of others.
No other college emphasizes this challenge so strongly. That’s what makes Antioch so special." Antioch College is located on the site of a short-lived Owenite community, a utopian socialist collective agricultural enterprise, established in July 1825 and terminated at the end of December of that same year. On October 5, 1850, the General Convention of the Christian Church passed a resolution stating "that our responsibility to the community, the advancement of our interests as a denomination, demand of us the establishing of a College." The delegates further pledged "the sum of one hundred thousand dollars as the standard by which to measure our zeal and our effort in raising the means for establishing the contemplated College." The Committee on the Plan for a College was formed to undertake the founding of a college, make decisions regarding the name of the school, the endowment, fundraising and administration. Most notably, the committee decided that the college "shall afford equal privileges to students of both sexes."
The Christian Connection sect wanted the new college to be sectarian, but the planning committee decided otherwise. Despite its enthusiasm, the Christian Connection's fundraising efforts proved insufficient; the money raised before the school opened failed to cover the cost of the three original buildings, much less create an endowment. The Unitarian Church contributed an equal amount of funds and nearly as many stude
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller was an American businessman and politician who served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from 1974 to 1977, as the 49th Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973. He served as assistant secretary of State for American Republic Affairs for Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman as well as under secretary of Health and Welfare under Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1954. A member of the wealthy Rockefeller family, he was a noted art collector and served as administrator of Rockefeller Center in Manhattan, New York. Rockefeller was a Republican, considered to be liberal, progressive, or moderate. In an agreement, termed the Treaty of Fifth Avenue, Rockefeller persuaded then-Vice President Richard Nixon to alter the Republican Party platform just before the 1960 Republican Convention. In his time, liberals in the Republican Party were called "Rockefeller Republicans"; as Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973, Rockefeller's achievements included the expansion of the State University of New York, efforts to protect the environment, the construction of the Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza in Albany, increased facilities and personnel for medical care, the creation of the New York State Council on the Arts.
After unsuccessfully seeking the Republican presidential nomination in 1960, 1964, 1968, Rockefeller served as Vice President of the United States under President Gerald R. Ford, who ascended to the presidency following the August 1974 resignation of Richard Nixon over the Watergate scandal. Rockefeller was the second vice president appointed to the position under the 25th Amendment, following Ford himself. Rockefeller decided not to join the 1976 Republican ticket with Ford, which went to Bob Dole, he died two years later. As a businessman, Rockefeller was president and chair of Rockefeller Center, Inc. and he formed the International Basic Economy Corporation in 1947. Rockefeller promoted public access to the arts, he served as trustee and president of the Museum of Modern Art, founded the Museum of Primitive Art in 1954. In the area of philanthropy, he founded the Rockefeller Brothers Fund in 1940 with his four brothers and established the American International Association for Economic and Social Development in 1946.
Rockefeller was born on July 1908, in Bar Harbor, Maine. He was the second son of financier and philanthropist John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and philanthropist and socialite Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. He had two older siblings—Abby and John III—as well as three younger brothers: Laurance and David, their father, John Jr. was the only son of Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and schoolteacher Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman. Their mother, was a daughter of Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich and Abigail Pearce Truman "Abby" Chapman. Rockefeller received his elementary and high school education at the Lincoln School in New York City, an experimental school administered by Teachers College of Columbia University. In 1930 he graduated cum laude with an A. B. degree in economics from Dartmouth College, where he was a member of Casque and Gauntlet, Phi Beta Kappa, the Zeta chapter of the Psi Upsilon. Following his graduation, he worked in a number of family-related businesses, including Chase National Bank.
From 1932 to 1979 he served as a trustee of the Museum of Modern Art, where he served as treasurer, 1935–39, president, 1939–41 and 1946–53. He and his four brothers established the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, a philanthropy, in 1940, where he served as trustee, 1940–75 and 1977–79, as president in 1956. Rockefeller was a patient of famous psychic Edgar Cayce. Rockefeller served as a member of the Westchester County Board of Health, 1933–53, his service with Creole Petroleum led to his lifelong interest in Latin America. He became fluent in the Spanish language. In 1940, after he expressed his concern to President Franklin D. Roosevelt over Nazi influence in Latin America, the President appointed him to the new position of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs in the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. Rockefeller was charged with overseeing a program of U. S. cooperation with the nations of Latin America to help raise the standard of living, to achieve better relations among the nations of the western hemisphere, to counter rising Nazi influence in the region.
He facilitated this form of cultural diplomacy by collaborating with the Director of Latin American Relations at the CBS radio network Edmund A. Chester; the Roosevelt administration encouraged Hollywood to produce films to encourage positive relations with Latin America. Rockefeller required changes in the movie Down Argentine Way because it was considered offensive to Argentines, it was much more popular in the United States than in Latin America. Charlie Chaplin's satirical The Great Dictator was banned in several countries. In the spring of 1943, Rockefeller supported extensive negotiations and mission of North American members of the Junior Chamber of Commerce to Latin America as Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs of the US' State Department, establishing the Junior Chamber International after its first Inter-American Congress in December 1944 at Mexico City. After coming back from the Inter-American Congress, Nelson Rockefeller convinced his father, John D. Rockefeller
Bates College is a private liberal arts college in Lewiston, Maine. Anchored by the Historic Quad, the campus of Bates totals 813 acres with a small urban campus and 33 off-site Victorian Houses distributed throughout the city, it maintains 600 acres of nature preserve known as the "Bates-Morse Mountain" near Campbell Island and a coastal center on Atkins Bay. With an annual enrollment of 1,800 students, it is the smallest college in its athletic conference; as a result of its small student body, Bates retains selective admission rates and little to no transfer percentages. The nominal cost of attendance is considered high with tuition among the most expensive in the United States; the college was founded on March 16, 1855 by abolitionist statesman Oren Burbank Cheney and textile tycoon Benjamin Bates. Established as the Maine State Seminary, the college became the first coeducational college in New England and went on to confer the first female undergraduate degree in the area. Bates is the third-oldest college in Maine, succeeding Colby College.
It became a vanguard in admitting minority students before the passage of the Emancipation Proclamation. During early 1900s the college began to aggressively expand and by the mid-1940s, amassed large amounts of property, becoming a major economic power in Lewiston. Since the 1950s, the college has acquired and attempted to remedy a reputation for educating the affluent of New England. Improvements to its reputation were diminished after large losses during the 2008 financial crisis increased its tuition costs; the late 2010s saw a redoubled push for socioeconomic and cultural diversity as well as a major expansion of student financial aid. Bates provides undergraduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering and offers joint undergraduate programs with Columbia University, Dartmouth College, Washington University in St. Louis. A baccalaureate college, the undergraduate program requires all students to complete a thesis before graduation, has a funded research enterprise.
Its most endowed departments of politics and environmental science are noted within U. S. higher education. The Washington Post designates its undergraduate program as the 17th best in the country while Bates as a whole is the eighth best liberal arts college in the U. S. according to the 2018 Forbes tables. The students and alumni of Bates are well known for preserving a variety of strong campus traditions. Bates alumni and affiliates include 86 Fulbright Scholars. S. Congress. S. Cabinet-ranked officials; the Bates athletic program has graduated 12 Olympians and 209 All-Americans and maintains 32 varsity sports, some of which compete in Division I of the NCAA. The college is home to the Bates Dance Festival, the Mount David Summit, the Stephens Observatory, the Bates College Museum of Art. While attending the Freewill Baptist Parsonsfield Seminary, Bates founder, Oren Burbank Cheney worked for racial and gender equality, religious freedom, temperance. In 1836, Cheney enrolled in Dartmouth College, due to Dartmouth's significant support of the abolitionist cause against slavery.
After graduating, Cheney was ordained a Baptist minister and began to establish himself as an educational and religious scholar. Parsonsfield mysteriously burned down in 1854 due to arson by opponents of abolition; the event caused Cheney to advocate for the building of a new seminary in a more central part of Maine. With Cheney's influence in the state legislature, the Maine State Seminary was chartered in 1855 and implemented a liberal arts and theological curriculum, making the first coeducational college in New England. Soon after establishment several donors stepped forward to finance portions of the school, such as Seth Hathorn, who donated the first library and academic building, renamed Hathorn Hall; the Cobb Divinity School became affiliated with the college in 1866. Four years in 1870, Bates sponsored a college preparatory school, called the Nichols Latin School; the college was affected by the financial panic of the 1850s and required additional funding to remain operational. Cheney's impact in Maine was noted by Boston business magnate Benjamin Bates who developed an interest in the college.
Bates gave $100,000 in personal donations and overall contributions valued at $250,000 to the college. The school was renamed Bates College in his honor in 1863 and was chartered to offer a liberal arts curriculum beyond its original theological focus. Two years the college would graduate the first woman to receive a college degree in New England, Mary Mitchel; the college began instruction with a six-person faculty tasked with the teaching of moral philosophy and the classics. From its inception, Bates College served as an alternative to a more traditional and conservative Bowdoin College. There is a complex relationship between the two colleges, revolving around socioeconomic class, academic quality, collegiate athletics; the college, under the direction of Cheney, rejected fraternities and sororities on grounds of unwarranted exclusivity. He asked his close friend and U. S. Senator Charles Sumner to create a collegiate motto for Bates and he suggested the Latin phrase amore ac studio which he translated as "with love for learning", taken as "with ardor and devotion," or "through zeal and study."
Prior to the start of the American Civil War, Bates graduated Brevet Major Holman Melcher, who served in the Union A
University of California, Santa Barbara
The University of California, Santa Barbara is a public research university in Santa Barbara, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers' college, UCSB joined the University of California system in 1944 and is the third-oldest general-education campus in the system. UCSB is one of America's Public Ivy universities, a designation that recognizes top public research universities in the U. S; the university is a comprehensive doctoral university, is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. UCSB was ranked 30th among "National Universities", fifth among U. S. public universities, 37th among Best Global Universities by U. S. News & World Report's 2019 rankings; the university was ranked 48th worldwide for 2016–17 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 45th worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017. UC Santa Barbara is a high-activity research university with 10 national research centers, including the renowned Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Center for Control, Dynamical-Systems and Computation.
Current UCSB faculty includes six Nobel Prize laureates, one Fields Medalist, 39 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 34 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. UCSB was the No. 3 host on the ARPAnet and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995. The world-class faculty includes two Academy and Emmy Award winners, recipients of a Millennium Technology Prize, an IEEE Medal of Honor, a National Medal of Technology and Innovation and a Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics; the UC Santa Barbara Gauchos compete in the Big West Conference of the NCAA Division I. The Gauchos have won NCAA national championships in men's water polo. UCSB traces its origins back to the Anna Blake School, founded in 1891, offered training in home economics and industrial arts; the Anna Blake School was taken over by the state in 1909 and became the Santa Barbara State Normal School, which became the Santa Barbara State College in 1921.
In 1944, intense lobbying by an interest group in the City of Santa Barbara led by Thomas Storke and Pearl Chase persuaded the State Legislature, Gov. Earl Warren, the Regents of the University of California to move the State College over to the more research-oriented University of California system; the State College system sued to stop the takeover. A state constitutional amendment was passed in 1946 to stop subsequent conversions of State Colleges to University of California campuses. From 1944 to 1958, the school was known as Santa Barbara College of the University of California, before taking on its current name; when the vacated Marine Corps training station in Goleta was purchased for the growing college, Santa Barbara City College moved into the vacated State College buildings. The regents envisioned a small, several thousand–student liberal arts college, a so-called "Williams College of the West", at Santa Barbara. Chronologically, UCSB is the third general-education campus of the University of California, after Berkeley and UCLA.
The original campus the regents acquired in Santa Barbara was located on only 100 acres of unusable land on a seaside mesa. The availability of a 400-acre portion of the land used as Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara until 1946 on another seaside mesa in Goleta, which the regents could acquire for free from the federal government, led to that site becoming the Santa Barbara campus in 1949. Only 3000–3500 students were anticipated, but the post-WWII baby boom led to the designation of general campus in 1958, along with a name change from "Santa Barbara College" to "University of California, Santa Barbara," and the discontinuation of the industrial arts program for which the state college was famous. A chancellor, Samuel B. Gould, was appointed in 1959. All of this change was done in accordance with the California Master Plan for Higher Education. In 1959, UCSB professor Douwe Stuurman hosted the English writer Aldous Huxley as the university's first visiting professor. Huxley delivered a lectures series called "The Human Situation".
In the late'60s and early'70s, UCSB became nationally known as a hotbed of anti–Vietnam War activity. A bombing at the school's faculty club in 1969 killed Dover Sharp. In the spring of 1970, multiple occasions of arson occurred, including a burning of the Bank of America branch building in the student community of Isla Vista, during which time one male student, Kevin Moran, was shot and killed by police. UCSB's anti-Vietnam activity impelled then-Gov. Ronald Reagan to order the National Guard to enforce it. Armed guardsmen were a common sight in Isla Vista during this time. In 1995, UCSB was elected to the Association of American Universities, an organization of leading research universities, with a membership consisting of 59 universities in the United States and two universities in Canada. On May 23, 2014, a killing spree occurred in Isla Vista, California, a community in close proximity to the campus. All six people killed during the rampage were students at UCSB; the murderer was a former Santa Barbara City College student.
1944–1946: Clarence L. Phelps 1946–1955: J. Harold Williams 1955–1955: Clark G. Kuebler 1956–1956: John C. Snidecor 1956–1959: Elmer Noble 1959–1962: Samuel B. Gould 1962–1977: Vernon Cheadle 1977–1986: Robert Huttenba
Shelton is a city in Fairfield County, United States. The population was 39,559 at the 2010 census. Shelton was settled by the English as part of the town of Stratford, Connecticut, in 1639. On May 15, 1656, the Court of the Colony of Connecticut in Hartford affirmed that the town of Stratford included all of the territory 12 miles inland from Long Island Sound, between the Housatonic River and the Fairfield town line. In 1662, Stratford selectmen Lt. Joseph Judson, Captain Joseph Hawley and John Minor had secured all the written deeds of transfer from the Golden Hill Paugussett Indian Nation for this vast territory that comprises the present-day towns of Trumbull and Monroe. Shelton was split off from Stratford as Huntington; the current name originated in a manufacturing village started in the 1860s named for the Shelton Company founded by Edward N. Shelton—also founder of Ousatonic Water Power Company; the growing borough of Shelton incorporated as a city in 1915 and was consolidated with the town of Huntington in 1919 establishing the present city of Shelton.
Shelton was the site of one of the largest arson fires in the United States history. It happened in 1975. Charles Moeller, president of parent company Grand Sheet Metal Products, was acquitted of criminal charges, but in a suit under civil law, a jury found in 1988 the insurer was entitled to disallow claims on the fire losses, based on the finding that the company's top officials arranged the fire to claim insurance money. Eight others were pleaded guilty; the explosion that destroyed the Sponge Rubber Plant on Canal Street in 1975 marked the start of the decline of Shelton's industries. During the remainder of the 1970s and 1980s several firms that operated factories along the banks of the Housatonic River either went out of business or relocated to areas where labor and operating costs were cheaper. In 1995, Sikorsky Aircraft closed a plant off Bridgeport Avenue that manufactured electrical components for helicopters. With the completion of Route 8, new office spaces and businesses were attracted to the town, due to its Fairfield County location coupled with low costs of doing business as opposed to places such as Stamford or Greenwich.
Major firms such as Tetley Tea, TIE Communication, I. T. T. Black and Decker, Sikorsky Aircraft, Gama Aviation, Chesebrough-Pond's, Tetra-Pak, General Electric, Bunker Ramo. Over 2,000,000 square feet of corporate office space spread across 12 buildings was constructed by the R. D. Scinto corporation alone. Efforts are underway to restore nineteenth-century industrial buildings in the downtown area; the 10-acre Riverwalk Park next to the Veterans Memorial was created on the site of the former Sponge Rubber Plant. Other buildings along Howe Avenue, one of the city's main thoroughfares, have been restored, while developers have renovated two 19th-century factory buildings on Bridge Street, converting them into luxury condominiums. Several downtown streets have been reconstructed as part of a streetscape improvement project: sidewalks were reconstructed with brick and cobblestone, trees were planted, some power lines were rerouted underground to improve the appearance of Shelton's central business district.
In March 2008, Connecticut Governor M. Jodi Rell announced that after negotiations with State Senator Dan Debicella and State Representative Jason Perillo, state bond funds in the amount of $2 million would be directed toward additional infrastructure improvements leading to over $100 million in private investment in the city's downtown. In November 2007, a tree growing on Soundview Avenue in Shelton was selected and felled to be the Rockefeller Center Christmas tree. On May 30, 2008, producers and staff for the upcoming movie All Good Things shot one scene on Canal St. in downtown Shelton. The scene was underneath the train trestle and involved one of the characters dragging a body and dumping it into the Housatonic River. On July 31, 2009, a line of heavy thunderstorms with weak rotation spawned an EF1 tornado, which touched down with wind speeds between 95 and 105 miles per hour. According to WTNH, the most concentrated damage was along the Oronoque Trail, where many trees were blown down.
There were no fatalities. In November 2013, a tree located on Kazo Drive was picked to be the second Rockefeller Center Christmas tree from Shelton. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.9 square miles, of which 30.6 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles, or 4.26%, is water. Downtown Coram Gardens White Hills Soundview Avenue South End Booth Hill Road Bridgeport Avenue Huntington Pine Rock Park As of the census of 2000, there were 38,101 people, 14,190 households, 10,543 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,246.4 people per square mile. There were 14,707 housing units at an average density of 481.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.44% White, 1.12% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.08% Asian, 0.89% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.48% of the population. There were 14,190 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.7% were non-families.
21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living al
Boston University is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. The university is nonsectarian, but has been affiliated with the United Methodist Church; the university has more than 3,900 faculty members and nearly 33,000 students, is one of Boston's largest employers. It offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, doctorates, medical, dental and law degrees through 17 schools and colleges on two urban campuses; the main campus is situated along the Charles River in Boston's Fenway-Kenmore and Allston neighborhoods, while the Boston University Medical Campus is in Boston's South End neighborhood. BU is categorized as an R1: Doctoral University in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. BU is a member of the Boston Consortium for Higher Education and the Association of American Universities; the university was ranked 42nd among undergraduate programs at national universities, 46th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2018 rankings.
Among its alumni and current or past faculty, the university counts eight Nobel Laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 10 Rhodes Scholars, six Marshall Scholars, 48 Sloan Fellows, nine Academy Award winners, several Emmy and Tony Award winners. BU has MacArthur, Fulbright and Guggenheim Fellowship holders as well as American Academy of Arts and Sciences and National Academy of Sciences members among its past and present graduates and faculty. In 1876, BU professor Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in a BU lab; the Boston University Terriers compete in the NCAA Division I. BU athletic teams compete in the Patriot League, Hockey East conferences, their mascot is Rhett the Boston Terrier. Boston University is well known for men's hockey, in which it has won five national championships, most in 2009. Boston University traces its roots to the establishment of the Newbury Biblical Institute in Newbury, Vermont in 1839, was chartered with the name "Boston University" by the Massachusetts Legislature in 1869.
The University organized formal Centennial observances both in 1939 and 1969. On April 24–25, 1839 a group of Methodist ministers and laymen at the Old Bromfield Street Church in Boston elected to establish a Methodist theological school. Set up in Newbury, the school was named the "Newbury Biblical Institute". In 1847, the Congregational Society in Concord, New Hampshire, invited the Institute to relocate to Concord and offered a disused Congregational church building with a capacity of 1200 people. Other citizens of Concord covered the remodeling costs. One stipulation of the invitation was; the charter issued by New Hampshire designated the school the "Methodist General Biblical Institute", but it was called the "Concord Biblical Institute." With the agreed twenty years coming to a close, the trustees of the Concord Biblical Institute purchased 30 acres on Aspinwall Hill in Brookline, Massachusetts, as a possible relocation site. The institute moved in 1867 to 23 Pinkney Street in Boston, received a Massachusetts Charter as the "Boston Theological Seminary".
In 1869, three trustees of the Boston Theological Institute obtained from the Massachusetts Legislature a charter for a university by name of "Boston University". These trustees were successful Boston businessmen and Methodist laymen, with a history of involvement in educational enterprises and became the founders of Boston University, they were Isaac Rich, Lee Claflin, Jacob Sleeper, for whom Boston University's three West Campus dormitories are named. Lee Claflin's son, was Governor of Massachusetts and signed the University Charter on May 26, 1869 after it was passed by the Legislature; as reported by Kathleen Kilgore in her book, Transformations, A History of Boston University, the founders directed the inclusion in the Charter of the following provision, unusual for its time: No instructor in said University shall be required by the Trustees to profess any particular religious opinions as a test of office, no student shall be refused admission... on account of the religious opinions he may entertain.
Every department of the new university was open to all on an equal footing regardless of sex, race, or religion. The Boston Theological Institute was absorbed into Boston University in 1871 as the BU School of Theology. In January 1872 Isaac Rich died, leaving the vast bulk of his estate to a trust that would go to Boston University after ten years of growth while the University was organized. Most of this bequest consisted of real estate throughout the core of the city of Boston, appraised at more than $1.5 million. Kilgore describes this as the largest single donation to an American college or university to that time. By December, the Great Boston Fire of 1872 had destroyed all but one of the buildings Rich had left to the University, the insurance companies with which they had been insured were bankrupt; the value of his estate, when turned over to the University in 1882, was half what it had been in 1872. As a result, the University was unable to build its contemplated campus on Aspinwall Hill, the land was sold piecemeal as development sites.
Street names in the area, including Claflin Road, Claflin Path, University Road, are the only remaining evidence of University ownership in this area. Following the fire, Boston University established its new facilities in buildings scattered throughout Beacon Hill and expanded into the Boyls
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students