New Hampshire House of Representatives
The New Hampshire House of Representatives is the lower house in the New Hampshire General Court, the bicameral legislature of the state of New Hampshire. The House of Representatives consists of 400 members coming from 204 legislative districts across the state, created from divisions of the state's counties. On average, each legislator represents about 3,300 residents. Districts vary in number of seats based on their populations, with the least-populous districts electing only one member and the most populous electing 11. In multi-member districts, voters are allowed to cast as many votes; this system results in one party winning all of the seats in the district, as the results below for the current representation attest. Unlike in many state legislatures, there is no single "aisle" to cross per se, as members of both parties sit segregated in five sections; the seat section and number is put on the legislator's motor vehicle license plate, which they pay for if they wish to put one on their personal automobiles, or in the case of the chairpersons and party leaders, their title is put on the legislative plate.
Seating location is enforced, as seating is pre-assigned, although the personal preference of the legislator is asked chairmen and those with special needs are given the preferred aisle seats. The sixth section is the Speaker's seat at the head of the hall; the House of Representatives has met in Representatives Hall of the New Hampshire State House since 1819. Representatives Hall is thus the oldest chamber in the United States still in continuous legislative use. Large arched windows line the walls. On the rostrum hang portraits of John P. Hale, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election.
↑ Member was elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was elected in a special election. State of New Hampshire House of Representatives official government website Leadership Project Vote Smart – State House of New Hampshire voter information The Legislative Branch of State Government
Luther Vose Bell
Luther Vose Bell, M. D. was one of the thirteen mental hospital superintendents who met in Philadelphia in 1844 to organize the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane, now the American Psychiatric Association, the first medical specialty society in the United States. He was Superintendent of the McLean Asylum near Boston, from 1837 to 1855. Bell was born in Francestown, New Hampshire, son of state governor and two-term U. S. Senator Samuel Bell. With his younger brother John, Bell attended Phillips Academy in Andover, for a year, he entered Bowdoin College at age 12, graduated in 1823. He moved to New York to study medicine under his older brother and received a medical degree from Dartmouth College in 1826; because of his youth, he worked in New York in business until 1831, when he returned to Derry, New Hampshire, to establish his medical practice. In the 1830s, Bell submitted essays for the Boyleston Prize offered by Harvard Medical School. In 1835, he won the prize with an essay on diet, in 1836, he was one of three winners for his submission, "How Far are the Means of Exploring the Condition of the Internal Organs to be Considered Useful and Important in the Practice of Medicine?"
In addition to his medical practice, he carried on the family tradition of serving in politics and public office. He was elected in New Hampshire as a state representative and served on the legislative committee to investigate the status of the insane in New Hampshire, he lobbied vigorously for a state institution. He succeeded when the state legislature authorized its construction in Concord in 1838, it opened in 1842, he stayed politically active: campaigning for a seat in Massachusetts in 1852 and for governor in 1856, both were unsuccessful. Dr. Bell's efforts for a state mental institution in New Hampshire became known to the Trustees of McLean Asylum after the death of the superintendent. In 1836, Bell went to Boston to meet several trustees, the Board offered him the position, he began traveling to other asylums. He visited asylums in Worcester, the Hartford Retreat in Connecticut, the Bloomingdale Insane Asylum in New York, he assumed office at the McLean Asylum in February 1836. The McLean Asylum was the first mental hospital in Massachusetts and was established in 1818 as an affiliate of the Massachusetts General Hospital under Dr. Rufus Wyman.
Wyman established a treatment program known as "Moral Treatment,", instituted by the Quakers in England. Bell continued this treatment method; the establishment of the Worcester asylum under state auspices in 1833 diverted indigent patients from McLean, which allowed the staff there to treat more affluent patients and to provide patients with comforts including occupation and recreation. As the superintendent at McLean, Bell was interested in hospital ventilation, in 1848 presented the annual address to the Massachusetts Medical Society on this subject. Bell served as a forensic examiner for the Massachusetts courts. In 1850, he became a member of the Executive Committee to advise the governor in cases of application for the pardon of criminals under sentence. In 1853, he was appointed to a Board of Commissioners to examine convicts in the penitentiary who presented symptoms of mental illness, contributed cases of mental illness to masturbation. In the 1850s, Bell became interested in spiritualism.
Twice he made presentations on this subject at the annual meetings of the AMSAII. He attributed his interest to scientific research but the lack of objective findings led him to abandon his interest, he continued to write papers about the architecture of asylums, statistics of mental hospitals, the use of restraints on patients, aspects of medical jurisprudence. One of his papers described a new form of mania he had observed, termed Bell's mania but this faded away. In 1844, the Trustees of the proposed Butler Asylum in Rhode Island asked the McLean Trustees to allow Bell to visit asylums in Europe, serve as a consultant to the new Butler Hospital. Bell was granted leave by the Board of Trustees of the McLean Asylum, toured England and France. Upon his return, Bell was offered the superintendence position at Butler Asylum but declined and remained at McLean. Bell was a firm believer in the efficacy of moral treatment, he wrote to Dorothea Dix, "Each year … has served to diminish my confidence in an active medical treatment of every form of disease of the mind and to increase my reliance on moral means."
Bell was active in the AMSAII. He served as president, he served as president of the Massachusetts Medical Society in 1857. During his tenure at McLean, three of Bell's seven children died and his wife died in childbirth, he suffered bouts of pneumonia and hemoptysis. In 1856, he set up a home in Charleston, South Carolina; when his successor at the McLean Asylum died a year the Trustees asked Bell to resume his position until a new superintendent was hired. He stayed for four months. With the advent of the U. S. Civil War, Bell applied for a commission as a surgeon in the U. S. Army and was assigned to the Eleventh Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, he took part in the Battle of Bull Run in Virginia. He advanced to the post of Division Surgeon in the Eleventh Regiment under General Joseph Hooker, he died. Dr. Isaac Ray, one of the thirteen founders of the AMSAII, published "A Discourse on the Life and Character of Dr. Luther V. Bell," which he read at the annual meeting in 1862; the meeting adopted a Resolution expressing its sympathy of Dr. Bell's passing.
23rd United States Congress
The Twenty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1833, to March 4, 1835, during the fifth and sixth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830; the Senate had an Anti-Jacksonian or National Republican majority, the House had a Jacksonian or Democratic majority. March 28, 1834: Senate censured President Andrew Jackson for defunding the Second Bank of the United States January 30, 1835: Richard Lawrence unsuccessfully tried to assassinate President Jackson in the United States Capitol; the count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.
For the beginning of this congress, the size of the House was increased from 213 seats to 240 seats, following the 1830 United States Census. President: Martin Van Buren President pro tempore: Hugh Lawson White, until December 15, 1833 George Poindexter, June 28, 1834 – November 30, 1834 John Tyler, from March 3, 1835 Speaker: Andrew Stevenson, until June 2, 1834 John Bell, after June 2, 1834 This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1838; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 18 Jacksonian: 1 seat net loss Anti-Jacksonian: 1 seat net gain deaths: 8 resignations: 15 contested election: 1 Total seats with changes: 23 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Agriculture Amendments to the Constitution Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Establishing Branches of the Mint Executive Patronage Finance Foreign Relations French Spoilations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Michigan and Arkansas Admission to the Union Mileage of Members of Congress Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Pensions Post Office and Post Roads President's Message Refusing to Furnish a Paper to Senate Private Land Claims Public Lands Purchasing Boyd Reilly's Gas Apparatus Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Shiloh National Park Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture Bank of the United States Biennial Register Boundary of the Chickasaw Indians Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Establishing an Assay Office in the Gold Region Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Military Affairs Naval Affairs Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Secretary: Walter Lowrie Sergeant at Arms: Mountjoy Bayly, until December 9, 1833 John Shackford, elected December 9, 1833 Chaplain: Frederick W. Hatch Clerk: Walter S. Franklin Sergeant at Arms: Thomas B.
Randolph Doorkeeper: Overton Carr Postmaster: William J. McCormick Reading Clerks: Chaplain: Thomas H. Stockton Edward D. Smith, elected December 1, 1834 United States elections, 1832 United States presidential election, 1832 United States Senate elections, 1832 and 1833 United States House of Representatives elections, 1832 United States elections, 1834 United States Senate elections, 1834 and 1835 United States House of Representatives elections, 1834 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Congressional Directory of the 23rd Congress, 1st Session
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
John Taylor Gilman
John Taylor Gilman was a farmer and statesman from Exeter, New Hampshire. He represented New Hampshire in the Continental Congress in 1782–1783 and was Governor of New Hampshire for 14 years, from 1794 to 1805, from 1813 to 1816. Gilman was born in the Province of New Hampshire, his family had settled in Exeter since its earliest days. He lived in the Ladd-Gilman House, now a part of the American Independence Museum, he received a limited education before he entered into the family shipbuilding and mercantile businesses. Aged 22, he read aloud a Dunlap Broadside brought to New Hampshire on July 16, 1776 to the city of Exeter; the American Independence Museum commemorates his brave act every year at their American Independence Festival, where a role-player reads the Declaration in its entirety to festival-goers. Gilman was one of the Minutemen of 1775 and a selectman in 1777 and 1778. Gilman served as a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1779 and 1781 and was a delegate to the Convention of the States in Hartford, Connecticut, in October 1780.
He served as a member of the Continental Congress in 1782 and 1783. He was the New Hampshire Treasurer in 1791 and moderator in 1791–1794, 1806, 1807, 1809–1811, 1817, 1818, 1820–1825. Gilman served as Governor of New Hampshire between 1794 and 1805 and was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election in 1805, he was again a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1810 and 1811 and again an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1812. He was elected governor and served from 1813 to 1816 and declined to be a candidate for renomination for governor in 1816, he was an ex officio trustee of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, trustee by election. He was president of the board of trustees of Phillips Exeter Academy, New Hampshire, 1795–1827, donor of the oldest property, the'Yard,' upon which the older buildings stand. Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. Gilman was married to the daughter of Major General Nathaniel Folsom of Exeter, he died in Exeter on September 1, 1828.
He is the first governor of New Hampshire not to have a place in the state named after him. The town of Gilmanton, settled by 24 members of the extended Gilman clan, was named for the family as a whole and not for the Governor. Gilman's Congressional Biography Gilman, John Taylor, 1753–1828, Guide to Research Collections
New Hampshire Attorney General
The New Hampshire Attorney General is a constitutional officer of the U. S. state of New Hampshire who serves as head of the New Hampshire Department of Justice. The current state Attorney General is Gordon MacDonald. Under Part II, Article 46 of the New Hampshire Constitution, the Attorney General is appointed by the Governor with approval of the Council; the Attorney General serves a term of 4 years, as required by RSA 21-M:3, two years longer than the term of the Governor. The Attorney General and their Deputy must be "admitted to the practice of law in New Hampshire" and "be qualified by reason of education and experience." New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated Section 7:6 lists the Attorney General's "Powers and Duties as State's Attorney": Shall act as attorney for the state in all criminal and civil cases in the supreme court in which the state is interested, in the prosecution of persons accused of crimes punishable with death or imprisonment for life. Shall have and exercise general supervision of the criminal cases pending before the state supreme and superior courts, With the aid of the county attorneys, the Attorney General shall enforce the criminal laws of the state Shall have the power to collect uncollected debts owed to the state as set forth in RSA 7:15-a.
The Attorney General can choose when to relieve any officer or person of any duty prescribed by law relative to the enforcement of any criminal law. Part II, Article 71, of the state constitution, provides for County Attorneys to be elected by the inhabitants of the respective counties according to the state Election laws; however RSA 7:34 states, "the county attorney of each county shall be under the direction of the Attorney General, and, in the absence of the latter, he or she shall perform all the duties of the Attorney General's office for the county." In Wyman v. Danais, 101 N. H. 487, the New Hampshire Supreme Court held: Construed together demonstrate a legislative purpose to place ultimate responsibility for criminal law enforcement in the Attorney General, to give him the power to control and supervise criminal law enforcement by the county attorneys in cases where he deems it in the public interest. The Attorney General is required by statute to nominate a Director of Administration.
They may nominate Assistant and Senior Assistant Attorneys General, as well as Criminal Justice and Consumer Protection Investigators. Additionally, in the interest of the public welfare, the Attorney General is permitted to delegate the authority of the office to the Deputy and Assistant Attorneys General as they see fit; the Attorney General is required to nominate a Deputy Attorney General for appointment by the governor, with the consent of the council. The Deputy acts as Attorney General whenever the latter is absent or unable to act from any cause, or whenever there is a vacancy in the office, provided an Acting Attorney General has not been appointed; the Governor and Council are required by RSA 7:15 to appoint an Acting Attorney General if the Attorney General becomes incapacitated to perform his or her duties. The Acting Attorney General serves only during such incapacity and is paid a "reasonable compensation for his services and expenses." The Deputy Attorney General serves as the Acting Attorney General until the Governor and Council appoint someone to be the Acting Attorney General.
The Attorney General is permitted to appoint Assistant Attorneys General subject to the approval of the governor and council, as provided for in the budget. Assistant Attorneys General each serve a term of 5 years and should a position be vacant prior to the expiration of the term, such a vacancy can be filled for the remainder of the term. An Assistant Attorney General may be removed only as provided by RSA 4:1; the Attorney General can designate Senior Assistant Attorneys General, who serve at the pleasure of the Attorney General. Senior assistant attorneys general may serve as bureau chiefs, or in any other position as the Attorney General sees fit; the Attorney General is required to nominate, subject to confirmation by the governor and council, an unclassified Director of Administration for the Office of Attorney General, within the limits of the appropriation made for the appointment, who shall serve for a 5-year term. The director of administration may be removed only as provided by RSA 4:1.
The Attorney General may nominate Criminal Justice Investigators and Consumer Protection Investigators, subject to confirmation by the Governor and Council. Criminal Justice Investigators and Consumer Protection Investigators serve a term of five years; the investigators are given statewide law enforcement authority, are considered a "peace officer" as defined in RSA 594:1, III, which authorizes them to make arrests in a criminal case. Investigators are required to meet the certification requirements for a police officer pursuant to RSA 188-F:26. Unless investigators fails to achieve certification or are decertified by the New Hampshire Police Standards and Training Council, investigators are only subject to removal as provided by RSA 4:1. New Hampshire Attorney General official website New Hampshire Attorney General articles at Legal Newsline Legal Journal New Hampshire Attorney General articles at ABA Journal News and Commentary at FindLaw New Hampshire Revised Statutes at Law. Justia.com U.
S. Supreme Court Opinions - "Cases with title containing: State of New Hampshire" at FindLaw New Hampshire Bar Association New Hampshire Attorney General Joseph Foster profile at National Association of Attorneys General Press releases at New Hampshire Attorney General