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Samuel Butler (novelist)

Samuel Butler was the iconoclastic English author of the Utopian satirical novel Erewhon and the semi-autobiographical Bildungsroman The Way of All Flesh, published posthumously in 1903. Both have remained in print since. In other studies he examined Christian orthodoxy, evolutionary thought, Italian art, made prose translations of the Iliad and Odyssey that are still consulted today, he was an artist. Butler was born on 4 December 1835 at the rectory in the village of Langar, Nottinghamshire, to the Rev. Thomas Butler, son of Dr. Samuel Butler headmaster of Shrewsbury School and Bishop of Lichfield. Dr Butler was the son of a tradesman and descended from a line of yeomen, but his scholarly aptitude being recognised at a young age, he had been sent to Rugby and Cambridge, where he distinguished himself, his only son Thomas wished to go into the Navy, but succumbed to paternal pressure and entered the Church of England, in which he led an undistinguished career in contrast to his father's. Samuel's immediate family created for him an oppressive home environment.

Thomas Butler, states one critic, "to make up for having been a servile son, became a bullying father."Samuel Butler's relationship with his parents with his father, was antagonistic. His education included frequent beatings, as was not uncommon at the time. Samuel wrote that his parents were "brutal and stupid by nature." He recorded that his father "never liked me, nor I him. I have never passed a day without thinking of him many times over as the man, sure to be against me." Under his parents' influence, he was set on course to follow his father into the priesthood. He was sent to Shrewsbury at the age of twelve, where he did not enjoy the hard life under its headmaster, Benjamin Hall Kennedy, whom he drew as "Dr Skinner" in The Way of All Flesh. In 1854 he went up to St John's College, where he obtained a first in Classics in 1858. After Cambridge he went to live in a low-income parish in London 1858–59 as preparation for his ordination into the Anglican clergy; this experience would serve as inspiration for his work The Fair Haven.

Correspondence with his father about the issue failed to set his mind at peace, inciting instead his father's wrath. As a result, he emigrated on the ship Roman Emperor to New Zealand. Butler went there like many early British settlers of privileged origins, to put as much distance as possible between himself and his family, he wrote of his arrival and life as a sheep farmer on Mesopotamia Station in A First Year in Canterbury Settlement, made a handsome profit when he sold his farm, but the chief achievement of his time there was the drafts and source material for much of his masterpiece Erewhon. Erewhon revealed Butler's long interest in Darwin's theories of biological evolution. In 1863, four years after Darwin published On the Origin of Species, the editor of a New Zealand newspaper, The Press, published a letter captioned "Darwin among the Machines." Written by Butler but signed Cellarius it compares human evolution to machine evolution, prophesying that machines would replace man in the supremacy of the earth: "In the course of ages we shall find ourselves the inferior race."

The letter raises many of the themes now debated by proponents of the technological singularity, i. e. that computers evolve much faster than humans and that we are racing towards an unknowable future through explosive technological change. Butler spent much time criticising Darwin because Butler believed that Darwin had not sufficiently acknowledged his grandfather Erasmus Darwin's contribution to the origins of his theory. Butler returned to England in 1864, settling in rooms in Clifford's Inn, where he lived for the rest of his life. In 1872, the Utopian novel Erewhon appeared anonymously, causing some speculation as to the identity of the author; when Butler revealed himself, Erewhon made him a well-known figure, more because of this speculation than for its literary merits, which have been undisputed. In 1839 his grandfather Dr Butler had left Samuel property he owned at Whitehall in Shrewsbury on the condition that he survived his own father and his aunt, Dr Butler's daughter Harriet Lloyd.

While at Cambridge in 1857 he sold the Whitehall mansion and six acres to his cousin Thomas Bucknall Lloyd, but kept the remaining land surrounding the mansion. His aunt died in 1880 and his father's death in 1886 resolved his financial problems for the last sixteen years of his own life; the land at Whitehall was sold for housing development and he laid out and named four roads – Bishop and Canon Streets after his grandfather's and father's clerical titles, Clifford Street after his London home, Alfred Street in gratitude to his clerk. Butler indulged himself, holidaying in Italy every summer and producing, while he was there, his works on the Italian landscape and art, his close interest in the art of the Sacri Monti is reflected in Alps and Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Canton Ticino and Ex Voto. He wrote a number of other books, including Erewhon Revisited, his semi-autobiographical novel The Way of All Flesh did not appear in print until after his death, as he considered its tone of satirical attack on Victorian morality

Babak Hodjat

Babak Hodjat is the co-founder and CEO of Sentient Technologies. He is a specialist in the field of artificial machine learning. Babak Hodjat was born in 1967 in Wimbledon, he studied at Sharif University of Technology from 1986 to 1995 and received his Master of Science degree in software engineering. In 1994, together with another computer department student Hormoz Shahrzad presented their research titled Introducing a dynamic problem solving scheme based on a learning algorithm in artificial life environments at the first IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence held at Orlando. Hodjat received a PhD in machine intelligence from Kyushu University in 2003 During his time there, he published several works on adaptive agent oriented software architecture and natural language user interfaces. Hodjat moved to California in 1998 and founded Dejima Inc.. The firm was based on a patented adaptive agent-oriented software engineering platform developed by Hodjat, Christopher J. Savoie and Makoto Amamiya.

Hodjat served as the CTO and as the CEO for 9 months from October 2000. By 2000 the company had offices in San Jose and Tokyo. In 2002, the company developed a voice control Natural Interaction Platform in collaboration with the Stanford University's research group Archimedes Project. During these years Hodjat continued his research on agent oriented software architecture and natural language user interfaces. In July 2003, Dejima got funding from SRI International within the Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes project of DARPA and worked on a Perceptive Assistant that Learns initiative. Hodjat was the primary inventor of the firm's agent-oriented technology applied to intelligent interfaces for mobile and enterprise computing – a technology that led to Siri. In April 2004, Dejima was acquired by Sybase iAnywhere. Hodjat served as Senior Director of Engineering at Sybase iAnywhere from 2004 to 2008, where he developed AvantGo Platform, mBusiness Anywhere and Answers Anywhere. In 2006, he co-founded MobileVerbs Inc. a mobile marketing service company, acquired by iLoop Mobile in February 2010.

In 2007, he teamed with Antoine Blondeau and Adam Cheyer to establish Genetic Finance Holding Ltd.. In 2014 the firm became Sentient Technologies. Hodjat was joined by his long-time research fellow Hormoz Shahrzad who became Principal Scientist, while Hodjat held the position of Chief Scientist). In the following years Hodjat has worked on developing massively distributed computing technology and improving machine-learning technique known as evolutionary algorithms. One area that gained special attention from the press was applying Sentient Technologies algorithms to a stock market trading through specially created Sentient Investment Management hedge fund. Following the management change within Sentient Technologies, Hodjat became the company's CEO in February 2017, he continues educational projects. Hodjat, B.. "Introducing a dynamic problem solving scheme based on a learning algorithm in artificial life environments". IEEE International Joint Conference on neural networks. 4. IEEE International Joint Conference on neural networks.

Pp. 2333–2338. Doi:10.1109/ICNN.1994.374583. ISBN 978-0-7803-1901-1. Hodjat, B.. J.. "An adaptive agent oriented software architecture". PRICAI'98: Topics in Artificial Intelligence. Springer. Pp. 33–46. ArXiv:cs/9812014. Doi:10.1007/BFb0095256. ISBN 978-3-540-49461-4. Hodjat, B.. "Applying the Adaptive Agent Oriented Software Architecture to the Parsing of Context Sensitive Grammars". IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Systems. E83-D: 1142–1152. ISSN 0916-8532. Retrieved 2017-12-14. Hodjat, Babak. "CRUSE: a context reactive natural language mobile interface". Proceedings of the 2nd annual international workshop on Wireless internet. WICON. Doi:10.1145/1234161.1234181. ISBN 978-1-59593-510-6. O'Reilly, Una-May. "Chapter 6: EC-Star: A Massive-Scale and Spoke, Distributed Genetic Programming System". In Riolo, R.. H.. Genetic Programming Theory and Practice X. Springer-Verlag New York. Pp. 73–85. Doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-6846-2. ISBN 978-1-4614-6845-5. Retrieved 2017-12-14. Hodjat, Babak. "Chapter 4: Maintenance of a Long Running Distributed Genetic Programming System for Solving Problems Requiring Big Data".

In Riolo, Rick. Genetic Programming Theory and Practice XI. Springer-Verlag New York. Pp. 65–83. Doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-0375-7. ISBN 978-1-4939-0374-0. Retrieved 2017-12-14. Shahrzad, Hormoz. "Estimating the Advantage of Age-Layering in Evolutionary Algorithms". Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference 2016. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Pp. 693–699. Doi:10.1145/2908812.2908911. ISBN 978-1-4503-4206-3. Babak Hodjat holds 21 patents in the fields of agent-oriented programming, natural language decision engines, distributed evolutionary algorithms for asset management and trading and data mining. Babak Hodjat profile at Sentient Technology website Babak Hodjat Twitter profile

Rockwall, Texas

Rockwall is a city in Rockwall County, United States, part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. It is the county seat of Rockwall County; the population was 37,490 at the 2010 census. The name Rockwall is derived from a jointed geological formation, which has the appearance of an artificial wall; the association of Paleo-Indian artifacts with extinct Pleistocene mammal remains in various archeological sites within in the Texas Prairie-Savannah Region of eastern North Central Texas, including a site in Collin County and Clovis points recovered from the Brushy Creek Clovis Site in Hunt County, demonstrates that Rockwall region was occupied by prehistoric Native American cultures at least as far back as 13,500 to 13,000 years ago. More the Rockwall region was occupied by Caddo Indians. Creek Indians moved to the area in the early 19th century. In 1851, as the first Anglo-American settlers moved to the area, they started to dig wells. During the digging, they found large underground rock walls that were believed to be manmade.

Study of the wall-like features by geologists and archaeologists found them to be jointed, natural sandstone dikes that had intruded Cretaceous marl. In 2013, forensic geologist, Scott Wolter, on the television show America Unearthed, visited Rockwall to investigate the claims that the wall might have been manmade, the conclusion of the episode was that the underground structure was natural and not man-made; the town was named after these natural rock walls. While part of Kaufman County, in 1873, Rockwall County was formed with Rockwall being the county seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.6 square miles, of which, 22.3 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. Rockwall is on the east shore of Lake Ray Hubbard about 20 miles northeast of Dallas, it is on state highways 205 and 66, north of Interstate 30. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rockwall has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.

As of the census of 2000, there were 17,976 people, 6,605 households, 5,158 families residing in the city. The population density was 806.9 people per square mile. There were 7,089 housing units at an average density of 318.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.35% White, 3.00% African American, 0.38% Native American, 1.39% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.57% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.44% of the population. There were 6,605 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.8% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.9% were non-families. 18.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $65,411, the median income for a family was $75,121. Males had a median income of $55,370 versus $35,139 for females; the per capita income for the city was $29,843. About 3.2% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over. Though Rockwall County is the smallest county in Texas, it is one of the top five fastest-growing counties in the United States; as of the 2006 census by the North Texas Central Council of Governments, the city had a population of 29,500. In 2006, Rockwall County was the fastest-growing county in the United States by population. According to the City's 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Fund Financial Statements, the city’s various funds had $39.0 million in Revenues, $42.2 million in expenditures, $32.3 million in total assets, $3.6 million in total liabilities, $25.9 million in investments.

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is: The city of Rockwall is a voluntary member of the North Central Texas Council of Governments association, the purpose of, to coordinate individual and collective local governments and facilitate regional solutions, eliminate unnecessary duplication, enable joint decisions. Rockwall is represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Bob Hall, District 2, in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Justin Holland, District 33. At the Federal level, the two U. S. Senators from Texas are Ted Cruz; the city is served by the Rockwall Independent School District. There are two public high schools in Rockwall: Rockwall-Heath High School. There are eleven elementary schools, three middle schools, two high schools in Rockwall; the city is home to the Higher Education Center at Rockwall, part of the community college district, Collin College. The campus is the District's first campus outside of Collin County itself. Texas A&M University-Commerce holds classes at the Center.

Texas A&M University-Commerce has a campus located at the Rockwall Technology Park. Rockwall