Parks College of Engineering, Aviation and Technology
Parks College of Engineering and Technology is a college within Saint Louis University. Parks Air College was founded by Oliver Parks in 1927. Parks was America's first federally certified school of aviation, holding the FAA Air Agency Certificate no. 1. Oliver Parks started as the sole flight instructor with two instruction aircraft at Lambert airfield; the venture nearly ended when Parks crashed a Laird Swallow training aircraft leaving only one remaining trainer and was unable to teach lessons while in the hospital. He bought 100 acres in East St. Louis in 1928, built five buildings the same year. By 1929 Parks operated 35 TravelAir trainers with an enrollment of 600 students. Parks College was a publicly traded company. During the great depression, the Detroit Aircraft Corporation bought up eighty percent of the stock as part of a large merger of aviation entities. Oliver Parks sold most of his assets to buy back a controlling interest; the college students manufactured their own series of biplane aircraft, including the Parks P2A, which became the "hero" of books by author Richard Bach.
The college got out of the manufacturing business, selling the P2A rights to Ryan as the Ryan Speedster, the Hammond 100. In 1931 Parks offered an Executive Transport Pilot's course. In the 1930s those enrolled as aeronautical engineers, had to design and test fly their own aircraft. By 1936 the enrollment reached 200 students, with a training fleet that consisted of 49 aircraft including the Kinner Sportster, Lambert Monocoach twin. In 1938 Oliver Parks, Curtis-Wright Technical Institute, Boeing School of Aeronautics were requested by Gen Arnold to establish, at their own risk, a Civilian Pilot Training Program including barracks and aircraft to provide basic training for thousands of pilots; as enrollment swelled, Parks further expanded his facilities to include operations at Cape Girardeau and Sikeston, Tuscaloosa and Jackson, Mississippi. Parks College trained thousands of aviators and aircraft mechanics during World War II. By the end of the war, more than 37,000 cadets had received their primary flight instruction at a Parks institution.
A variety of training aircraft were used including PT-13, PT-17, PT-19, the locally built PT-15 trainers. In 1935 Parks College started Parks College Airline, a student run airline on a single routes between the College and Chicago, Memphis and Kansas City; the airline operated into the 1950s flying Cessna T-50 Bamboo Bombers. In 1944 Parks started a training curriculum to train female pilots; the students flew in ERCO Ercoupes with two-control flight systems. Following the rapid decline in wartime training, Parks concluded that future aviation leaders would need a broader, more academic education. Parks donated the college valued at $3 million to Saint Louis University in 1946, remembering the Jesuit help he received after his 1928 air crash. Wernher von Braun donated a V-2 rocket engine from the White Sands Missile Range to the college after a visit in the 1950s. By the late 1990s Parks campus expanded including a Mach 4 windtunnel; the training fleet consisted of Cessna 152, Mooney Cessna 310 models.
Women in Aviation, International founder Dr. Peggy Baty joined Parks College serving from 1990–1995. In 1996, Saint Louis University closed the historic Cahokia, Illinois campus and sold it to the village. Classes are now held in the new McDonnell-Douglas Hall building on the Frost Campus in mid-town St Louis. Flight training remained at St. Louis Downtown Airport; the move to the Frost campus allowed Masters programs to be added. The college provides many science classes for the main campus. Now known as Parks College of Engineering and Technology, it is a modern, active part of the university. In 2008, the FAA granted the college $2.25 million to form the Center for Aviation Safety Research. The center is focused on Safety Management Systems, Safety Culture, Maintenance Aviation Safety Programs, Next Generation Safety Assessment, Incident Investigation, Multi-Risk Analysis, Next-Generation Maintenance and Engineering. In November 2013, Parks engineering students launched COPPER from the Wallops Flight Facility.
The microsatellite will be controlled from the St. Louis campus for a period of a year. Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering Aviation Science Biomedical Engineering Electrical & Computer Engineering Civil Engineering Interdisciplinary Engineering Physics Francis Gabreski – World War II Ace that received primary training at Parks. Gene Kranz – NASA Flight Director. Earl T. Ricks – United States Air Force Major General, Director of the Air National Guard and Mayor of Hot Springs, Arkansas Harrison Thyng – Multiple World War II and Korean War Ace. Richard G. Thomas – Aeronautical Engineering, Northrop Grumman, Tacit Blue/Area 51. Boeing Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS. Captain A. A. Brockland, Barn Stormer, Senior Flight Instructor Parks -WW2, C and S, Delta Airline pilot. Wernher von Braun Gerald P. Carr – NASA Skylab 4 Commander. Parks College of Engineering and Technology
Laumeier Sculpture Park
Laumeier Sculpture Park is a 105-acre open-air museum and sculpture park located in Sunset Hills, near St. Louis and is maintained in partnership with St. Louis County Parks and Recreation Department, it houses over 60 outdoor sculptures and features a 1.4-mile walking trail, educational programs. There is an indoor gallery, an 1816 Tudor stone mansion, the former residence of Henry and Matilda Laumeier. Laumeier is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums; the park operates on a $1.5 million budget. The park was founded in 1968 by a property grant in the will of Matilda C. Laumeier, was intended as a memorial to her deceased husband, Henry H. Laumeier; the will gave their land and country house to the county, specified that would be used for passive purposes. The park was 76 acres at its opening in 1975, but did not attract many visitors until a year when St. Louis sculptor Ernest Trova donated about 40 pieces of his work to the park, it soon became a popular tourist attraction, received an additional 20 acres from the Friends of Laumeier.
The additional land was woods and is for site-specific sculptures, including an abandoned Depression-era concrete pool from the Orchard Valley estate that once occupied the land, transformed into a large sculpture. The founding executive director of the Sculpture Park was Dr. Beej Nierengarten-Smith, whose tenure lasted 22 years from October 1979 to May 2001. During these early years the park won 6 operating grants and 2 conservation grants from the Institute of Museum and Library Services, including a grant to create an informative video on the park and an architectural assessment of its buildings; the park received 22 grants from the National Endowment for the Arts for exhibitions and sculpture commissions. An endowment fund was created, valued at $2 million by 2000, the park's operating fund increased from an initial $30,000 from St Louis County to over one million from combined resources. A variety of national and international sculptors were featured, including Terry Allen, Manuel Neri, Andy Goldsworthy, Judith Shea, Joyce J. Scott.
Fifty percent of featured artists were women. Nierengarten-Smith created the Contemporary Arts and Crafts Fair for education revenue, the Winter Solstice Program Fire and Ice, the Sand Castle Festival, Safari Camp in the woods for children and parents, numerous other festivals for diverse audiences, including children. A volunteer program for the park and its special events was created. During the first 22 years, attendance rose from several hundred to 500,000 people, the park twice received museum accreditation from the American Association of Museums; when Nierengarten-Smith retired in 2001, Glen Gentele became executive director. In September 2009 when Gentele accepted a position at another museum, Marilu Knode came from Arizona State University, where she was head of research for Future Arts Research, to become the current executive director. Knode was the former head of research at Future Arts Research at Arizona State University; the park has raised significant funds for a new fine arts center.
Lawrence Scarpa of the firm Brooks + Scarpa Architects, which won the 2010 AIA Architecture Firm Award designed the Adam Aronson Fine Arts Center. Plans for this building were tabled and a less ambitious facility was constructed in 2015—designed by a regional architecture firm. One of the park's best-known works, "The Way", was completed by Alexander Liberman in 1980. Constructed from eighteen salvaged steel oil tanks, the sculpture is 65 feet tall, 102 feet wide, 100 feet deep, weighs 55 short tons, it is painted cadmium red. The park website describes the sculpture as a modernist work, "meant to represent the awe-inspiring impact of classical Greek temples and mammoth Gothic-style cathedrals" and modeled on post and lintel architecture."The Way" was composed on-site in a clearing named "Way Field". The work was funded by the National Endowment for a donation by Alvin J. Siteman. In September 2011, it was restored by two workers using 50 US gallons of paint; the St. Louis Post-Dispatch described it as "iconic", while another St. Louis newspaper, the Riverfront Times, described the sculpture as having become "a symbol of both the park and the city".
Missouri Botanical Garden Official Site
Greater St. Louis
Greater St. Louis is a bi-state metropolitan area that surrounds and includes the independent city of St. Louis, it includes parts of both the U. S. states of Illinois. The city core is on the Mississippi Riverfront on the border with Illinois in the geographic center of the metro area; the Mississippi River bisects the metro area in half geographically between Missouri. St. Louis is the second largest in Illinois. St. Louis County is independent of the City of St. Louis and their two populations are tabulated separately; the St. Louis, MO-IL metropolitan statistical area —and the focus of this page—includes the City of St. Louis; the larger St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL combined statistical area includes all of the aforementioned MSA, plus the Farmington, MO micropolitan statistical area, which includes all of St. Francois County and the Centralia, IL micropolitan statistical area, which includes Marion County, Illinois; as of 2017 data, the MSA is the 21st-largest in the country that year with a population of 2,807,338.
Due to nearly zero growth in St. Louis paired with rapid growth in the Sun Belt and Florida, the St. Louis MSA fell out of the Top 20 Largest MSAs in the United States in 2017 for the first time since 1840; as of 2018, Greater St. Louis is home to the headquarters of ten of Missouri's eleven Fortune 500 companies, six Fortune 1,000 companies, two of the top 30 Largest Private Companies in America, as ranked by Forbes; the area received the All-America City Award in 2008. The history of St. Louis, Missouri began with the settlement of the St. Louis area by Native American mound builders who lived as part of the Mississippian culture from the 9th century to the 15th century, followed by other migrating tribal groups. Starting in the late 17th century, French explorers arrived. Spain took over in 1763 and a trading company established the settlement of St. Louis in February 1764; the city became part of the U. S. through the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The American Civil War saw St. Louis had a small skirmish on its outskirts, but was held under Union control.
After the war, the city expanded industrial activity. Franklin County MO: Berger, New Haven, Pacific, St. Clair, Union, Washington Jefferson County MO: Arnold, Byrnes Mill, Crystal City, De Soto, Herculaneum, Imperial, Pevely Lincoln County MO: Elsberry, Moscow Mills, Old Monroe, Winfield St. Francois County MO: Bonne Terre, Farmington, Park Hills St. Charles County MO: Cottleville, Dardenne Prairie, Foristell, Lake St. Louis, New Melle, O'Fallon, St. Charles, St. Peters, Weldon Spring, West Alton St. Louis: City of St. Louis St. Louis County MO: Affton, Bel-Nor, Bel-Ridge, Bella Villa, Bellefontaine Neighbors, Berkeley, Beverly Hills, Black Jack, Breckenridge Hills, Bridgeton, Calverton Park, Charlack, Clarkson Valley, Cool Valley, Country Club Hills, Country Life Acres, Creve Coeur, Crystal Lake Park, Des Peres, Ellisville, Fenton, Flordell Hills, Frontenac, Glen Echo Park, Grantwood Village, Green Park, Hanley Hills, Hillsdale, Kinloch, Jennings, Lakeshire, Maplewood, Maryland Heights, Moline Acres, Northwoods, Norwood Court, Olivette, Pacific, Pasadena Hills, Pasadena Park, Pine Lawn, Richmond Heights, Rock Hill, St. Ann, St. John, Spanish Lake, Sunset Hills, Sycamore Hills, Town & Country, Twin Oaks, University City, Uplands Park, Valley Park, Velda City, Velda Village Hills, Vinita Park, Warson Woods, Webster Groves, Westwood, Wilbur Park, Winchester, Woodson Terrace Warren County MO: Foristell, Truesdale, Wright City Bond County IL: Greenville, Sorento Calhoun County IL: Brussels, Kampsville Clinton County IL: Aviston, Breese, Centralia, New Baden, Trenton Jersey County IL: Grafton, Jerseyville Macoupin County IL: Benld, Bunker Hill, Gillespie, Mt. Olive, Virden Madison County IL: Alhambra, Bethalto, East Alton, Godfrey, Glen Carbon, Granite City, Hartford, Livingston, Marine, New Douglas, Pontoon Beach, South Roxana, St. Jacob, Venice, Wood River, Worden Monroe County IL: Columbia, Valmeyer, Waterloo St. Clair County IL: Alorton, Brooklyn, Caseyville, Dupo, East Carondelet, East St. Louis, Fairmont City, Fairview Heights, Freeburg, Marissa, Millstadt, New Athens, O'Fallon, Shiloh, Smithton, St. Libory, Washington ParkAs noted above, the Greater St. Louis area includes two cities named O'Fallon and two cities named Troy.
The nearby Hannibal–Quincy micropolitan areas are technically not located within the metropolitan, but are regionally associated due to their proximity and accessibility to Gr
Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University is a private Roman Catholic four-year research university with campuses in St. Louis, United States and Madrid, Spain. Founded in 1818 by Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, It is the oldest university west of the Mississippi River and the second-oldest Jesuit university in the United States, it is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities. The university is accredited by the North Central Association of Secondary Schools. SLU's athletic teams are a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, it has an enrollment of 12,649 students, including 7,984 undergraduate students and 4,665 graduate students that represents all 50 states and more than 70 foreign countries. Its average class size is 23.8 and the student-faculty ratio is 9:1. For nearly 50 years the university has maintained a campus in Spain; the Madrid campus was the first freestanding campus operated by an American university in Europe and the first American institution to be recognized by Spain's higher education authority as an official foreign university.
The campus has 826 students, a faculty of 110, an average class size of 15 and a student-faculty ratio of 7:1. Saint Louis University traces its origins to the Saint Louis Academy, founded on November 16, 1818 by the Most Reverend Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, Bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas, placed under the charge of the Reverend François Niel and others of the secular clergy attached to the Saint Louis Cathedral, its first location was in a private residence near the Mississippi River in an area now occupied by the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial within the Archdiocese of St. Louis. Having a two-story building for the 65 students using Bishop Dubourg's personal library of 8,000 volumes for its printed materials, the name Saint Louis Academy was changed in 1820 to Saint Louis College. In 1827 Bishop Dubourg placed Saint Louis College in the care of the Society of Jesus. Not long after that, it received its charter as a university by act of the Missouri Legislature. In 1829 it moved to Washington Avenue and Ninth at the site of today's America's Center by the Edward Jones Dome.
In 1852 the university and its teaching priests were the subject of a viciously anti-Catholic novel, The Mysteries of St. Louis, written by newspaper editor Henry Boernstein whose popular paper, the Anzeiger des Westens was a foe of the university. In 1867 after the American Civil War the University purchased "Lindell's Grove" to be the site of its current campus. Lindell's Grove was the site of the Civil War "Camp Jackson Affair". On May 10, 1861 U. S. Regulars and Federally enrolled Missouri Volunteers arrested the Missouri Volunteer Militia after the militia received a secret shipment of siege artillery, infantry weapons and ammunition from the Confederate Government. While the Militia was arrested without violence, angry local citizens rushed to the site, rioting broke out, in which 28 people were killed; the Camp Jackson Affair lead to open conflict within the state, culminating with a successful Federal offensive in mid-June 1861 which expelled the state's pro-secession governor Claiborne Fox Jackson from the state capitol.
Jackson led a Missouri Confederate government-in-exile, dying of cancer in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1862. The first building on campus, DuBourg Hall, began construction in 1888, the college moved to its new location in 1889. St. Francis Xavier College Church moved to its current location with the completion of the lower church in 1884, it was completed in 1898. During the early 1940s, many local priests the Jesuits, began to challenge the segregationist policies at the city's Catholic colleges and parochial schools. After the Pittsburgh Courier, an African-American newspaper, ran a 1944 exposé on St. Louis Archbishop John J. Glennon's interference with the admittance of a black student at the local Webster College, Fr. Claude Heithaus, SJ, professor of Classical Archaeology at Saint Louis University, delivered an angry homily accusing his own institution of immoral behavior in its segregation policies. By summer of 1944, Saint Louis University had opened its doors to African Americans, after its president, Father Patrick Holloran, secured Glennon's reluctant approval.
1818 – First institution of higher learning west of the Mississippi River 1832 – First graduate programs west of the Mississippi River 1836 – First medical school west of the Mississippi River 1843 – First in the West to open a school of law 1906 – First forward pass in football history 1910 – First business school west of the Mississippi River 1925 – First department of geophysics in the Western Hemisphere 1927 – First federally licensed school of aviation 1944 – First university in Missouri to establish an official policy admitting African-American students, integrating its student body 1959 - First dual credit program west of the Mississippi, named the 1818 Project and now known as the 1818 Advanced College Credit Program 1967 – First major Catholic institution in the world with an integrated lay and religious board of trustees 1972 – First human heart transplant in Missouri 2000 – First Doctor of Philosophy degree in aviation in the world awarded In 1967, Saint Louis University became one of the first Catholic universities to increase layperson decision making power.
At the time board chairman Fr. Paul Reinert, SJ, stepped aside to be replaced by layman Daniel Schlafly; the board shifted to an 18 to 10 majority of laypeople. This was instituted due to the landmark Maryland Court of Appeals case, Horace Mann vs. the Board of Public Works of Maryland, in
Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis
The Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis is an art museum for contemporary art, located in St. Louis, Missouri, it is referred to as CAM St. Louis The institution that would become CAM was established in 1980, operated under a number of names including First Street Forum and the Forum for Contemporary Art. On September 19, 2003, the Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis moved to the new building, designed by architect Brad Cloepfil, in the Grand Center Arts and Entertainment District in midtown St. Louis; the museum has exhibited over 260 artists. It shows six Main Gallery exhibitions each year of American and international artists, it has exhibited work by Richard Aldrich, Laylah Ali, Lutz Bacher, Rosa Barba, Leslie Hewitt, Hayv Kahraman, Elad Lassry, Marilyn Minter, Gedi Sibony, Carey Young, Richard Artschwager, Jim Hodges, Sean Landers, Cindy Sherman, Arcangelo Sassolino, Amy Sherald. CAM St. Louis is a non-collecting institution. Contemporary Art Museum St. Louis
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, regional character. Most architecture can be classified within a chronology of styles which changes over time reflecting changing fashions and religions, or the emergence of new ideas, technology, or materials which make new styles possible. Styles therefore emerge from the history of a society, they are documented in the subject of architectural history. At any time several styles may be fashionable, when a style changes it does so as architects learn and adapt to new ideas; the new style is sometimes only a rebellion against an existing style, such as post-modernism, which has in recent years found its own language and split into a number of styles which have acquired other names. Styles spread to other places, so that the style at its source continues to develop in new ways while other countries follow with their own twist.
For instance, Renaissance ideas emerged in Italy around 1425 and spread to all of Europe over the next 200 years, with the French, German and Spanish Renaissances showing recognisably the same style, but with unique characteristics. A style may spread through colonialism, either by foreign colonies learning from their home country, or by settlers moving to a new land. One example is the Spanish missions in California, brought by Spanish priests in the late 18th century and built in a unique style. After a style has gone out of fashion, revivals and re-interpretations may occur. For instance, classicism found new life as neoclassicism; each time it is revived, it is different. The Spanish mission style was revived 100 years as the Mission Revival, that soon evolved into the Spanish Colonial Revival. Vernacular architecture is listed separately; as vernacular architecture is better understood as suggestive of culture, writ broadly, it technically can encompass every architectural style--or none at all.
In and of itself, vernacular architecture is not a style. Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and mostly German-speaking field of art history. Important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continued the debate into the 20th century. Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and space; this type of art history is known as formalism, or the study of forms or shapes in art. Semper, Wölfflin, Frankl, Ackerman, had backgrounds in the history of architecture, like many other terms for period styles, "Romanesque" and "Gothic" were coined to describe architectural styles, where major changes between styles can be clearer and more easy to define, not least because style in architecture is easier to replicate by following a set of rules than style in figurative art such as painting.
Terms originated to describe architectural periods were subsequently applied to other areas of the visual arts, more still to music and the general culture. In architecture stylistic change follows, is made possible by, the discovery of new techniques or materials, from the Gothic rib vault to modern metal and reinforced concrete construction. A major area of debate in both art history and archaeology has been the extent to which stylistic change in other fields like painting or pottery is a response to new technical possibilities, or has its own impetus to develop, or changes in response to social and economic factors affecting patronage and the conditions of the artist, as current thinking tends to emphasize, using less rigid versions of Marxist art history. Although style was well-established as a central component of art historical analysis, seeing it as the over-riding factor in art history had fallen out of fashion by World War II, as other ways of looking at art were developing, a reaction against the emphasis on style developing.
According to James Elkins "In the 20th century criticisms of style were aimed at further reducing the Hegelian elements of the concept while retaining it in a form that could be more controlled". While many architectural styles explore harmonious ideals, Mannerism wants to take style a step further and explores the aesthetics of hyperbole and exaggeration. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial qualities. Mannerism favours compositional instability rather than balance and clarity; the definition of Mannerism, the phases within it, continues to be the subject of debate among art historians. An example of mannerist architecture is the Villa Farnese at Caprarola in the rugged country side outside of Rome; the proliferation of engravers during the 16th century spread Mannerist styles more than any previous styles. A center of Mannerist design was Antwerp during its 16th-century boom. Through Antwerp and Mannerist styles were introduced in England and northern and eastern Europe in general.
Dense with ornament of "Roman" detailing, the display doorway at Colditz Castle exemplifies this northern style, characteristically applie
St. Francis Xavier College Church
St. Francis Xavier College Church is a Catholic church in the Midtown neighborhood of St. Louis, United States; the church was founded by the Society of Jesus and serves as a parish church in the Archdiocese of St. Louis and for the Saint Louis University community, it is a contributing property in the Midtown Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places and it is listed as a City Landmark in St. Louis; the parish was established in 1836 when St. Louis Bishop Joseph Rosati, C. M. permitted the Jesuits to establish a parish at their college. It was St. Louis' first English-speaking parish; the congregation met in the college's student chapel, dedicated to St. Aloysius Gonzaga; the chapel was located on Washington Avenue between Tenth Streets. As the parish grew plans for its own building were begun; the cornerstone for the first church was laid on April 1840, by Bishop Rosati. It was located at the intersection of Christy Avenue. While from its beginning the church was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier it has always been popularly called the College Church.
Saint Louis University moved to its present location on Grand Boulevard in 1867. Archbishop Peter Richard Kenrick gave permission in 1879 for the College Church to move to the new campus. Plans for the current church were drawn up by St. Louis architect Thomas Walsh, he had designed DuBourg Hall, which served as the only university building for several years. Excavation for the new church began on June 8, 1884, the cornerstone was laid by Coadjutor Archbishop Patrick J. Ryan, he was assisted by Bishops William H. Gross, C. Ss. R. of Savannah and Joseph Dwenger, C. Pp. S. of Fort Wayne. By the end of the year, the lower church was completed and a roof built over it, it served the parish as its church. The upper church was built as finances allowed; the original architect, died before it could be built. The Rev. Henry C. Bronsgeest, S. J. the parish pastor, hired Chicago architect Henry Switzer to complete the church. Bronsgeest had the upper church modeled after St. Colman's Cathedral in Ireland; the church was completed with the exception of the spire on top of the tower.
It was completed in 1914 and bells were placed in the tower at the same time. The windows were created by Emil Frei, Jr. and they were installed from 1929 to 1938. George and Anna Backer provided the funding for the windows; the church was listed as a City Landmark in St. Louis in 1976, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a contributing property in the Midtown Historic District in 1978. A major renovation of the church was completed in 1990. Media related to St. Francis Xavier College Church, St. Louis at Wikimedia Commons Official website