Petone is a large suburb of Lower Hutt, in the Wellington Region of New Zealand's North Island. It is located on the northern shore of Wellington Harbour; the name, from the Māori Pito-one, means "end of the sand beach". Petone was first settled by Europeans in 1840, making it one of the oldest settlements in the Wellington Region, it became a borough in 1888, merged with Hutt City in 1989. Petone was the first European settlement in the Wellington region and retains many historical buildings and landmarks. A substantial Maori pa was established at Pito-one close to the beach when the first European settlers arrived in the region; the first European settlers in large numbers arrived on 22 January 1840, on the ship Aurora carrying 25 married couples, 36 single persons and 40 children. The locality was described as, "sandy beach, about two miles long... bounded on either side by wooded hills from 300 to 400 feet in height. It was covered in high forest to within a mile and a half of the beach, when swamps full of flax and a belt of sand hummocks intervened."
The Maori from the nearby pa came to meet them, one passenger's diary recording, "the venerable old chief Te Puni... together with sons and endless relatives and a pa full of natives who were delighted to greet us with'Kapai-te-Pakeha' and other expressions of greeting". A beach settlement of small wooden houses and tents was established, called Britannia; the earliest European settlers found life hard. The settlement grew: the population of "Pito-one and Hutt" in 1845 was given as 649, compared to, "Town of Wellington" of 2,667. In 1850 the Maori pa at Pito-one was described as, "the largest and best fortified within the District of Wellington... their cultivations of kumara and maize look well and the residents, in point of comfort and wealth, are better off than any of the Port Nicholson natives... total population 136." There was horse racing at Pito-one Beach on 20 October 1842, attracting a crowd of five or six hundred people from Wellington. The site for the principal settlement in the area was designated as Thorndon around the shores of what is now the city of Wellington, New Zealand's capital.
Petone gained borough status in 1888. For much of the 20th century, Petone was a thriving working-class town and the location of several large industrial sites, including two car assembly plants, a meat processing plant, a wool processing plant, a tobacco processing plant, a soap factory and a toothpaste factory; the majority of these closed in the 1980s, resulting in gradual economic decline. Petone Borough amalgamated with Lower Hutt as a result of the local government reform in 1989; the suburb has since enjoyed renewed economic growth, using its early European heritage as a draw for tourists and gaining many cafes and shops. It is home of the Petone Rugby Club, one of the world's leading clubs since 1885; some of New Zealand's first State housing was constructed in Petone in 1906, with some of the original houses remaining in good condition. The local tourist office provides a guide showing; the Te Puna Wai Ora in Buick Street provides pure untreated artesian water from taps. The water originates from the Hutt River at the Taita Gorge and is safe to drink in its natural form as it has been filtered through the alluvial gravels and sands of the Hutt Valley over several years.
It is free valued and consumers travel long distances to collect the water for drinking purposes. Petone Community Library access via Jackson Street. Petone Settlers Museum, housed in the Wellington Provincial Centennial Memorial on the Petone foreshore. Honiana Te Puni-kokopu New Zealand Wars memorial in the Te Puni Street urūpa; the Petone Rotary Fair is a notable local event, held annually since 1992, that draws people from all over the greater Wellington region to Jackson Street, Petone's main thoroughfare, closed off to traffic. The purpose of the fair is not only to raise the profile of Petone and provide an enjoyable day out, but to raise money for charity; the fair consists of various stalls selling everything from plants, jewellery, CDs & DVDs, cosmetics and drink, etc. as well as musicians, carnival rides, displays from various organisations such as the New Zealand Fire Service. Petone has three schools Petone Central School is a state full primary school in central Petone, has 81 students as of August 2018.
Sacred Heart School is a state-integrated Catholic full primary school in central Petone, has 158 students as of August 2018. Wilford School is a state full primary school in northeastern Petone, has 346 students as of August 2018. Since Petone College closed in 1998, Hutt Valley High School in central Lower Hutt has been the nearest state secondary school to Petone; the main campus of the Wellington Institute of Technology is located in Petone. Wellington Region
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there to colonize the area. Settlers are from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are built on land claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by large countries, they sometimes leave in search of religious freedom. One can witness how settlers often occupied land residents to long-established peoples, designated as indigenous. In some cases, as colonialist mentalities and laws change, the legal ownership of some lands is contested by indigenous people, who either claim or seek restoration of traditional usage, land rights, native title and related forms of legal ownership or partial control; the word "settler" was not usually used in relation to a variety of peoples who became a part of settler societies, such as enslaved Africans, indentured labourers, or convicts. In the figurative usage, a "person who goes first or does something first" applies to the American English use of "pioneer" to refer to a settler—a person who has migrated to a less occupied area and established permanent residence there to colonize the area.
In United States history it refers to those people. In Canada, the Indian Act, passed in 1876, created a fundamental division between First Nations peoples and all others, who are termed Settlers; as the Indian Act is still in force, this distinction continues to present day with an existing Indigenous-Settler division, set in a settler-colonial context where it reproduces an inequitable racial structure. In this usage, pioneers are among the first to an area, whereas settlers can arrive after first settlement and join others in the process of human settlement; this correlates with the work of military pioneers who were tasked with construction of camps before the main body of troops would arrive at the designated campsite. In Imperial Russia, the government invited Russians or foreign nationals to settle in sparsely populated lands; these settlers were called "colonists". See, e.g. articles Slavo-Serbia, Volga German, Russians in Kazakhstan. Although they are thought of as traveling by sea—the dominant form of travel in the early modern era—significant waves of settlement could use long overland routes, such as the Great Trek by the Boer-Afrikaners in South Africa, or the Oregon Trail in the United States.
Anthropologists record tribal displacement of native settlers who drive another tribe from the lands it held, such as the settlement of lands in the area now called Carmel-by-the-Sea, California where Ohlone peoples settled in areas inhabited by the Esselen tribe. In the Middle East, there are a number of references to various squatter and specific policies referred as "settler". Among those: Iraq – the Arabization program of the Ba'ath Party in the late 1970s in North Iraq, which aimed at settling Arab populations instead of Kurds following the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Israel – Israelis who moved to areas captured during the Six-Day War in 1967 are termed Israeli settlers. In recent years Israeli settlers have been settling in Palestinian territory such as the Gaza Strip and West Bank. However, this has caused political unrest and many settlers are forcibly removed from their settlements by the Israeli government. Syria – In recent times, Arab settlers have moved in large numbers to ethnic minority areas, such as northeast Syria.
Women and children experience violence in these dangerous areas because of the conflict. Many natives face displacement. During 1948 Palestine war, in which Israel was created, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced from their homes and not allowed to return. Oftentimes fences or walls are built preventing the natives from traveling back onto the land. Settlements can make it difficult for native people to continue their work. For example, if the settlers take part of the land which the olive trees grow on the natives no longer have access to those olive trees and their livelihood is compromised. Many are met with violence. Settlers in hypothetical societies, such as on other planets feature in science fiction or fantasy fiction and/or video games. Mascot for Texas Woman's University, more there called the "Pioneer." The reasons for the emigration of settlers vary, but they include the following factors and incentives: the desire to start a new and better life in a foreign land, personal financial hardship, cultural, ethnic, or religious persecution, political oppression, government incentive policies aimed at encouraging foreign settlement.
The colony concerned is sometimes controlled by the government of a settler's home country, emigration is sometimes approved by an imperial government
Parnell, New Zealand
Parnell is an upmarket suburb in Auckland, New Zealand. It is one of New Zealand's most affluent suburbs ranked within the top three wealthiest, is billed as Auckland's "oldest suburb" since it dates from the earliest days of the European settlement of Auckland in 1841, it is characterised by its mix of tree lined streets with large estates. To its west lies the Auckland Domain, to the south Newmarket, to the north the Ports of Auckland. Parnell Rise and Parnell Road make up the main road through Parnell. Parnell Rise leads to the central business district to the west. Parnell Road ends at the intersection of Sarawia Streets, where it becomes Broadway. Early European settlers knew Parnell Road as "Manukau Road" until well after the formation of Khyber Pass Road in 1845. Ngāti Whātua occupied the Parnell area prior to European settlement; the Government acquired the area from Ngāti Whātua as part of a 3,000-acre land deal in 1840. Robert Tod purchased 3 acres from the Government on 1 September 1841.
He subdivided it into 36 sections, which he advertised for sale on 4 September 1841 as the "Village of Parnell". In the early 1830s Tod had supplied copies of the Bible to a Plymouth Brethren mission in Baghdad, one of whose members was John Vesey Parnell. Streets in the village of Parnell were named Groves and Calman after other missionaries to Baghdad, Anthony Norris Groves, Edward Cronin and Erasmus Scott Calman; these were renamed Eglon and Marston Streets. The Borough of Parnell, established in 1877, was amalgamated into the Auckland City Council area in 1913 or 1915; the Parnell Road Board administered the area before the Borough was established. The following served as Mayors of the Borough of Parnell until its incorporation into Auckland City: 1877–1877 Henry Matthew Nation 1877–1878 J. W. Melton 1878–1879 William Coleman 1879–1880 J. W. Robinson 1880–1881 J. Friar Clark 1881–1883 Robert Walker 1883–1885 D. H. McKenzie 1885–1887 Jonathan Winks 1887–1888 Seymour Thorne George 1888–1891 H.
B. Sealy 1891–1892 Seymour Thorne George 1892–1894 John McCabe 1894–1895 George S. Kissling 1895–1896 Spencer Von Sturmer 1896–1897 Joseph Thornes 1897–1898 N. W. Pollard 1898–1903 Hugh Campbell 1903–1906 John Fitt 1906–1909 George W. Basley 1909–1913 Richard Stevenson Briggs Parnell forms part of the Hobson Ward for council representation within Auckland City. Parnell represents 20% of the population in the ward; the serving city councillors for the Hobson Ward all stood on the Citizens and Ratepayers Now ticket. Parnell forms part of the Epsom Electorate for parliamentary representation. Parnell represents 20% of the population in the electorate; the current Member of Parliament for Epsom, David Seymour, represents ACT New Zealand. The Swan Hotel, 31-35 Parnell Rise – constructed prior to 1856 and is one of the earliest timber public houses surviving in Auckland. Additions to the building were designed by Edward Bartley; this building stood directly on the foreshore. This cove had been used by Maori to beach their waka.
Parnell Rail Bridge – 19th century metal rail bridge on massive volcanic basalt rock piers. This structure allows the rail line to cross over Parnell Road without disrupting traffic. Mayfair Apartments – 1930s brick Neo-Georgian highrise apartment block. Windsor Castle Hotel, 144 Parnell Road – this hotel dates from the 1850s; the hotel was remodelled in the 1880s, when the architect, R. MacKay Fripp, was commissioned to create a large Victorian corner pub of urban type. Former Heard Factory – three storeyed art-deco style industrial building built for a confectionery manufacturer. Heard Park – this land was donated to the city in 1953 by the Heard family, the owners of Heards Candy, the adjacent large Art-Deco Heards building. Church of St John the Baptist, 204 Parnell Road – this church was designed by Edward Mahoney and formally instituted by Bishop Pompallier in 1861; the Sisters of Mercy had a convent here and a Catholic primary school ran for a century, until it closed due to falling rolls in the 1950s.
Whitby Lodge, 330 Parnell Road – erected by the early 1870s, Whitby Lodge is one of few surviving colonial dwellings in Auckland constructed of the local volcanic stone basalt. Erected as early as 1848 or 1852, it is possible that Fraser erected a building on the site at the time of his purchase in 1864, or improved an existing structure. The roof beams are not supported by the masonry walls, suggesting this is an earlier wooden structure, subsequently clad in stone; the building was occupied by the Consulate General of the Cook Islands as an Embassy from 1978 until 1 December 1994. Hulme Court, 350 Parnell Road – a stone-built, Regency-style house surrounded by trellised verandahs, was built in 1843 for Sir Fredrick Whitaker.
An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand was an official encyclopaedia about New Zealand, published in three volumes by the Government of New Zealand in 1966. Edited by Dr. Alexander Hare McLintock, the parliamentary historian, assisted by two others, the encyclopaedia included over 1,800 articles and 900 biographies, written by 359 contributing authors; the encyclopaedia is more comprehensive and more representative of minorities than previous New Zealand reference works such as the vanity press The Cyclopedia of New Zealand published around sixty years earlier, but not as representative as the more modern Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. A number of women were present as representing firsts, including Kate Edger, its publication met with an enthusiastic response. After the last 3,000 copies were sold it was never reprinted, more due to the non-commercial priorities of the government-run printing office than any lack of demand or interest from the general public; the encyclopaedia was well received by scholars and teachers, it is still regarded as an important New Zealand reference work considering its errors and omissions, the biases of its time.
Jock Phillips, writing in 2003 about his editorship of its successor Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, considers it an "illustrious predecessor" and describes it as now, a most impressive work. It remains an essential source of reference for students and scholars of New Zealand But it is much a creature of a particular time and place; the work's importance, both as a reference and as an historical snapshot of mid-20th century New Zealand, motivated the Ministry for Culture and Heritage to digitise and republish the work online. The text and images have been made available, without corrections or updates, as a separate resource within its successor Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand – digitised version at Te Ara
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses. It had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life; the use of child labour was common. The working day could range from 10 to 16 hours, the work week was six days a week. Robert Owen had raised the demand for a ten-hour day in 1810, instituted it in his socialist enterprise at New Lanark. By 1817 he had formulated the goal of the eight-hour day and coined the slogan: "Eight hours' labour, Eight hours' recreation, Eight hours' rest". Women and children in England were granted the ten-hour day in 1847. French workers won the 12-hour day after the February Revolution of 1848. A shorter working day and improved working conditions were part of the general protests and agitation for Chartist reforms and the early organisation of trade unions.
The International Workingmen's Association took up the demand for an eight-hour day at its Congress in Geneva in 1866, declaring "The legal limitation of the working day is a preliminary condition without which all further attempts at improvements and emancipation of the working class must prove abortive", "The Congress proposes eight hours as the legal limit of the working day." Karl Marx saw it as of vital importance to the workers' health, writing in Das Kapital: "By extending the working day, capitalist production...not only produces a deterioration of human labour power by robbing it of its normal moral and physical conditions of development and activity, but produces the premature exhaustion and death of this labour power itself."Although there were initial successes in achieving an eight-hour day in New Zealand and by the Australian labour movement for skilled workers in the 1840s and 1850s, most employed people had to wait to the early and mid twentieth century for the condition to be achieved through the industrialised world through legislative action.
The first country to adopt eight-hour working day nationwide was Uruguay. The eight-hour day was introduced on November 1915, in the government of José Batlle y Ordóñez; the first international treaty to mention it was the Treaty of Versailles in the annex of its thirteen part establishing the International Labour Office, now the International Labour Organization. The eight-hour day was the first topic discussed by the International Labour Organization which resulted in the Hours of Work Convention, 1919 ratified by 52 countries as of 2016; the eight-hour day movement forms part of the early history for the celebration of Labour Day, May Day in many nations and cultures. In Iran in 1918, the work of reorganizing the trade unions began in earnest in Tehran during the closure of the Iranian constitutional parliament Majles; the printers' union, established in 1906 by Mohammad Parvaneh as the first trade union, in the Koucheki print shop on Nasserieh Avenue in Tehran, reorganized their union under leadership of Russian-educated Seyed Mohammad Dehgan, a newspaper editor and an avowed Communist.
In 1918, the newly organised union staged a 14-day strike and succeeded in reaching a collective agreement with employers to institute the eight-hours day, overtime pay, medical care. The success of the printers' union encouraged other trades to organize. In 1919 the bakers and textile-shop clerks formed their own trade unions; however the eight-hours day only became as code by a limited governor's decree on 1923 by the governor of Kerman and Balochistan, which controlled the working conditions and working hours for workers of carpet workshops in the province. In 1946 the council of ministers issued the first labor law for Iran, which recognized the eight-hour day; the first company to introduce an eight-hour working day in Japan was the Kawasaki Dockyards in Kobe. An eight-hour day was one of the demands presented by the workers during pay negotiations in September 1919. After the company resisted the demands, a slowdown campaign was commenced by the workers on 18 September. After ten days of industrial action, company president Kōjirō Matsukata agreed to the eight-hour day and wage increases on 27 September, which became effective from October.
The effects of the action were felt nationwide and inspired further industrial action at the Kawasaki and Mitsubishi shipyards in 1921. The eight-hour day did not become law in Japan until the passing of the Labor Standards Act in April 1947. Article 32 of the Act specifies a 40-hour week and paragraph specifies an eight-hour day, excluding rest periods. In Indonesia, the first policy regarding working time regulated in Law No. 13 of 2003 about employment. In the law, it stated that a worker should work for 7 hours a day for 6 days a week or 8 hours a day for 5 days a week, excluding rest periods; the 8-hour work day was introduced in Belgium on September 9, 1924. The 8-hour work day was first introduced in 1907. Within the next few decades, the 8-hour system spread across technically all branches of work. A worker receives 150% payment from the first two extra hours, 200% salary if the work day exceeds 10 hours; the eight-hour day was enacted in France by Georges Clemenceau, as a way to avoid unemployment and diminish communist support.
It was succeeded by a strong French support of it during the writing of the International Labour Organization Convention of 1919. The first German company to introduce the eight-hour day was Degussa; the eight-hour day was signed into law during the German Revolution of 1918. In Hungary, the eight-hour work day was introduced on April 14, 1919 by decree of the Revolutionary Governing Council. In Poland, the eight-hour day was i
Bolton Street Memorial Park
Bolton Street Memorial Park known as Bolton Street Cemetery, is the oldest cemetery in Wellington, New Zealand. Dating back to 1840, many notable people are buried here. Situated in the suburb of Thorndon, the Wellington City Council's memorial trail number five covers the Bolton Street Memorial Park and visits notable graves, points of interest and buildings; the park's history could be the history of those buried there. Established as a cemetery in 1840 on the outskirts of the new town of Wellington, separate burial areas were designated for Anglicans and Roman Catholics. Many notable people of the town were buried there, including William Wakefield, Wellington's founder, it was closed except for the new burials of kins. In 1960, the City Council's urban plan established a need for a motorway, a part of which would be routed through the cemetery. Seven years the City Council passed an act to build a motorway through the park; as a result, the cemetery was closed as a burial ground from March 1967 through 1971.
The historic cemetery, bisected by the Wellington Urban Motorway, caused extensive controversy at the time. The new motorway opened in 1978, in the same year, the Wellington City Council Parks renamed the cemetery as the Bolton Street Memorial Park. Though the Friends of Bolton Street protested against the shifting of the graves, they did not stop construction of the road but ensured that the cemetery got a heritage status and the park got a reserve nomenclature. In spite of protests, about 3,700 graves were exhumed and relocated, most of whom were re-interred in a large vault beneath the park's lawn; the relocated parts of the cemetery with head stones are linked through a foot bridge over the road. Of the 8,500 people reported buried in the park, only 1334 headstones were traced and 35 are made in wood. Historian Margaret Alington was commissioned to write a history of the cemetery, her book, Unquiet Earth: a History of the Bolton Street Cemetery, was published in 1978. The original grounds was segmented.
7 acres were used by the Church of England, two roods and 37 perches were for Jews, 8 acres were set aside for the public cemetery. The motorway takes up 3.7 acres. Some of the initial land was surrendered to Anderson Park; the current park, about 1.85 hectares in size, includes a land gift from Morva Williams. The approach to the park is from Bolton Street, from a signed pathway off Bowen Street and from Botanic Garden after Anderson Park. There are walkways in the park on either side of the motorway, which have several signs giving Wellington's colonial history; the trail is popular among joggers. Tutaenui creek is located in a gulley within the park. Bolton Street Memorial Park is now a historic reserve under the jurisdiction of the Parks and Recreation Department of the Wellington City Council. Of the initial three buildings constructed in the cemetery area, only one remains; the Church of England's Sexton's Cottage, a historic building built out of timber in 1857, was enlarged in 1885 and is now being restored.
The public cemetery's Sexton's Cottage constructed of timber in 1857, was occupied by the sexton David Robertson and his family before the building was demolished in 1908. The Mortuary Chapel, built of timber in 1866, was left to deteriorate without any repairs and was demolished in 1969 to make way for the motorway. Based on recorded drawings of it, a replica chapel serves as the visitor centre. Situated in the smaller half of the cemetery, it contains exhibits on the park's history, details of those buried at the cemetery, along with printed lists of names. A beehive centre is maintained by the Friends of Bolton Street Memorial Park who facilitate information on conservation of the park's beehives; the park serves as an extension of Wellington Botanic Garden with areas of open lawns, undulating topography covered by a mix of regenerating native scrub and plantings of exotic trees, shrubs and bulbs. Notable is the heritage roses collection among the graves; the park's heritage rose. When land was allotted on the hillside in 1840 for the public cemetery, the original settlers planted roses.
These were supplemented by the Wellington Botanic Garden in association with Heritage Roses New Zealand Inc. Under the Wellington City Council Management Plan, the rose garden is maintained by the Wellington Botanic Garden; the "memorial roses" reported from the park are: Rosa banksiae'Lutea', Rosa banksiae alba plena, Rosa indica major,'Félicité et Perpétue,'Climbing Cécile Brünner', and'Souvenir de la Malmaison', which were planted by people visiting the graves, gifts of plants by the public, members of the Wellington Heritage Rose Society, from Europe under the seed exchange programme. According to the recorded list, the park now has 210 heritage roses of which important cultivars and species include'Archduke Joseph','Mutabilis','Kazanlik','Old Blush China','Viridiflora','La France','Honorine de Brabant','Ispahan','Roseraire de l'Haÿ','Alberic Barbier', R. eglanteria,'Tuscany','Souvenir de Madame Léonie Viennot','Cornelia', Rosa moyesii'Fargesii','Blushing Lucy','Madame Plantier', Rosa laevigata, Rosa altaica, Rosa bracteata, and'Joseph Cartier'.
Graves still existing: William Beetham, e