Milwaukee Art Museum
The Milwaukee Art Museum is an art museum in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Its collection contains nearly 25,000 works of art, it is one of the largest museums in the United States. Beginning around 1872, multiple organizations were founded in order to bring an art gallery to Milwaukee, as the city was still a growing port town with little or no facilities to hold major art exhibitions. Over the span of at least nine years, all attempts to build. Shortly after that year, Alexander Mitchell donated all of her collection into constructing Milwaukee's first permanent art gallery in the city's history. In 1888, the Milwaukee Art Association was created by a group of German panorama artists and local businessmen; the same year, British-born businessman Frederick Layton built and provided artwork for the Layton Art Gallery, now demolished. In 1911, the Milwaukee Art Institute, another building constructed to hold other exhibitions and collections, was completed; the institute was built right next to the Layton Art Gallery.
The Milwaukee Art Museum was founded in 1888 and is purported to be Milwaukee's first art gallery, though that claim is disputed by the Layton Art Gallery, which opened the same year. The Milwaukee Art Center was formed when the Milwaukee Art Institute and Layton Art Gallery merged their collections in 1957 and moved into the newly built Eero Saarinen-designed Milwaukee County War Memorial. In the latter half of the 20th century, the museum came to include the War Memorial Center in 1957 as well as the brutalist Kahler Building designed by David Kahler and the Quadracci Pavilion created by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava; the Quadracci Pavilion contains a movable, wing-like brise soleil that opens up for a wingspan of 217 feet during the day, folding over the tall, arched structure at night or during inclement weather. The pavilion received the 2004 Outstanding Structure Award from the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering; this iconic building referred to as "the Calatrava", is used in the museum logo.
In November 2015, the museum opened a $34 million expansion funded jointly by a museum capital campaign and by Milwaukee County. The new building, the Shields Building, designed by Milwaukee architect James Shields of HGA, provides an additional 30,000 square feet for art, including a section devoted to light-based media and video installation; the building includes a new atrium and lakefront-facing entry point for visitors and was designed with cantilevered elements and concrete columns to complement the existing Calatrava and Kahler structures on the site. The final design emerged after a lengthy process that included the main architect's departure because of design disputes and his return to the project; the museum houses nearly 25,000 works of art housed on four floors, with works from antiquity to the present. Included in the collection are 15th- to 20th-century European and 17th- to 20th-century American paintings, prints, decorative arts and folk and self-taught art. Among the best in the collection are the museum's holding of American decorative arts, German Expressionism and Haitian art, American art after 1960.
The museum holds one of the largest collections of works by Wisconsin native Georgia O'Keeffe. Other artists represented include Gustave Caillebotte, Nardo di Cione, Francisco de Zurbarán, Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Winslow Homer, Auguste Rodin, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Gabriele Munter, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Frank Lloyd Wright, Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Wassily Kandinsky, Mark Rothko, Robert Gober, Andy Warhol, it has paintings by European painters Francesco Botticini, Jan Swart van Groningen, Ferdinand Bol, Jan van Goyen, Hendrick Van Vliet, Franz von Lenbach, Ferdinand Waldmüller, Carl Spitzweg, Gerome, Gustave Caillebotte, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Kowalski, Jules Bastien-Lepage, Max Pechstein. From 2002 to 2008, the director and CEO was David Gordon; as of 2015, the museum’s endowment is around $65 million. Endowment proceeds cover a fraction of the museum's expenses, leaving it overly dependent on funds from day-to-day operations such as ticket sales. Daniel Keegan, who has served as the museum's director since 2008, negotiated an agreement with Milwaukee County and the Milwaukee County War Memorial for the long-term management and funding of the facilities in 2013.
In June 2015 the museum's display of a work depicting Benedict XVI created outrage among Catholics and others. Argo, a sculpture on the grounds The Calling, a sculpture in the Museum's collection on adjacent O'Donnell Park Milwaukee Art Museum official website Milwaukee Art Museum at Google Cultural Institute
Robert Edge Pine
Robert Edge Pine was an English portrait and historical painter, born in London. He was the son of the engraver and designer, he painted portraits, such as those of George II, of the Duke of Northumberland, of Garrick. It is thought. Around 1784, Pine travelled to America and settled in Philadelphia, where his time was taken up with portraiture. Among his sitters were General Gates, Charles Carroll, Robert Morris, George Read, Thomas Stone, Mrs. Reid, Washington; the portrait of Washington was engraved for Irving's Life of Washington, but it is weak in characterization. An interesting canvas Congress Voting Independence, now in the Historical Society, was begun by Pine and finished by Edward Savage. After Pine's death many of his pictures were collected in the Columbian Museum in Boston. Hart, "Congress Voting Independence," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 29: 1-14; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia.
New York: Dodd, Mead
Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The main museum building was completed in 1928 on Fairmount, a hill located at the northwest end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway at Eakins Oval; the museum administers collections containing over 240,000 objects including major holdings of European and Asian origin. The various classes of artwork include sculpture, prints, photographs and decorative arts; the Philadelphia Museum of Art administers several annexes including the Rodin Museum located on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, the Ruth and Raymond G. Perelman Building, located across the street just north of the main building; the Perelman Building, which opened in 2007, houses more than 150,000 prints and photographs, along with 30,000 costume and textile pieces, over 1,000 modern and contemporary design objects including furniture and glasswork. The museum administers the historic colonial-era houses of Mount Pleasant and Cedar Grove, both located in Fairmount Park.
The main museum building and its annexes are owned by the City of Philadelphia and administered by a registered nonprofit corporation. Several special exhibitions are held in the museum every year, including touring exhibitions arranged with other museums in the United States and abroad; the attendance figure for the museum was 793,000 in 2017, which ranks it among the top one hundred most-visited art museums in the world. The museum is one of the largest art museums in the world based on gallery space. Philadelphia celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with the Centennial Exposition in 1876. Memorial Hall, which contained the art gallery, was intended to outlast the Exposition and house a permanent museum. Following the example of London's South Kensington Museum, the new museum was to focus on applied art and science, provide a school to train craftsmen in drawing, painting and designing; the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art opened on May 10, 1877..
The museum's collection began with objects from the Exposition and gifts from the public impressed with the Exposition's ideals of good design and craftsmanship. European and Japanese fine and decorative art objects and books for the museum's library were among the first donations; the location outside of Center City, was distant from many of the city's inhabitants. Admission was charged until 1881 was dropped until 1962. Starting in 1882, Clara Jessup Moore donated a remarkable collection of antique furniture, carved ivory, metalwork, ceramics, books and paintings; the Countess de Brazza's lace collection was acquired in 1894 forming the nucleus of the lace collection. In 1893 Anna H. Wilstach bequeathed a large painting collection, including many American paintings, an endowment of half a million dollars for additional purchases. Works by James Abbott McNeill Whistler and George Inness were purchased within a few years and Henry Ossawa Tanner's The Annunciation was bought in 1899. In the early 1900s, the museum started an education program for the general public, as well as a membership program.
Fiske Kimball was the museum director during the rapid growth of the mid- to late-1920s, which included one million visitors in 1928—the new building's first year. The museum enlarged its print collection in 1928 with about 5,000 Old Master prints and drawings from the gift of Charles M. Lea, including French, German and Netherlandish engravings. Major exhibitions of the 1930s included works by Eakins, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh, Degas. In the 1940s, the museum's major gifts and acquisitions included the collections of John D. McIlhenny, George Grey Barnard, Alfred Stieglitz. Early modern art dominated the growth of the collections in the 1950s, with acquisitions of the Louise and Walter Arensberg and the A. E. Gallatin collections; the gift of Philadelphian Grace Kelly's wedding dress is the best known gift of the 1950s. Extensive renovation of the building lasted from the 1960s through 1976. Major acquisitions included the Carroll S. Tyson, Jr. and Samuel S. White III and Vera White collections, 71 objects from designer Elsa Schiaparelli, Marcel Duchamp's Étant donnés.
In 1976 there were celebrations and special exhibitions for the centennial of the museum and the bicentennial of the nation. During the last three decades major acquisitions have included After the Bath by Edgar Degas and Fifty Days at Iliam by Cy Twombly; the City Council of Philadelphia funded a competition in 1895 to design a new museum building, but it was not until 1907 that plans were first made to construct it on Fairmount, a rocky hill topped by the city's main reservoir. The Fairmount Parkway, a grand boulevard that cut diagonally across the grid of city streets, was designed to terminate at the foot of the hill, but there were conflicting views about whether to erect a single museum building, or a number of buildings to house individual collections. The architectural firms of Horace Trumbauer and Zantzinger and Medary collaborated for more than a decade to resolve these issues; the final design is credited to two architects in Trumbauer's firm: Howell Lewis Shay for the building's plan and massing, Julian Abele for the detail work and perspective drawings.
In 1902, Abele had become the first African-American student to be graduated from the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Architecture, presently known as Penn's School of Design. Abele adapted classical Greek temple columns for
The Liberty Bell is an iconic symbol of American independence, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Once placed in the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House, the bell today is located in the Liberty Bell Center in Independence National Historical Park; the bell was commissioned in 1752 by the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly from the London firm of Lester and Pack, was cast with the lettering "Proclaim LIBERTY Throughout all the Land unto all the Inhabitants Thereof", a Biblical reference from the Book of Leviticus. The bell first cracked when rung after its arrival in Philadelphia, was twice recast by local workmen John Pass and John Stow, whose last names appear on the bell. In its early years the bell was used to summon lawmakers to legislative sessions and to alert citizens about public meetings and proclamations. Although no immediate announcement was made of the Second Continental Congress's vote for independence, so the bell could not have rung on July 4, 1776, related to that vote, bells were rung on July 8 to mark the reading of the United States Declaration of Independence.
While there is no contemporary account of the Liberty Bell ringing, most historians believe it was one of the bells rung. After American independence was secured, the bell fell into relative obscurity until, in the 1830s, the bell was adopted as a symbol by abolitionist societies, who dubbed it the "Liberty Bell"; the bell acquired its distinctive large crack some time in the early 19th century—a widespread story claims it cracked while ringing after the death of Chief Justice John Marshall in 1835. The bell became famous after an 1847 short story claimed that an aged bellringer rang it on July 4, 1776, upon hearing of the Second Continental Congress' vote for independence. Despite the fact that the bell did not ring for independence on that July 4, the tale was accepted as fact by some historians. Beginning in 1885, the city of Philadelphia that owns the bell, allowed it to go to various expositions and patriotic gatherings; the bell attracted huge crowds wherever it went, additional cracking occurred and pieces were chipped away by souvenir hunters.
The last such journey occurred in 1915. After World War II, Philadelphia allowed the National Park Service to take custody of the bell, while retaining ownership; the bell was used as a symbol of freedom during the Cold War and was a popular site for protests in the 1960s. It was moved from its longtime home in Independence Hall to a nearby glass pavilion on Independence Mall in 1976, to the larger Liberty Bell Center adjacent to the pavilion in 2003; the bell has been featured on coins and stamps, its name and image have been used by corporations. Philadelphia's city bell had been used to alert the public to proclamations or civic danger since the city's 1682 founding; the original bell hung from a tree behind the Pennsylvania State House and was said to have been brought to the city by its founder, William Penn. In 1751, with a bell tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House, civic authorities sought a bell of better quality that could be heard at a greater distance in the expanding city.
Isaac Norris, speaker of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, gave orders to the colony's London agent, Robert Charles, to obtain a "good Bell of about two thousands pound weight". We hope and rely on thy care and assistance in this affair and that thou wilt procure and forward it by the first good oppo as our workmen inform us it will be much less trouble to hang the Bell before their Scaffolds are struck from the Building where we intend to place it which will not be done'till the end of next Summer or beginning of the Fall. Let the bell be cast by the best workmen & examined before it is Shipped with the following words well shaped around it. By Order of the Assembly of the Povince of Pensylvania for the State house in the City of Philada 1752 and Underneath Proclaim Liberty thro' all the Land to all the Inhabitants thereof.-Levit. XXV. 10. The inscription on the bell reads: At the time, "Pensylvania" was an accepted alternative spelling for "Pennsylvania." That spelling was used by Alexander Hamilton, a graduate of King's College, in 1787 on the signature page of the United States Constitution.
Robert Charles dutifully ordered the bell from Thomas Lester of the London bellfounding firm of Lester and Pack for the sum of £150 13s 8d, including freight to Philadelphia and insurance. It arrived in Philadelphia in August 1752. Norris wrote to Charles that the bell was in good order, but they had not yet sounded it, as they were building a clock for the State House's tower; the bell was mounted on a stand to test the sound, at the first strike of the clapper, the bell's rim cracked. The episode would be used to good account in stories of the bell. Philadelphia authorities tried to return it by ship, but the master of the vessel that had brought it was unable to take it on board. Two local founders, John Pass and John Stow, offered to recast the bell. Though they were inexperienced in bell casting, Pass had headed the Mount Holly Iron Foundry in neighboring New Jersey and came from Malta that had a tradition of bell casting. Stow, on the other hand, was only four years out of his apprenticeship as a brass founder.
At Stow's foundry on
Woodford is a historic mansion at Ford Road and Greenland Drive in Fairmount Park, Pennsylvania. Built about 1756, it is the first of Philadelphia's great colonial Georgian mansion houses to be built, exemplifies the opulence of such houses. A National Historic Landmark, it now a historic house museum open to the public. Built in 1756, Woodford is the first of the great, late-Georgian mansions to be erected in the Philadelphia area. Woodford was built on 12 acres of land as a 1½-story summer residence by William Coleman, a wealthy merchant and justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Upon Coleman's death in 1769, the house was sold to Alexander Barclay, a Quaker who served as His Majesty's Customs Comptroller for the port of Philadelphia. Upon Barclay's death in 1771, the house was bought by his brother-in-law, David Franks, who in 1772 added a second story and a kitchen wing, enlarging the house to its present size. In 1778, Franks, a staunch loyalist, was ordered to leave, he took his family to New York City, transferred the property to Thomas Paschall in settlement of a debt.
Paschall rented it out. He sold it to Isaac Wharton in 1793. In 1869, the city bought Woodford from Wharton's heirs to add to Fairmount Park; the house served as the home of the Park's Chief Engineer and Supervisor, in 1912, as the Park Guard headquarters and traffic court. The building was restored, commencing in 1927, in 1930, it was opened to the public as a house museum, which it remains today, it houses, under the direction of the Naomi Wood Trust, the Naomi Wood collection of antique household goods, including Colonial furniture, unusual clocks, English delftware. Woodford was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1967, it is a contributing property of the Fairmount Park Historic District. List of houses in Fairmount Park List of National Historic Landmarks in Philadelphia National Register of Historic Places listings in North Philadelphia Official website Listing at the Fairmount Park Commission Listing at Philadelphia Architects and Buildings Historic American Buildings Survey No.
PA-1307, "Woodford", 31 photos, supplemental material Historic Photographs of Woodford, PhillyHistory.org
Edmund Woolley was an English-born American architect and master carpenter, best known for building Independence Hall in Philadelphia, United States. Woolley was born in England around 1695, emigrated to the Thirteen Colonies as a child, around 1705, it is not known with where he learned his trade. He was one of the first members of The Carpenters' Company of the County of Philadelphia, he began construction of the Pennsylvania State House in 1732. Traditionally, credit for the building's design has been given to Andrew Hamilton, but modern scholarship argues that he contributed little to the project. A surviving 1735 receipt lists a £5 payment to Woolley for "drawing drafts," "fronts" and "Plans of the first and Second floors of the State House." The building took 16 years for Woolley and his workers, who included Ebenezer Tomlinson and Thomas Nevell, to complete. The interior woodwork was carved by Bryan Wilkinson; the second floor featured a banquet hall the width of the building. The original stairway proved inadequate for so large a building.
In 1750, Woolley laid the foundations for a brick tower to house a grand staircase and support a wooden steeple. The tower's exterior was completed in 1753, but Hardings's interior woodwork was not completed until 1756; the bell ordered for the tower in 1751, is now known as the Liberty Bell. Woolley designed and built the Whitefield Meeting House, a Methodist church and charity school named for preacher George Whitefield, its 70-by-100 foot, 2-1/2 story building at 4th & Arch Streets was the largest building in the American Colonies – larger than the then-under-construction Pennsylvania State House. The charity school struggled financially. On the recommendation of Benjamin Franklin, the building was purchased in 1749 for use by what became the Academy of Philadelphia. Several years the academy was granted a Royal charter to establish a college, the College of Philadelphia; the academy and college are predecessors of the University of Pennsylvania. The Whitefield Meeting House was demolished by 1845.
Woolley was responsible for construction of the Whitemarsh Estate. The Georgian country mansion was built by Quaker businessman Samuel Morris in what is now Fort Washington, Pennsylvania
Queen Anne style furniture
The Queen Anne style of furniture design developed before and after the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain. Queen Anne furniture is "somewhat smaller and more comfortable than its predecessors," and examples in common use include "curving shapes, the cabriole leg, cushioned seats, wing-back chairs, practical secretary desk-bookcase pieces." Other elements characterizing the style include pad feet and "an emphasis on line and form rather than ornament." The style of Queen Anne's reign is sometimes described as late Baroque rather than "Queen Anne."The Queen Anne style began to evolve during the reign of William III of England, but the term predominantly describes decorative styles from the mid-1720s to around 1760, although Queen Anne reigned earlier. "The name'Queen Anne' was first applied to the style more than a century after it was fashionable." The use of Queen Anne styles in America, beginning in the 1720s and 1730s, coincided with new colonial prosperity and increased immigration of skilled British craftsmen to the colonies.
Some elements of the Queen Anne style remain popular in modern furniture production. Curved lines, in feet, arms, crest rails, pediments, along with restrained ornament emphasizing the material, are characteristic of Queen Anne style. In contrast to William and Mary furniture, marked by rectilinearity and use of curves for decoration, Queen Anne furniture uses C-scroll, S-scrolls, ogee shapes in the structure of the furniture itself. In sophisticated urban environments, walnut was a frequent choice for furniture in the Queen Anne style, superseding the dominant oak and leading to the era being called "the age of walnut." However, poplar and maple were used in Queen Anne style furniture. Ornamentation is minimal, in contrast to earlier 17th-century and William and Mary styles, which prominently featured inlay, figured veneers and carving; the cabriole leg is the "most recognizable element" of Queen Anne furniture. Cabriole legs were influenced by the designs of the French cabinetmaker André-Charles Boulle and the Rococo style from the French court of Louis XV.
But the intricate ornamentation of post-Restoration furniture was abandoned in favor more conservative designs under the influence of the simple and elegant lines of imported Chinese furniture. When decorative motifs or other ornamentation are used in Queen Anne-style furniture, it is limited to carved scallop or shell or scroll-shaped motifs, broken and C-curves, acanthus leaves; the use of japanning is an exception to the general Queen Anne trend of minimal ornament. When used, japanned decoration was in red, green, or gilt on a blue-green field; the tilt-top tea table was first made during the Queen Anne period in 1774. Queen Anne was eclipsed by the Chippendale style. Blakemore, Robbie G.. History of Interior Design and Furniture, From Ancient Egypt to Nineteenth-Century Europe. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley