New Bern, North Carolina
New Bern is a city in Craven County, North Carolina, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 29,524, which had risen to an estimated 30,242 as of 2013, it is the county seat of Craven County and the principal city of the New Bern Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located at the confluence near the North Carolina coast, it lies 112 miles east of Raleigh, 87 miles northeast of Wilmington, 162 miles south of Norfolk. New Bern is the birthplace of Pepsi. New Bern was settled in 1710 by Bernese and Palatine immigrants under the auspices of Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg; the new colonists named their settlement after Bern, home state of their patron. The English connection with Switzerland had been established by some Marian exiles who sought refuge in Protestant parts of Switzerland. There were marriages between the Royal House of Stuart and notable people in the history of Calvinism; the colonists discovered they had started their settlement on the site of a former Tuscarora village named Chattoka.
This caused conflicts with the Tuscaroras. New Bern is the second-oldest European settled colonial town in North Carolina, after Bath, it served as the capital of the North Carolina colonial government briefly as the state capital. After the American Revolution, New Bern became wealthy and developed a rich cultural life. At one time New Bern was called "the Athens of the South," renowned for its Masonic Temple and Athens Theater; these are both still active today. New Bern has four historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Within easy walking distance of the waterfront are more than 164 homes and buildings listed on the National Register. Nearby are several bed and breakfasts, restaurants, antiques stores and specialty shops; the historic districts contain many of the city's 2,000 crape myrtles—its official flower—and developed gardens. New Bern has two "Local Historic Districts", a municipal zoning overlay that affords legal protection to the exteriors of New Bern's irreplaceable historic structures.
These areas provide much of New Bern's unique charm, appeal to retirees and heritage tourism, contribute to the city's economic success. The Local Historic Districts, while vitally important to New Bern, comprise only 2.43% of New Bern's 27-square-mile area. There is considerable area available for new development. Varying complex cultures of indigenous peoples had lived along the waterways of North Carolina for thousands of years before Europeans arrived in the area; the Tuscarora, an Iroquoian-speaking people, had migrated south from the Great Lakes area at some ancient time and occupied the area for several hundred of years before the first Europeans arrived. They had a village called Chattoka at the confluence of the rivers, they resisted encroachment by the Europeans, resorting to war in 1712. New Bern was settled in 1710 by Bernese and Palatine immigrants under the auspices of Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg; the new colonists named their settlement after the Canton of Bern, home state of their patron.
Graffenried had the original plat of the town laid out in the shape of a cross, though development and additional streets have obscured this pattern within the regular street grid. This became the first permanent seat of the colonial government of North Carolina; the Governor's Palace, New Bern, served as the capitol of North Carolina from 1770 until the state government relocated to Raleigh in 1792, after a fire had destroyed much of the capitol. During the 19th-century Federal period, New Bern became the largest city in North Carolina, developed on the trade of goods and slaves associated with plantation agriculture. After Raleigh was named the state capital, New Bern rebuilt its economy by expanding on trade via shipping routes to the Caribbean and New England, it was part of the Triangle Trade in sugar and desired goods. It reached a population of 3,600 in 1815. In 1862 during the early stages of the American Civil War, the area was the site of the Battle of New Bern. Federal forces captured and occupied the town until the end of the war in 1865.
Nearly 10,000 enslaved blacks escaped during this period in the region and went to the Union camps for protection and freedom. The Union Army set up the Trent River contraband camp at New Bern to house the refugees, it organized the adults for work. Missionaries came to teach literacy to both children. After the January 1863 Emancipation Proclamation of President Abraham Lincoln, slaves in Union-occupied territories were declared free; the Army appointed Horace James, a Congregational chaplain from Massachusetts, as the "Superintendent of Negro Affairs for the North Carolina District" on behalf of the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. In addition to the Trent River camp, James supervised development of the offshore Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony, intended to be self-supporting. Beginning in 1863, a total of nearly 4,000 freedmen from North Carolina enlisted in the United States Colored Troops to fight with the Union for their permanent freedom, including 150 men from the colony on Roanoke Island.
Due to the continuous occupation by the Union troops, New Bern avoided some of the destruction of the war years. There was much social disruption because of the occupation and the thousands of freedmen camped near the city. Still, it recovered more than many cities after the war. By the 1870s the lumber industry was developing as the chief
New York City Police Department
The City of New York Police Department, more known as the New York Police Department and its initials NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the City of New York, New York in the United States. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States, is the largest police force in the United States; the NYPD headquarters is at 1 Police Plaza, located on Park Row in Lower Manhattan across the street from City Hall. The department's mission is to "enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, provide for a safe environment." The NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the New York City Rules. The New York City Transit Police and New York City Housing Authority Police Department were integrated into the NYPD in 1995 by New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani. In June 2004, there were about 45,000 sworn officers plus several thousand civilian employees; as of December 2011, that figure increased to over 36,600, helped by the graduation of a class of 1,500 from the New York City Police Academy.
As of Fiscal Year 2018, the NYPD's current authorized uniformed strength is 38,422. There are approximately 4,500 Auxiliary Police Officers, 5,000 School Safety Agents, 2,300 Traffic Enforcement Agents, 370 Traffic Enforcement Supervisors employed by the department; the Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York, the largest municipal police union in the United States, represents over 50,000 active and retired NYC police officers. The NYPD has a broad array of specialized services, including the Emergency Service Unit, K9, harbor patrol, air support, bomb squad, counter-terrorism, criminal intelligence, anti-gang, anti-organized crime, public transportation, public housing; the NYPD Intelligence Division & Counter-Terrorism Bureau has officers stationed in 11 cities internationally. In the 1990s the department developed a CompStat system of management which has since been established in other cities; the NYPD has extensive crime scene investigation and laboratory resources, as well as units which assist with computer crime investigations.
The NYPD runs a "Real Time Crime Center" a large search engine and data warehouse operated by detectives to assist officers in the field with their investigations. A Domain Awareness System, a joint project of Microsoft and the NYPD, links 6,000 closed-circuit television cameras, license plate readers, other surveillance devices into an integrated system. Due to its high-profile location in the largest city and media center in the United States, fictionalized versions of the NYPD and its officers have been portrayed in novels, television, motion pictures, video games; the Municipal Police were established in 1845. Mayor William Havemeyer shepherded the NYPD together, originating the phrase "New York Finest." In 1857, it was tumultuously replaced by a Metropolitan force. Twentieth-century trends struggles against corruption. Officers begin service with the rank of "probationary police officer," referred to as "recruit officer". After successful completion of five and a half to six months, sometimes longer of Police Academy training in various academic and tactical training, officers graduate from the Police Academy.
While retaining the title of "probationary police officer,"" graduates are referred to as a "police officer," or informally as a "rookie", until they have completed an additional 18 month probationary period. There are three career "tracks" in the NYPD: supervisory and specialist; the supervisory track consists of nine sworn titles, referred to as ranks. Promotion to the ranks of sergeant and captain are made via competitive civil service examinations. After reaching the civil service rank of captain, promotion to the ranks of deputy inspector, deputy chief, assistant chief and chief of department is made at the discretion of the police commissioner. Promotion from the rank of police officer to detective is discretionary by the police commissioner or required by law when the officer has performed eighteen months or more of investigative duty; the entry level appointment to detective is third specialist. The commissioner may grant discretionary grades of second and first; these grades offer compensation equivalent to that of supervisors.
A second grade detective's pay corresponds to a sergeant's and a first grade detective's pay corresponds to a lieutenant's. Detectives are police officers who perform investigatory duties but have no official supervisory authority. A "detective first grade" still falls above. Just like detectives and lieutenants can receive pay grade increases within their respective ranks. ^ †: Uniform rank that has no police powers There are two basic types of detective in the NYPD: "detective-investigators" and "detective-specialists". Detective-investigators are the type most people associate with the term "detective" and are the ones most portrayed on television and in the movies. Most police officers gain their detective title by working in the Narcotics Division of the Detective Bureau. Detectives assigned to squads are co-located within each precinct and are responsible for investigating murders, robberies and other crimes within that precinct's boundaries. Other detective-investigators are assigned to specialized units at either the major command or citywide level, investigating terrorist groups, organized crime, narcotics dealing, ext
A porter is a railway employee. The role of a porter is to assist passengers at railway stations, to handle the loading and distribution of luggage and parcels. In the United States the term was used for employees who attended to passengers aboard sleeping cars, a usage unknown to British or Commonwealth English where such staff are known as attendants or stewards, terms which are common in translation in non-English speaking European train travel; the word derives from the Latin portare, meaning "to carry." Hence, in railroad use, the application to someone who carries baggage and parcels of passengers, among other duties. Porters arose in the Traffic Department of early railway companies, as junior staff grades in most of the independent railway companies. Station porters handled passengers' luggage, assisted passengers to and from trains, carried out general cleaning duties in the station and on its platforms, assisted on ticket barriers and in booking offices as they advanced towards higher grades.
Goods porters worked in the handling of parcels and packaged goods in left luggage offices and in relation to parcels vans on trains. Porters were, in most railway companies, the most junior grade of station staff, although some companies had the more junior position of station lad held by a young unskilled and unqualified teenager, who would aspire to the role of porter after training. A typical career progression would see a porter advance to become a head porter a ticket collector or booking clerk, which could in turn lead to the senior roles of assistant station master or station master. Other career progressions were common on some railways. Research at the London School of Economics has shown how advances in rail signalling in the late Victorian era led to a shortage of skilled labour, with many unskilled porters advancing to porter signalman, qualifying as signalmen. Although porters are traditionally associated with railway stations, the role of travelling porter existed on the British railways of the pre-grouping and Big Four era.
Travelling porters travelled in the parcels cars of passenger trains organising luggage and parcels so that those required at any given station were always closest to the door upon arrival at that station. It was heavy manual labour, but was one of the roles taken over by female workers during the second world war. In Australia, a railway porter had various roles, similar to those described above. A baggage porter assisted with luggage. In the United States and Canada, the term "porter" has a somewhat different history and contemporary usage, than the rest of the world; until desegregation had its effect in the United States in the 1960s, the occupation of porter was the exclusive province of African American and Black Canadian men. It was the Civil War policy of George Pullman, head of the Pullman Company, who wished to tap into a huge potential work force, non-unionized; this changed with the organization of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters under the leadership of A. Philip Randolph. In addition to carrying passengers' baggage to their berth or room, porters provided personal services, such as clothes pressing and shoe shining.
In 2019, writer Cecil Foster published the book They Called Me George: The Untold Story of Black Train Porters and the Birth of Modern Canada, a study of the history of Black Canadian train porters. Although the role of porter originated in the United Kingdom, continued after railway nationalisation, it went into decline by the 1970s, with the general station duties role taken by station attendants, the role of carrying luggage abolished. In more recent times however, following the privatisation of British Rail, the role of porter has made a limited comeback at busy city stations and stations with high numbers of tourists and holidaymakers in transit. In India red-jacketed station porters are common at all stations across the network. Although Indian railway porters are not employed directly by Indian Railways they are centrally trained and licensed, holding a licence issued in the name of the President of India, their role is regulated, with local services provided by the railway company.
Their role is the traditional luggage-carrying job at railway stations. In the United States the term porter had the somewhat different meaning of a member of staff attending to passengers on board trains in sleeping cars, a role known as steward in most other countries; the American term is now obsolete, "attendant" being preferred. Pullman porter Society for the Prevention of Calling Sleeping Car Porters "George" A. Philip Randolph Pullman Porter Museum
Fiorello H. La Guardia
Fiorello Henry La Guardia was an American politician. He is best known for being the 99th Mayor of New York City for three terms from 1934 to 1945 as a Republican, he had been elected to Congress in 1916 and 1918, again from 1922 through 1930. Irascible and charismatic, he craved publicity and is acclaimed as one of the greatest mayors in American history. Only five feet, two inches tall, he was called "the Little Flower". La Guardia, a Republican who appealed across party lines, was popular in New York during the 1930s; as a New Dealer, he supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, in turn Roosevelt funded the city and cut off patronage for La Guardia's enemies. La Guardia revitalized restored public faith in City Hall, he unified the transit system, directed the building of low-cost public housing, public playgrounds, parks, constructed airports, reorganized the police force, defeated the powerful Tammany Hall political machine, reestablished employment on merit in place of patronage jobs.
La Guardia is remembered for his WNYC radio program "Talk to the People," which aired from December 1941 until December 1945. La Guardia was seen as a domineering leader who verged on authoritarian but whose reform politics were tailored to address the sentiments of his diverse constituency, he won elections against the corrupt Tammany Hall political system, presided during the Great Depression and World War II, implemented New Deal welfare and public works programs in the city, gave political support to immigrants and ethnic minorities. He was supported by President Roosevelt. La Guardia was known as a reform mayor who helped clean out corruption, brought in experts, made the city responsible for its own citizens, his administration engaged new groups, kept out of the political system, gave New York its modern infrastructure, raised expectations of new levels of urban possibility. La Guardia was born in Greenwich Village in New York City, his father, Achille La Guardia, was a lapsed Catholic from Cerignola and his mother, Irene Coen, was a Jewish woman from Trieste part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
It was in Trieste that Achille La Guardia married Irene. Fiorello La Guardia practiced that religion all his life, his middle name "Enrico" was anglicized to "Henry". He moved to Arizona with his family, where his father had a bandmaster position at Fort Whipple in the U. S. Army. La Guardia attended high school in Prescott, Arizona. After his father was discharged from his bandmaster position in 1898, Fiorello lived in Trieste, he graduated from a private school on the Upper West Side of New York City. La Guardia joined the State Department and served in U. S. consulates in Budapest and Fiume. He returned to the United States to continue his education at New York University. From 1907 to 1910, he worked as an interpreter for the U. S. Bureau of Immigration at the Ellis Island immigration station, he graduated from New York University School of Law in 1910, was admitted to the bar the same year, began a law practice in New York City. La Guardia married twice, his first wife was Thea Almerigotti, an Istrian immigrant, whom he married on March 8, 1919.
In June 1920 they had Fioretta Thea, who died May 9, 1921, of spinal meningitis. His first wife died of tuberculosis on November 29, 1921, at the age of 26. In 1929 he married Marie Fisher, his secretary while in Congress. La Guardia became Deputy Attorney General of New York in January 1915. In 1916, he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, where he had a reputation as a fiery and devoted reformer; as a Representative, La Guardia represented an ethnically diverse slum district in East Harlem and, although barred from important committee posts because of his political independence, he was a tireless and vocal champion of progressive causes. La Guardia took office on March 4, 1917, but soon was commissioned into the United States Army Air Service, he resigned his seat in Congress on December 31, 1919. He served as senior advisor to President Herbert Hoover from 1930–33. In 1919, La Guardia was chosen to run as the Republican candidate for the office of President of the New York City Board of Aldermen.
His Democratic opponent was Robert L. Moran, an alderman from the Bronx who had succeeded to the Board presidency in 1918 when Alfred E. Smith, elected board president in 1917, became governor. Michael "Dynamite Mike" Kelly, commander of New York's Third "Shamrock" Battalion joined the race. Tammany Hall looked with alarm upon Kelly's entrance into the campaign and tried to persuade him to withdraw his candidacy and throw his support behind Moran; when he refused, Tammany went to the New York Supreme Court and sued to keep Kelly's name off the ballot. When Election Day arrived, over 3,500 of Kelly's supporters wrote Kelly's name on the ballot; this number was sufficient to defeat Moran, who lost to La Guardia by 1,363 votes
Racial segregation is the systemic separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in the rental or purchase of a home or of hotel rooms. Segregation is defined by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance as "the act by which a person separates other persons on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition of discrimination; as a result, the voluntary act of separating oneself from other people on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds does not constitute segregation". According to the UN Forum on Minority Issues, "The creation and development of classes and schools providing education in minority languages should not be considered impermissible segregation, if the assignment to such classes and schools is of a voluntary nature".
Racial segregation is outlawed, but may exist de facto through social norms when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence. A situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation. In the United States, segregation was mandated by law in some states and came with anti-miscegenation laws. Segregation, however allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races.
Wherever there have been multiracial communities, there has been racial segregation. Only areas with extensive miscegenation, or mixing, such as Hawaii and Brazil, despite some social stratification, seem to be exempt. Following its conquest of Ottoman controlled Algeria in 1830, for well over a century France maintained colonial rule in the territory, described as "quasi-apartheid"; the colonial law of 1865 allowed Arab and Berber Algerians to apply for French citizenship only if they abandoned their Muslim identity. Camille Bonora-Waisman writes that, "n contrast with the Moroccan and Tunisian protectorates", this "colonial apartheid society" was unique to Algeria; this "internal system of apartheid" met with considerable resistance from the Muslims affected by it, is cited as one of the causes of the 1954 insurrection and ensuing independence war. In fifteenth-century north-east Germany, people of Wendish, i.e. Slavic, origin were not allowed to join some guilds. According to Wilhelm Raabe, "down into the eighteenth century no German guild accepted a Wend."German praise for America's institutional racism found in Hitler's Mein Kampf, was continuous throughout the early 1930s, radical Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models.
Race based U. S. citizenship laws and anti-miscegenation laws directly inspired the two principal Nuremberg Laws—the Citizenship Law and the Blood Law. The ban on interracial marriage prohibited sexual relations and marriages between people classified as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan." Such relationships were called Rassenschande. At first the laws were aimed at Jews but were extended to "Gypsies and their bastard offspring". Aryans found guilty could face incarceration in a concentration camp, while non-Aryans could face the death penalty. To preserve the so-called purity of the German blood, after the war began, the Nazis extended the race defilement law to include all foreigners. Under the General Government of occupied Poland in 1940, the Nazis divided the population into different groups, each with different rights, food rations, allowed housing strips in the cities, public transportation, etc. In an effort to split Polish identity they attempted to establish ethnic divisions of Kashubians and Gorals, based on these groups' alleged "Germanic component."
During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, were, along with Romas, discriminated against by the racial laws. Jewish doctors were not allowed to treat Aryan patients nor were Jewish professors permitted to teach Aryan pupils. In addition, Jews were not allowed to use any public transportation, besides the ferry, were able to shop only from 3–5 pm in Jewish stores. After Kristallnacht, the Jews were fined 1,000,000 marks for damages done by the Nazi troops and SS members. Jews and Roma were subjected to genocide as "undesirable" racial groups in the Holocaust; the Nazis established ghettos to confine Jews and sometimes Romas into packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de facto concentration camps. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of these ghettos, with 400,000 people; the Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000. Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were transported to the Reich for forced labour.
Although Nazi Germany used forced laborers from We
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr