Mount Gambier, South Australia
Mount Gambier is the second most populated city in South Australia with an estimated urban population of 28,684. The city is located on the slopes of Mount Gambier in the south east of the state, about 450 kilometres south-east of the capital Adelaide and just 17 kilometres from the Victorian border, it is the most important settlement in the Limestone Coast region and the seat of government for both the City of Mount Gambier and the District Council of Grant; the city is well known for its geographical features its volcanic and limestone features, most notably its Blue Lake and gardens, caves and sinkholes. The peak of the dormant volcano was the first place in South Australia named by European explorers, it was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the survey brig, HMS Lady Nelson, named for Lord James Gambier, Admiral of the Fleet. The peak is marked by Centenary Tower, built in 1901 to commemorate the first sighting, at 192 m above sea level the landmark is the city's highest point.
Before European settlement, the Buandig people were the original Aboriginal inhabitants of the area. They called it'ereng balam' or'egree belum', meaning'home of the eagle hawk'; the peak of the dormant Mount Gambier crater was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the survey brig, HMS Lady Nelson, named for Lord James Gambier, Admiral of the Fleet. The Henty brothers who owned large holdings in Portland, Western Victoria, laid claim to the land but were forced to retreat when the lands were granted to Evelyn Sturt, the brother of the explorer Charles Sturt. Industries soon began to appear; the Post Office opened on 22 September 1846, John Byng built the Mount Gambier Hotel in 1847, Dr Edward Wehl arrived in 1849 to begin a flour-milling operation. Hastings Cunningham founded "Gambierton" in 1854 by subdividing a block of 77 acres. From 1861 to 1878 the Post Office was known by this name before reverting to Mount Gambier. Local government appeared in 1863 when Dr Wehl, who now owned a substantial millhouse on Commercial Road, was elected chairman of the District Council of Mount Gambier.
In December 1864 this became the District Council of Mount Gambier West and, at the same time, a separate District Council of Mount Gambier East was formed. Incorporation in 1876 saw a further division, with the creation of the Town Council and Mr John Watson elected Mayor. Mount Gambier was governed in this fashion until 1932, when the District Council of East and West merged to form a single District Council of Mount Gambier once more. On 9 December 1954, Mount Gambier was declared a city, is now an important tourism centre in south-east South Australia. Mount Gambier's urban area is located along the northern slopes and plain of a maar volcano of the same name, Mount Gambier. Comprising several craters, it is part of the Newer Volcanics Province complex of volcanoes. One of these contains a huge lake of high-quality artesian drinking water which changes colour with the seasons. In winter, it is a steel grey and changes to a spectacular cobalt blue in the summer, giving rise to its name, Blue Lake.
This 70-metre deep lake accommodates a range of unusual aquatic flora and fauna, in particular fields of large stromatolites. There are several other craters in the city including the Leg of Mutton Lake; the region surrounding the city includes other volcanic features such as Mount Schank, along with many karst features such as water-filled caves and sinkholes. The urban area extends outside of the City of Mount Gambier into the District Council of Grant where the following suburbs now exist: Suttontown, Mil Lel and Worrolong to the north of the city and Yahl to the east, Compton to the west, Moorak and OB Flat to the south. Mount Gambier has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate; the town has cool wet winters. July is the wettest month with an average of 100.2 mm falling on 22 days whilst February records the lowest rainfall with an average of 26 mm on an average 8 days. The highest temperature recorded in Mount Gambier was 44.9 °C on 2 February 2014 and the lowest temperature recorded was −3.9 °C on 20 June 1950 and 2 July 1960.
Mount Gambier has 40.5 clear days on an annual basis. The government in the south-east area of the state, consisting of three local councils, amounted to a single administration. In consequence, many residents of Victoria used to look across the border to Mount Gambier as their centre. During the 1970s many elderly locals relocated to Victor Harbor and Moonta, both rural areas but with more resources available to cope with an ageing population. A 1976 study found that less than 10 per cent of residents aged over 65 had lived in the area for less than 5 years, leading to a lack of specific aged-care facilities. According to the 2006 Census the population of the Mount Gambier census area was 24,905 people, making it the largest urban area in the state outside Adelaide, the 50th largest urban area in Australia. 51.7% of the population were female, 84.9% were Australian born, over 91.5% of residents were Australian citizens and 1.6% were indigenous. The most popular industries for employment were Log Sawmilling and Timber Dressing, School Education and Retail Trade, while the unemployment rate is approx.
7%. The median weekly household income is A$814 or more compared with $924 in Adelaide. According to the 2006 Census, 60.0% of residents identified themselves as being Christian. The largest denominations represented were Catholics at 21.5%, Anglicans at 11.4%, the Uniting Church at 8.6%, Presbyterians at 6.9%. 26.9% of people claim no religion. A further 12.1% of people chose eithe
Mount Barker, South Australia
Mount Barker is a town in South Australia. Located 33 kilometres from the Adelaide city centre, it is home to 16,629 residents, it is the seat of the District Council of Mount Barker, the largest town in the Adelaide Hills, one of the fastest growing areas in the state. Mount Barker lies at the base of a local eponymous peak called the Mount Barker summit, it is 50 kilometres from the Murray River. Mount Barker was traditionally a farming area, many of the lots just outside the town area are farming lots, although some of them have been replaced with new subdivisions in recent times. Mount Barker, the mountain, was first sighted by Captain Charles Sturt in 1830, although he thought he was looking at the discovered Mount Lofty. Captain Collet Barker corrected this error when he surveyed the area in 1831. Sturt named the mountain in honour of Captain Barker after he was killed that year by Aborigines, at the Murray Mouth; the mountain was recognised by King William IV in 1834, two years before the colonisation of South Australia in 1836.
The first Europeans to ascend the mountain, on 27 November 1837, were a six-man party comprising John Barton Hack, John Morphett, Samuel Stephens, Charles Stuart, Thomas Davis, John Wade. Four weeks on 25 December 1837, four colonists, Robert Cock, William Finlayson, A. Wyatt, G. Barton, left Adelaide to examine the country south east of Adelaide toward Lake Alexandrina. Along the route, they ascended the mount. Mount Barker was home to the Peramangk Aboriginal people; the Ngarrindjeri people from the east used the Summit for ceremonial and burial sites. The Mount Barker Summit is a significant Aboriginal area, may be one of the most sacred sites near Adelaide. In 1984 the Ngarrindjeri people tried to prevent the building of a police communications tower, in 1987 they tried to stop the Telecom tower, although both attempts were not successful. Mount Barker township was surveyed in 1839 by Duncan McFarlane, hoping the area could be used for wheat and grain farming; the land was divided into lots of 80 acres, although farmers didn't settle until 1844, when John Dunn built the first steam flour mill outside of Adelaide.
The flour mill is now a tourist attraction. All of the towns major buildings were built soon afterwards, with a post office in 1860 and a police station, built in 1878. In 1883, the railway line from Adelaide to Strathalbyn was laid, but that line is now discontinued, with the line terminating short of Balhannah, is used by the SteamRanger Heritage Railway. Mount Barker has since developed into a large urban centre, developing rapidly; the Mount Barker district council is the area that experienced the fourth largest growth between 1996 and 2006 in South Australia, with an increase of 3,800 new residents. Mount Barker is ranked fifth for fastest growth in South Australia. During the last 10 years, many new subdivisions have been developed, such as Martin-Dale and Waterford. During this period, there has been an economic boom in Mount Barker and a number of additional malls and shopping centres, such as the Adelaide Hills Home-maker Centre, with a Radio Rentals, a Harvey Norman and the new offices for the District Council of Mount Barker.
There have recently been lodged plans for a new shopping centre, which will feature a major department store larger than 4,000 m 2. Mount Barker is famous as the place where the value of subterranean clover, Trifolium subterraneum as a fodder crop was discovered and first promoted by A. W. Howard, his property stood at the south-east corner of Bald Hills Road. Subterranean clover had been known for a long time in Central and Southern Europe, but was looked upon as a roadside weed. Howard proved the clover to be a valuable fodder plant in some soil types in temperate climates. Subterranean clover revolutionised farming practice, converting many struggling farms into successful livestock holdings; the discovery spread across Australia and to many other countries, due to Howard's generosity in publishing articles about clover, supplying seed free of charge around the world, advising on handling. By the time of his death, thousands of hectares in South Australia were carrying subterranean clover, it was growing in all Australian States, requests for seed and information were being received in great numbers from all countries in the world having a temperate climate.
Howard's work is commemorated by a roadside plaque, by the incorporation of a clover leaf into the arms of the District Council of Mount Barker, by the Howard's End vineyard and winery on the same site. In 2003 due to concerns that Adelaide's urban sprawl was encroaching onto surrounding farmlands, the State Planning Minister Jay Weatherill made a commitment to contain the expansion of Mount Barker. In 2008 a consortium of five developers sought the rezoning of 1,300 hectares of prime agricultural land in order to build an additional 7,700 new homes which would increase the population of Mount Barker from 10,258 to around 35,000; the land included 40 hectares rezoned to light industry in order to provide jobs for the new population. The plan was rejected by the Mount Barker Council as it had just completed a 15-year development plan for the area that would retain the town's "rural character" and it could not afford the required infrastructure, a decision supported by a survey indicating that the rezoning was opposed by 98% of residents.
In April 2009, the developers approached Paul Holloway, the State Planni
City of Port Augusta
The City of Port Augusta is a local government area located at the northern end of Spencer Gulf in South Australia. It is centred on the town of Port Augusta; the city was the site of South Australia's main power supplier, the Port Augusta powerhouse, located on the coast of the Spencer Gulf. The Port Augusta region is a natural crossroads and aborigines have been trading in the area for 40 000 years. European settlement began in the 1840s and the town grew from a pastoral service centre to a railway town with the construction of the overland telegraph line the commencement of the railways towards Alice Springs and Kalgoorlie; the municipality was created as the Corporate Town of Port Augusta on 3 November 1875. A number of smaller separate municipalities were subsequently proclaimed in the Port Augusta area, including the Corporate Town of Davenport, the Corporate Town of Port Augusta West, the District Council of Davenport; the municipalities in the area were amalgamated on 16 February 1933, with Port Augusta West and part of Woolundunga being merged into a larger Port Augusta municipality.
It became the City of Port Augusta with the granting of city status in late 1964. The Port Augusta Town Hall was built to house the municipality in 1886-87, it was damaged by fire in 1944, rebuilt in 1946, but was vacated by the City in 1983 after the completion of the new Port Augusta Civic Centre. The former town hall subsequently fell into disuse, was advertised for sale by the state government in June 2015 awaiting redevelopment. Another major industry was the production of electric power, with three coal-fired power stations burning coal mined at Leigh Creek, the first of, completed in 1954; as of 2016 all three stations are now defunct and are being decommissioned. The district includes two neighbouring areas, one of, a significant town; this means there are two towns in the district: Blanche Harbor Commissariat Point Davenport Miranda Mundallio Port Augusta Port Augusta West Port Paterson Saltia Stirling North Wami Kata Winninowie Woolundunga The City of Port Augusta has a directly-elected mayor.
Port Augusta Airport Australian Arid Lands Botanic Garden List of parks and gardens in rural South Australia Official website Page on LGASA website
Attorney-General of South Australia
The Attorney-General of South Australia is the Cabinet minister in the Government of South Australia, responsible for that state's system of law and justice. The Attorney-General must be a qualified legal practitioner; the current Attorney-General since March 2018 is The Hon. Vickie Chapman MHA, a member of the Liberal Party of Australia. Justice ministry Government of South Australia Statistical Record of the Legislature 1836 - 2007 List of Australian Attorneys-General Former Members of the Parliament of South Australia
Thomas George Crush was an Australian politician who represented the Electoral district of Northern Territory in the South Australian House of Assembly from 1908 until the removal of the Northern Territory from South Australian jurisdiction. Born in Plaistow, the son of William Henry Crush, Crush worked as a teacher in Essex before moving to Australia in 1888, where he worked a number of different jobs around Australia, settled in the Northern Territory at Wandi, near Pine Creek in 1897 to work a goldmine. Crush married local identity Fannie Cody on 3 August 1898 and together they built the Federation Hotel at Brock’s Creek, while becoming involved in local issues. In May 1901, Crush founded and became secretary of the Brocks Creek branch of the North Australian League, which fought for local issues. Following the 1908 death of Vaiben Louis Solomon, one of the two members for the Northern Territory in the South Australian House of Assembly, Crush stood as a Labor candidate in the resulting by-election, becoming the first successful Labor candidate in the Northern Territory.
When Crush first arrived in Adelaide there was speculation about his political leanings despite his election on the Labor ticket due to so little being known about him and the fact he had not signed the Labor pledge. In parliament Crush pushed for Northern Territory-related issues, like the direction of the Darwin to Adelaide railway and, with Fannie's help, was comfortably re-elected at the 1910 South Australian legislative election, with John Alexander Voules Brown as his colleague. In 1911 the Northern Territory was moved from South Australian to federal administration, leading to the abolition of the Northern Territory electorate. Crush believed it would only be a short time before the Northern Territory was granted political representation in the Parliament of Australia and declared his intention to run at the federal election. However, Crush's health began to deteriorate and after a lengthy stay at Darwin Hospital, he died of heart failure on 27 August 1913, aged about 48. Called "a fluent and convincing speaker" and gaining recognition for his "unassuming good nature and sincerity" around Adelaide, South Australian Labor colleagues erected a memorial to him at his burial place in the Darwin Pioneer Cemetery.
James, B. Occupation Citizen, Self-published. ISBN 0 646 26430 3. James, B. "Crush, Thomas George", Northern Territory Dictionary of Biography, Revised Edition, ed. Carment, D, Edward, C. et al. Charles Darwin University Press: Darwin. ISBN 9780980457810
Governor of South Australia
The Governor of South Australia is the representative in the Australian state of South Australia of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. The Governor performs the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as does the Governor-General of Australia at the national level. In accordance with the conventions of the Westminster system of parliamentary government, the Governor nearly always acts on the advice of the head of the elected government, the Premier of South Australia; the Governor retains the reserve powers of the Crown, has the right to dismiss the Premier. As from June 2014, the Queen, upon the recommendation of the Premier, accorded all current and living former Governors the title'The Honourable' for life; the first six Governors oversaw the colony from proclamation in 1836 until self-government and an elected Parliament of South Australia was enacted in the year prior to the inaugural 1857 election. The first Australian-born Governor of South Australia was Major-General Sir James Harrison, most subsequent governors have been Australian-born.
The first South Australian-born governor was Sir Mark Oliphant, the first Aboriginal governor was Sir Douglas Nicholls. The current governor is Hieu Van Le. who commenced when the term of the previous governor, Rear Admiral Kevin Scarce, expired on 7 August 2014. The Governor's official residence is Government House, in the state's capital. Prior to self-government, the Governor was responsible to the Government of the United Kingdom and was charged with implementing laws and policy; the Governor is responsible for safeguarding the South Australian Constitution and facilitating the work of the Parliament and state government. The Governor exercises power on the advice of Ministers, conveyed through the Executive Council. Constitutional powers bestowed upon the Governor and used with the consent and advice of the Executive Council include: to appoint and dismiss Ministers. Exercising the prerogative of mercy. Issuing regulations and proclamations under existing laws. Giving Royal Assent to bills passed by Parliament.
Appointing judges, royal commissioners and senior public servants. Dissolving Parliament and issuing writs for elections; the Governor additionally maintains'reserve powers' which can be used without the consent of the Executive Council. These powers relate to the dismissal of Ministers and Parliament; these people administered the government in the absence of the official governor. Three former governors are alive; the latest-serving former governor to die was Dame Roma Mitchell, on 5 March 2000. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Sir Keith Seaman, on 30 June 2013; the Official Website of the Governor of South Australia Previous governors on official website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona