William Farr was a British epidemiologist, regarded as one of the founders of medical statistics. He was born in Shropshire, to poor parents, he was adopted by a local squire, Joseph Pryce, when Farr and his family moved to Dorrington. In 1826 he took a job as a dresser in Shrewsbury infirmary. Pryce died in November 1828, left Farr £500, which allowed him to study medicine in France and Switzerland. In Paris he heard. Farr returned to England in 1831 and continued his studies at University College London, qualifying as a licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries in March 1832, he started a medical practice in Fitzroy Square, London. He became involved in medical journalism and statistics. In 1837 the General Register Office took on the responsibility for the United Kingdom Census 1841. Farr was hired there on a temporary basis to handle data from vital registration. With a recommendation from Edwin Chadwick and backing from Neil Arnott, Farr secured another post in the GRO as the first compiler of scientific abstracts.
Chadwick and Farr had an agenda, demography aimed at public health, the support of the initial Registrar General Thomas Henry Lister. Lister worked with Farr to forward the programme. Farr was responsible for the collection of official medical statistics in Wales, his most important contribution was to set up a system for recording the causes of death. For example, for the first time it allowed the mortality rates of different occupations to be compared. In 1839, Farr joined the Statistical Society, in which he played an active part as treasurer, vice-president and president over the years. In 1855 he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society, he was involved in the Social Science Association from its foundation in 1857, taking part in its Quarantine Committee and Committee on Trades' Societies and Strikes. There was a major outbreak of cholera in London in 1849. Early industrialisation had made London the most populous city in the world at the time, the River Thames was polluted with untreated sewage.
Farr subscribed to the conventional theory that cholera was carried by polluted air rather than water – the miasmic theory. In addition, through his analysis of several variables and their association with death from cholera, Farr held the belief that elevation was the major contributor to the occurrence of the disease, he presented how topographical features are able to prevent certain diseases to immunization. During the 1853-54 epidemic, Farr gathered more statistical evidence. During focused study of the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak, the physician John Snow proposed what is now the accepted mechanism for transmission: people were infected by swallowing something, it multiplied in the intestines. Snow discovered that people supplied with water from two companies in particular: the Southwark & Vauxhall and the Lambeth water companies – which drew their water directly from the Thames were likely to suffer. Farr took part in the General Board of Health's 1854 Committee for Scientific Enquiries.
The conventional explanation for cholera was still multifactorial. Farr's research showed an inverse correlation of mortality and elevation. There was a further epidemic in 1866, by which time Snow had died, Farr had accepted Snow's explanation, he produced a monograph which showed that mortality was high for people who drew their water from the Old Ford Reservoir in East London. Farr's work was considered conclusive. In 1858, he performed a study on the correlation of health and marriage condition, found that health decreases from the married to the unmarried to the widowed. In the period 1857–9 the Office ordered a difference engine, a model designed by Swedish followers of Charles Babbage; the intended application was the "British Life Table". Farr served as a commissioner in the 1871 census, retiring from the General Register Office in 1879 after he was not given the post of Registrar General, he received the Gold Medal of the British Medical Association for his work in the field of biostatistics.
In his last years, Farr's approach was obsolescent. Bacteriology had changed the face of the medical issues, statistics became an mathematic tool. Medical reformers, changed approach, expecting less from legislation and central government. In 1837 Farr wrote the chapter "Vital Statistics" for John Ramsey McCulloch's Statistical Account of the British Empire. In January 1837 he established the British Annals of Medicine, Vital Statistics, General Science, discontinued in August of that year, he revised a book of James Fernandez Clarke on tuberculosis. Farr exploited his GRO post compiling abstracts in a way that went beyond the original job description. In so doing he applied the techniques of Benjamin Gompertz, the allied statistical "law of mortality" of Thomas Rowe Edmonds. Farr, by relying on the existing mathematical model of mortality, could use data sampling to cut back the required computation. From the GRO data he constructed a series of national life tables; the theory of zymotic disease was Farr's contribution to the debate on aetiology.
He identified population density as public health issues. In terms of nosology he classed epidemic and contagious diseases as "zymotic", seen as diseases of filth and overcrowding. In The Sewer King, an episode in the 2003 British television documentary seri
Thomas Spring Rice, 1st Baron Monteagle of Brandon
Thomas Spring Rice, 1st Baron Monteagle of Brandon, was a British Whig politician, who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1835 to 1839. Spring Rice was born into a notable Anglo-Irish family, he was one of the three children of Stephen Edward Rice, of Mount Trenchard House, Catherine Spring and heiress of Thomas Spring of Ballycrispin and Castlemaine, County Kerry, a descendant of the Suffolk Spring family. He was a great grandson of Sir Stephen Rice, Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer and a leading Jacobite Sir Maurice FitzGerald, 14th Knight of Kerry, his only married sister, was the mother of the Catholic converts Aubrey Thomas de Vere and the Liberal Member of Parliament, Sir Stephen de Vere, 4th Baronet. Spring Rice's grandfather, had converted the family from Roman Catholicism to the Anglican Church of Ireland, to save his estate from passing in gavelkind. Spring Rice was educated at Trinity College and studied law at Lincoln's Inn, but was not called to the Bar, his family was politically well-connected, both in Ireland and Great Britain, he was encouraged to stand for Parliament by his father-in-law, Lord Limerick.
Spring Rice first stood for election in Limerick City in 1818 but was defeated by the Tory incumbent, John Vereker, by 300 votes. He entered the House of Commons, he positioned himself as a moderate unionist reformer who opposed the radical nationalist politics of Daniel O'Connell, became known for his expertise on Irish and economic affairs. In 1824 he led the committee. Spring Rice's fluent debating style in the Commons brought him to the attention of leading Whigs and he came under the patronage of the Marquess of Lansdowne; as a result, Spring Rice was made Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department under George Canning and Lord Goderich in 1827, with responsibility for Irish affairs. This required Spring Rice to accept deferral of Catholic emancipation, a policy which he supported. Spring Rice served as joint Secretary to the Treasury from 1830 to 1834 under Lord Grey. Following the Reform Act 1832, he was elected to represent Cambridge from 1832 to 1839. In June 1834, Grey appointed Spring Rice Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, with a seat in the cabinet, a post he retained when Lord Melbourne became Prime Minister in July.
A strong and vocal unionist throughout his life, Spring Rice led the Parliamentary opposition to Daniel O'Connell's 1834 attempt to repeal the Acts of Union 1800. In a six-hour speech in the House of Commons on 23 April 1834 he suggested that Ireland should be renamed'West Britain'. In the Commons, Spring Rice championed causes such as the worldwide abolition of slavery and the introduction of state-supported education; the Whig government fell in November 1834, after which Spring Rice attempted to be elected Speaker of the House of Commons in early 1835. When the Whigs returned to power under Melbourne in April 1835, Spring Rice was made Chancellor of the Exchequer; as Chancellor, Spring Rice had to deal with crop failures, a depression and rebellion in North America, all of which created large deficits and put considerable strain on the government. His Church Rate Bill of 1837 was abandoned and his attempt to revise the charter of the Bank of Ireland ended in humiliation. Spring Rice, unhappy as Chancellor, again failed.
He was a dogmatic figure, described by Lord Melbourne as "too much given to details and possessed of no broad views". Upon his departure from office in 1839, Spring Rice had become a scapegoat for the government's many problems; that same year he was raised to the peerage as Baron Monteagle of Brandon, in the County of Kerry, a title intended earlier for his ancestor Sir Stephen Rice. Lord Monteagle of Brandon was Comptroller General of the Exchequer from 1835 to 1865, despite Lord Howick's initial opposition to the maintenance of the office. Monteagle differed from the government regarding the exchequer control over the treasury, the abolition of the old exchequer was determined upon when he died. From 1839 he retired from public life, although he spoke in the House of Lords on matters relating to government finance and Ireland, he vehemently opposed John Russell, 1st Earl Russell's policy regarding the Irish famine, giving a speech in the Lords in which he said the government had "degraded our people, you, now shrink from your responsibilities."
In addition to his political career, Spring Rice was a commissioner of the state paper office, a trustee of the National Gallery and a member of the senate of the University of London and of the Queen's University of Ireland. Between 1845 and 1847, he was President of the Royal Statistical Society. In addition, he was a Fellow of the Geological Society. In May 1832 he became a member of James Mill's Political Economy Club. Spring Rice was well regarded in Limerick, where he was seen as a compassionate landlord and a good politician. An advocate of traditional Whiggism, he believed in ensuring society was protected from conflict between the upper and lower classes. Although a pious Anglican, his support for Catholic emancipation won him the favour of many Irishmen, most of whom were Roman Catholic, he led the campaign for better county government in Ireland at a time when many Irish nationalists were indifferent to the cause. During the Great Famine of the 1840s, Spring Rice responded to the plight of his tenants with benevolence.
The ameliorative measures he implemented on his estates bankrupted the family and only the dowry from his second marriage saved h
William Henry Sykes
Colonel William Henry Sykes, FRS was an English naturalist who served with the British military in India and was known for his work with the Indian Army as a politician and ornithologist. One of the pioneers of the Victorian statistical movement, a founder of the Royal Statistical Society, he conducted surveys and examined the efficiency of army operation. Returning from service in India, he became a director of the East India Company and a member of parliament representing Aberdeen. Sykes was born near Bradford in Yorkshire, his father was Samuel Sykes of Friezing Hall, they belonged to the family of Sykeses of Yorkshire. He joined military service as a cadet in 1803 and obtained a commission on 1 May 1804 with the Honourable East India Company. Joining the Bombay Army, he was to lieutenancy on 12 October 1805, he saw action at the siege of Bhurtpur under Lord Lake in 1805. He commanded a regiment at the battles of Kirkee and Poonah and was involved in the capture of hill forts. By 1810 he could speak Marathi languages.
He became a captain on 25 January 1819 and travelled for four years across Europe from 1820. He returned to India in October 1824 and was appointed by Monstuart Elphinstone as a statistical reporter to the Bombay government, he collected statistical and natural history researches, completed a census of the population of the Deccan, producing two voluminous statistical reports, a complete natural history report illustrated with drawings. He married Elizabeth, daughter of William Hay of Renistoun, in 1824, he was promoted to the rank of major on 8 September 1826 and to lieutenant-colonel on 9 April 1831. In December 1829 the post of statistical reporter was abolished, but he took leave from military duty and continued to work on his statistical surveys, he left for Europe on furlough. He retired from active service with the rank of colonel on 18 June 1833, in September 1835 he became a Royal Commissioner in Lunacy, a post he held till 1845. On account of his knowledge of Indian matters, he was made a director of the East India Company in 1840.
In 1867 he was elected chairman of the court of directors of the East India Company. In 1847 he failed. In 1857 he contested again, representing the liberal interest against John Farley Leith, was elected, he continued to hold the seat for several terms. He was elected president of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1858, he was a member of the Society of Arts and the Royal British Association. Sykes was elected Lord Rector of Marischal College, Aberdeen in 1854, he was a founder member, in 1835, president of the Royal Statistical Society, 1863–1965. He became an Honorary Metropolitan Commissioner in September 1835. Despite suffering from bronchitis he attended all parliament sessions and died in Kensington, aged 82; as a "Statistical Reporter" he travelled across the Deccan region, collecting data on populations apart from collecting natural history specimens. Some of statistical research contributions included the computations of the cost of maintenance per soldier, he calculated for instance that the French army had a much lower cost than that of the British army, which according to him allowed the French to maintain two soldiers for the cost of one "English" soldier.
He worked out that native Indian soldiers were healthier than their European counterparts and that it was possible to provide pension and insurance to Indian soldiers with a low premium although this was never implemented. Sykes was a pioneer meteorologist in India, taking regular temperature and atmospheric pressure readings. Sykes' collections of animals resulted in the publications of catalogues of birds and mammals from the Deccan region, many of which were published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, his discoveries included fifty-six birds new to science, including the Indian pond heron. Sykes studied the fish of the area, wrote papers on the quails and hemipodes of India, his list of birds of the Deccan contained 236 species. He was an authority on the natural history of the Deccan region and he corresponded with many other naturalists, he used his influence during his position at the East India Company and Charles Darwin wrote to him to influence decisions in favour of including Edward Blyth on an expedition to China.
Sykes's lark of peninsular India is named after him. In addition, a race of blue-headed wagtail was given the common name Sykes's wagtail in British Birds. Sykes wrote extensively on its antiquity. In an 1842 paper published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society, he contended that the Brahmins were not native to India and that Pali was older than Sanskrit, he believed that, rather than Brahmanism, it was Buddhism that had reigned supreme in India's ancient past. Referring to the translated travelogue of Faxian, Sykes paid tribute to "the literature of that remarkable people—the Chinese" that thankfully existed to illuminate India's past, he hoped that, "by proper means, applied in a cautious and forbearing spirit, such farther changes may be effected as will raise the intellectual standard of the Hindus, improve their moral and social condition, assist to promote their eternal welfare." In 1856, the citizens of Bombay presented Sykes with a medal for his advocacy in favour of a native system of education.
Sykes wrote on the Taiping Rebellion holding the British Governmen
Harriet Jones-Loyd, Lady Wantage
Harriet Sarah Jones-Loyd, Lady Wantage was a British art collector and benefactor. She was the sole heiress to the fortune of her parents Harriet Wright and Samuel Jones-Loyd, 1st Baron Overstone, who gave her Lockinge House near Wantage as a wedding present when she married Robert Loyd-Lindsay in 1858; the couple lived at 2 Carlton Gardens, Lockinge House and Overstone Park and Ardington House. She was a benefactor to many causes, most notably nursing, for which she founded the National Aid Society. For this she was awarded the Order of the Red Cross in 1883. Two years her husband was made peer of the realm and she wrote a biography of him, published after his death, she is known for founding Wantage Abington Park. Her large art collection, which included Turner's High Street, Claude Lorrain's Landscape with Psyche Outside the Palace of Cupid, other works by modern artists as well as old masters, was dispersed and sold after her death. Notable paintings in her collection were: Catalogue of porcelain and other works of art in the collection of Lady Wantage &c.
W. H. Fairbairns, Enfield, 1912
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Northamptonshire, archaically known as the County of Northampton, is a county in the East Midlands of England. In 2015 it had a population of 723,000; the county is administered by Northamptonshire County Council and by seven non-metropolitan district councils. It is known as "The Rose of the Shires". Covering an area of 2,364 square kilometres, Northamptonshire is landlocked between eight other counties: Warwickshire to the west and Rutland to the north, Cambridgeshire to the east, Bedfordshire to the south-east, Buckinghamshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the south-west and Lincolnshire to the north-east – England's shortest administrative county boundary at 19 metres. Northamptonshire is the southernmost county in the East Midlands region. Apart from the county town of Northampton, other major population centres include Kettering, Wellingborough and Daventry. Northamptonshire's county flower is the cowslip. Much of Northamptonshire's countryside appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an sparse population and few finds from the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods.
In about 500 BC the Iron Age was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture, over the next century a series of hill-forts were constructed at Arbury Camp, Rainsborough camp, Borough Hill, Castle Dykes, Guilsborough and most notably of all, Hunsbury Hill. There are two more possible hill-forts at Arbury Thenford. In the 1st century BC, most of what became Northamptonshire became part of the territory of the Catuvellauni, a Belgic tribe, the Northamptonshire area forming their most northerly possession; the Catuvellauni were in turn conquered by the Romans in 43 AD. The Roman road of Watling Street passed through the county, an important Roman settlement, stood on the site of modern-day Towcester. There were other Roman settlements at Northampton and along the Nene Valley near Raunds. A large fort was built at Longthorpe. After the Romans left, the area became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, Northampton functioned as an administrative centre.
The Mercians converted to Christianity in 654 AD with the death of the pagan king Penda. From about 889 the area was conquered by the Danes and became part of the Danelaw – with Watling Street serving as the boundary – until being recaptured by the English under the Wessex king Edward the Elder, son of Alfred the Great, in 917. Northamptonshire was conquered again in 940, this time by the Vikings of York, who devastated the area, only for the county to be retaken by the English in 942, it is one of the few counties in England to have both Saxon and Danish town-names and settlements. The county was first recorded as Hamtunscire: the scire of Hamtun; the "North" was added to distinguish Northampton from the other important Hamtun further south: Southampton – though the origins of the two names are in fact different. Rockingham Castle was built for William the Conqueror and was used as a Royal fortress until Elizabethan times. In 1460, during the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Northampton took place and King Henry VI was captured.
The now-ruined Fotheringhay Castle was used to imprison Queen of Scots, before her execution. George Washington, the first President of the United States of America, was born into the Washington family who had migrated to America from Northamptonshire in 1656. George Washington's ancestor, Lawrence Washington, was Mayor of Northampton on several occasions and it was he who bought Sulgrave Manor from Henry VIII in 1539, it was George Washington's great-grandfather, John Washington, who emigrated in 1656 from Northants to Virginia. Before Washington's ancestors moved to Sulgrave, they lived in Lancashire. During the English Civil War, Northamptonshire supported the Parliamentarian cause, the Royalist forces suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Naseby in 1645 in the north of the county. King Charles I was imprisoned at Holdenby House in 1647. In 1823 Northamptonshire was said to " a pure and wholesome air" because of its dryness and distance from the sea, its livestock were celebrated: "Horned cattle, other animals, are fed to extraordinary sizes: and many horses of the large black breed are reared."Nine years the county was described as "a county enjoying the reputation of being one of the healthiest and pleasantest parts of England" although the towns were "of small importance" with the exceptions of Peterborough and Northampton.
In summer, the county hosted "a great number of wealthy families... country seats and villas are to be seen at every step." Northamptonshire is still referred to as the county of "spires and squires" because of the numbers of stately homes and ancient churches. In the 18th and 19th centuries, parts of Northamptonshire and the surrounding area became industrialised; the local specialisation was shoemaking and the leather industry and by the end of the 19th century it was definitively the boot and shoe making capital of the world. In the north of the county a large ironstone quarrying industry developed from 1850. Prior to 1901 the ancient hundreds were disused. Northamptonshire was administered as four major divisions: Northern, Eastern and Southern. During the 1930s, the town of Corby was established as a major centre of the steel industry. Much of Northamptonshire remains rural. Corby was designated a new town in 1950 and Northampton followed in 1968; as of 2005 the government is encouraging d
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era. Scion of one of the most powerful aristocratic families, his great achievements, says A. J. P. Taylor, were based on his persistent battles in Parliament over the years on behalf of the expansion of liberty. E. L. Woodward, argued that he was too much the abstract theorist, so that:He was more concerned with the removal of obstacles to civil liberty than with the creation of a more reasonable and civilized society, his political theory centred in the revolution of 1688, in the clique of aristocratic families to whom the country owed loyalty in return for something like the charte octroyée of the reform bill. Russell led his Whig party into support for reform; as Prime Minister he was less successful. He headed a government that failed to deal with the Irish Famine, a disaster which saw the loss of a quarter of Ireland's population.
It has been said that his ministry of 1846 to 1852 was the ruin of the Whig party: it never composed a Government again, his ministry of 1865 to 1866 was nearly the ruin of the Liberal Party also. Russell was born small and premature on 18 August 1792 into the highest echelons of the British aristocracy, being the third son of John Russell 6th Duke of Bedford, Georgiana Byng, daughter of George Byng, 4th Viscount Torrington; the Russell family had been one of the principal Whig dynasties in England since the 17th century, were among the richest handful of aristocratic landowning families in the country, but as a younger son of the 6th Duke of Bedford, he was not expected to inherit the family estates. As a younger son of a duke, he bore the courtesy title "Lord John Russell", but he was not a peer in his own right, he was, able to sit in the House of Commons until he was made an earl in 1861 and transferred into the House of Lords. After being withdrawn from Westminster School due to ill health, Russell was educated by tutors.
He attended the University of Edinburgh, 1809 and 1812. Although of small stature—he grew to no more than 5 feet 4-and-three-quarter inches tall—and in poor health, he traveled in Britain and on the continent, held commission as Captain in the Bedfordshire Militia in 1810. During his continental travels, Russell had a 90-minute meeting with Napoleon in December 1814 during the former emperor's exile at Elba. Russell entered the House of Commons as a Whig in 1813; the future reformer gained his seat by virtue of his father, the Duke of Bedford, instructing the 30 or so electors of Tavistock to return him as an MP though at the time Russell was abroad and under age. In 1819, Russell embraced the cause of parliamentary reform, he led the more reformist wing of the Whigs throughout the 1820s; when the Whigs came to power in 1830 in Earl Grey's government, Russell entered the government as Paymaster of the Forces, was soon elevated to the Cabinet. He was one of the principal leaders of the fight for the Reform Act 1832, earning the nickname Finality Jack from his complacently pronouncing the Act a final measure.
In 1834, when the leader of the Commons, Lord Althorp, succeeded to the peerage as Earl Spencer, Russell became the leader of the Whigs in the Commons. This appointment prompted King William IV to terminate Lord Melbourne's government, the last time in British history that a monarch dismissed a prime minister. Russell retained his position for the rest of the decade, until the Whigs fell from power in 1841. In this position, Russell continued to lead the more reformist wing of the Whig party, calling, in particular, for religious freedom, and, as Home Secretary in the late 1830s, played a large role in democratising the government of British cities other than London. During his career in Parliament, Lord John Russell represented the City of London. Taylor emphasises Russell's central role in the expansion of liberty and in leading his Whig party to a commitment to a reform agenda. In 1845, as leader of the Opposition, Russell came out in favour of repeal of the Corn Laws, forcing Conservative Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel to follow him.
In December 1845, with the Conservatives split over this issue, Queen Victoria asked Russell to form a government, which he was unable to do since Lord Grey refused to serve with Lord Palmerston as Foreign Secretary. In June the following year the Corn Laws were repealed but only by virtue of Whig support; the same day Peel's Irish Coercion Bill, which the Whigs did not support, was defeated and the Prime Minister resigned. Russell became this time Grey not objecting to Palmerston's appointment. Russell's government secured social reforms such as funding teacher-training and passage of the Factory Act of 1847, which restricted the working hours of women and young persons in textile mills to 10 hours per day, his premiership was frustrated, because of party disunity and infighting, he was unable to secure the success of many of the measures he was interested in passing. Russell was religious in a simple non-dogmatic way and supported the "Broad church" element in the Church of England, he opposed the "Oxford Movement" because its "Tractarian" members were too dogmatic and too close to Romanism.
He supported Broad Churchmen or Latitudinarians by several appointments of liberal churchmen to vacant sees. In 1859 he reversed himself and decided to free non-Anglicans of the duty of paying rates to the local Angl