James Kent was an American jurist and legal scholar. He was the author of Commentaries on American Law. Kent was the son of Moss Kent, a lawyer from Dutchess County, New York and the first Surrogate of Rensselaer County, New York, he graduated from Yale College in 1781, having helped establish the Phi Beta Kappa Society there in 1780, began to practice law at Poughkeepsie, New York in 1785 as an attorney, in 1787 at the bar. In 1791 and 1792-93 Kent was a member from Dutchess County of the New York State Assembly. In 1793, he removed to New York City. Kent was the first professor of law in Columbia College in 1793-98 and again served in the Assembly in 1796-97. In 1797, he was appointed Recorder of New York City and in 1798, a justice of the New York Supreme Court, in 1804 Chief Justice, in 1814 Chancellor of New York. Kent was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. In 1821 he was a member of the New York State Constitutional Convention where he unsuccessfully opposed the raising of the property qualification for African American voters.
Two years Chancellor Kent reached the constitutional age limit and retired from his office, but was re-elected to his former chair. He lived in retirement in Summit, New Jersey between 1837 and 1847 in a simple four-roomed cottage which he referred to as'my Summit Lodge', a name, offered as the derivation for the city's name. Kent has been long remembered for his Commentaries on American Law respected in England and America; the Commentaries treated state and international law, the law of personal rights and of property, went through six editions in Kent's lifetime. Kent rendered his most essential service to American jurisprudence. Chancery, or equity law, had been unpopular during the colonial period, had received little development, no decisions had been published, his judgments of this class cover a wide range of topics, are so considered and developed as unquestionably to form the basis of American equity jurisprudence. Kent married Elizabeth Bailey, they had four children: Elizabeth, Elizabeth and William Kent, a circuit judge and ran for Lieutenant Governor of New York with Washington Hunt in 1852.
His brother Moss Kent was a Congressman. Kent County and Kent City, Michigan are named in his honor because he represented Michigan Territory in its dispute with Ohio over the Toledo Strip. Chicago-Kent College of Law is named in his honor; the Chancellor Kent Professorship at Columbia Law School is named after him, as is Kent Hall, built for the law school, but which now contains Columbia's departments of East and Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures along with its East Asian library. Students who have high honors status during any one of their years at Columbia Law School are called James Kent Scholars in honor of James Kent's status as Columbia's first professor of law; the Chancellor Kent Professorship at Yale Law School is named after him. Kent Place School, an independent all-girls school in New Jersey, is located where his summer house was. James Kent's original'Summit Lodge' is now incorporated into a large mansion at 50 Kent Place Boulevard, Summit, NJ. Most of the original architecture including the kitchen and long room still exist today.
Bronze statues of Chancellor Kent and Solon represent law on the balustrade of the galleries of the Main Reading Room in the Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C; these statues are among sixteen representing men whose works have shaped human development and civilization. In 1900, Kent was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans with a bust sculpted by Edmond Thomas Quinn. Notes Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Kent, James". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Political Graveyard Google Book The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1849 Further reading Duer, Discourse on the Life and Public Services of James Kent, New York, 1848; the Historical Society of the Courts of the State of New York: Commentaries on Chancellor Kent James Kent: Commentaries on American Law "Autobiographical Sketch of James Kent," Southern Law Review, 1872, pp. 381-91.
"Kent, James". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
New York State Legislature
The New York State Legislature consists of the two houses that act as the state legislature of the U. S. state of New York. The New York Constitution does not designate an official term for the two houses together, it says only that "legislative power is vested in the senate and assembly." The session laws are published in the official Laws of New York. The permanent laws of a general nature are codified in the Consolidated Laws of New York; the legislature is seated at the New York State Capitol in Albany. Legislative elections are held in November of every even-numbered year. Both Assembly members and Senators serve two-year terms. In order to be a member of either house, one must be a citizen of the United States, a resident of the state of New York for at least five years, a resident of the district for at least one year prior to election; the Assembly consists of 150 members. The Senate, in accordance with the New York Constitution, varies in its number of members, but has 63. Senate districts are between two and three times more populous than Assembly districts.
As of 2009 the New York State Legislature has 2,700 employees, more than any other state legislature except for the Pennsylvania General Assembly. The Assembly is headed by the Speaker, while the Senate is headed by the President, a post held ex officio by the State Lieutenant Governor; the Lieutenant Governor, as President of the Senate, has only a tie-breaking "casting vote". More the Senate is presided over by the Temporary President or by a senator of the Majority Leader's choosing; the Assembly Speaker and Senate Majority Leader control the assignment of committees and leadership positions, along with control of the agenda in their chambers. The two are considered powerful statewide leaders and along with the Governor of New York control most of the agenda of state business in New York; the Legislative Bill Drafting Commission aids in drafting legislation. The LBDC consists of two commissioners, the Commissioner for Administration and the Commissioner for Operations, each appointed jointly by the Temporary President of the Senate and the Speaker of the Assembly.
As of January 2018, Republicans held 31 seats in the 63-seat New York State Senate, Sen. Simcha Felder, a Brooklyn Democrat, caucused with them; the eight-member Independent Democratic Conference maintained a bipartisan coalition with Senate Republicans. The Senate Democratic Conference held 21 seats. There were two Senate vacancies. In the Assembly, the Democratic majority--consisting of 103 Democrats and one Independence Party member who caucused with the Democrats--held 104 seats, while Republicans held 37 seats. There were nine vacancies. In the 2018 elections, Democrats won control of the State Senate and increased their majority in the State Assembly. In the next legislative session, Democrats will hold 40 seats in the State Senate and Republicans will hold 23 seats. In the State Assembly, Democrats will hold 106 seats, Republicans will hold 43 seats, Independents will hold one seat; the Legislature is empowered to make law, subject to the governor's power to veto a bill. However, the veto may be overridden by the Legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House.
Furthermore, it has the power to propose New York Constitution amendments by a majority vote, another majority vote following an election. If so proposed, the amendment becomes valid; the Legislature originated in the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress, assembled by Rebels when the Provincial Legislature would not send delegates to the Continental Congress. The legislature's history of corruption includes the Erie War. In the 1840s, New York launched the first great wave of civil procedure reform in the United States by enacting the Field Code; the Code inspired similar reforms in 23 other states, gave birth to the term "code pleading" for the system of civil procedure it created. However, many attempts at further civil procedure reform and modernization were unsuccessful. Today, New York is considered to have one of the most archaic and inefficient systems of civil procedure in the United States; the first African-American elected to the legislature was Edward A. Johnson, a Republican, in 1917.
The first women elected to the legislature were Republican Ida Sammis and Democrat Mary Lilly, both in 1919. The first African-American woman elected to legislature was Bessie A. Buchanan in 1955. Five assemblymen were expelled in 1920 for belonging to the Socialist Party. In a 2008 U. S. Supreme Court decision involving the constitutionality of a law enacted by the New York Legislature, Justice John Paul Stevens wrote in his concurring opinion: "s I recall my esteemed former colleague, Thurgood Marshall, remarking on numerous occasions:'The Constitution does not prohibit legislatures from enacting stupid laws.'" Temporary President of the Senate: Andrea Stewart-Cousins Majority Leader: Andrea Stewart-Cousins Minority Leader: John J. Flanagan Speaker of the Assembly: Carl Heastie Majority Leader of the Assembly: Crystal Peoples-Stokes Minority Leader of the Assembly: Brian Kolb George G. Barnard Gibbons v. Ogden The Frawley committee and William Sulzer The Hepburn Committee List of New York Legislature members expelled or censured New York Provincial Congress New York State Assembly New York State public benefit corporations New York State Senate Official site of the New York Senate Official site of the New York Assembly Legislative information from the L
John Vernon Henry
John Vernon Henry was an American lawyer and politician. John V. Henry was born in the son of Robert and Elizabeth Vernor Henry, he was admitted to the bar in 1782. He was a Federalist member of the New York State Assembly from Albany County from 1800 to 1802, he was New York State Comptroller from 1800 to 1801. He was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1801. John V. Henry was married to Charlotte Seaton, whose sister was married to his brother, Robert R, he died of apoplexy in 1829, was buried at the Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, New York. Political Graveyard Google Book The New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough Notable people's bios, at Albany Rural Cemetery
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
William L. Marcy
William Learned Marcy was an American lawyer and judge who served as U. S. Senator, Governor of New York, U. S. Secretary of War and U. S. Secretary of State. In the latter office, he negotiated the Gadsden Purchase, the last major acquisition of land in the continental United States. Born in Southbridge, Marcy established a legal practice in Troy, New York after graduating from Brown University, he fought in the War of 1812. Politically, he aligned with the Bucktail faction of the Democratic-Republican Party and became a leading member of the Albany Regency; as the Democratic-Republicans fractured in the 1820s, he became a member of the Democratic Party. Between 1821 and 1831, he successively served as Adjutant General of New York, New York State Comptroller, as an associate justice of the New York Supreme Court. In 1831, the New York legislature elected Marcy to the U. S. Senate, he held that position until 1833, when he became the Governor of New York, he served three terms as governor until his defeat in 1838 by William Seward.
He served as Secretary of War under James K. Polk from 1845 to 1849, overseeing the Mexican–American War. After leaving the Polk administration, he resumed the practice of law and became a leader of the "Soft" Hunker faction of the New York Democratic Party, he returned to the Cabinet in 1853. In this role, he resolved a dispute about the status of U. S. immigrants abroad and directed U. S. diplomats to dress in the plain style of an ordinary American rather than the court-dress many had adopted from Europe. He negotiated a reciprocity treaty with British North America and the Gadsden purchase with Mexico, acquiring territory in present-day Arizona and New Mexico, he died shortly thereafter. William Learned Marcy was born in Massachusetts, he graduated from Brown University in 1808, taught school in Dedham, Massachusetts and in Newport, Rhode Island. He studied law with Troy, New York attorney William L. Bliss, was admitted to the bar in 1811, began a practice in Troy. Marcy served in the War of 1812, serving first as a lieutenant and afterwards as a captain of volunteers.
On October 22, 1812, he took part in the storming of the British post at Canada. Afterward he served as Recorder of Troy for several years; as he sided with the Anti-Clinton faction of the Democratic-Republican Party, known as the Bucktails, he was removed from office in 1818 by his political opponents. He was the editor of the Troy Budget newspaper. On April 28, 1824, he married Cornelia Knower at the Knower House in New York, they had three children—Samuel and Cornelia. Samuel March was a United States Navy officer, killed on board the USS Vincennes during the American Civil War. Edmund Preble was ill when he died on board the USS Preble while being transported to the Azores in the hopes of regaining his health. Cornelia Marcy was the wife of Edmund Henry Pendleton, a Union Army veteran who became a successful author. Marcy became the leading member of the Albany Regency, a group of Democratic politicians who controlled State politics between 1821 and 1838, he was Adjutant General of New York from 1821 to 1823, New York State Comptroller from 1823 to 1829, an associate justice of the New York Supreme Court from 1829 to 1831.
In 1831, he was elected U. S. Senator from New York by the state legislature as a Jacksonian Democrat, served from March 4, 1831, to January 1, 1833, he resigned upon taking office as governor, to which position he was elected in 1832. He sat on the U. S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary in the 22nd Congress. Defending Jackson's nomination of Martin Van Buren as minister to the United Kingdom in 1832, Marcy used the phrase "'to the victor belong the spoils," from which the term spoils system is derived to refer to patronage political appointments. Marcy was elected as Governor of New York for three terms, from 1833 until 1838. In 1838, he was defeated by Whig William H. Seward, which led to a radical change in state politics and ended the Regency. To the abolitionists who questioned the candidates for governor, Marcy was considered a "doughface," a man with Southern sympathies, he was well aware of the importance of Southern cotton and trade for New York state, both as a major part of exports from New York City, to the textile mills of upstate that processed cotton from the Deep South.
Marcy was appointed as a member of the Mexican Claims Commission, serving from 1839 to 1842. He was recognized as one of the leaders of the Hunkers, the conservative, office-seeking, pro-compromise-on-slavery faction of the Democratic Party in New York. Marcy served as United States Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President James K. Polk from 1845 until 1849, when he resumed the practice of law in New York. After 1849, Marcy led the "Soft" faction of the Hunkers that supported reconciliation with the Barnburners, he sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1852 but was unsuccessful, in part by "Hard" opposition led by Daniel S. Dickinson. Marcy returned to public life in 1853 to serve as United States Secretary of State under President Franklin Pierce. On June 1 of that year, he issued a circular to American diplomatic agents abroad, recommending that whenever practicable, they should appear in the simple dress of an American citizen; this directive created much discussion in Europe, where diplomats wore court dress.
In 1867, Marcy's recommendation was enacted into law by the US Congress. Marcy resolved the Koszta Affair, related to detention of an unnaturalized American resident by Au
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Elisha Jenkins was an American politician who served as New York Secretary of State and Mayor of Albany. He was born to a Providence, Rhode Island, Quaker family, who in 1784 came to settle at Hudson, New York, he lived in Albany, New York, was one of the first prominent Quakers there. Throughout his adult life, he was a dry goods merchant in the partnerships of Wendell & Jenkins and Thomas Jenkins & Sons. In 1792, he married Catherine Green, of Providence, R. I. After her death he married his second wife, Hannah, he was a Federalist member of the New York State Assembly from Columbia County in 1795 and 1798, but changed sides in 1798 when his close political friend Ambrose Spencer joined the Democratic-Republicans. Jenkins was Columbia County Treasurer from 1798 to 1802, New York State Comptroller from 1801 to 1806, he was New York Secretary of State from 1806 to 1807, from 1808 to 1810, from 1811 to 1813. In April 1807, after his first term as Secretary of State, Jenkins was attacked in the street in Albany by Solomon Van Rensselaer, a Federalist of whom Jenkins was a fierce critic.
Jenkins sued for damages, was awarded $2,500. He served as Quartermaster General of the Northern Department during the War of 1812, Mayor of Albany from 1816 to 1819, presidential elector in 1840, he died on May 1848, in New York City. Barbagallo, Tricia. "Fellow Citizens Read a Horrid Tale". Archived from the original on 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2008-06-04. Bielinski, Stefan. "Elisha Jenkins". Retrieved 2008-03-20. Entry at Long Island Genealogy The Columbia County Civil List Jenkins Genealogy, at Kindred Konnections Essay with an account of Van Rensselaer's attack