Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Christian humanist, the greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance. Trained as a Catholic priest, Erasmus was an important figure in classical scholarship who wrote in a pure Latin style. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists", has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation, he wrote On Free Will, In Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, many other works. Erasmus lived against the backdrop of the growing European religious Reformation, but while he was critical of the abuses within the Catholic Church and called for reform, he kept his distance from Luther, Henry VIII and John Calvin and continued to recognise the authority of the pope, emphasizing a middle way with a deep respect for traditional faith and grace, rejecting Luther's emphasis on faith alone.
Erasmus remained a member of the Roman Catholic Church all his life, remaining committed to reforming the church and its clerics' abuses from within. He held to the Catholic doctrine of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination, his middle road approach disappointed, angered, scholars in both camps. Erasmus died in Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to Brabant, was buried in Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city. A bronze statue of Erasmus was erected in 1622 in his city of birth, replacing an earlier work in stone. Desiderius Erasmus is reported to have been born in Rotterdam on 28 October in the late 1460s, he was named after Saint Erasmus of Formiae, whom Erasmus's father Gerard favored. A 17th-century legend has it that Erasmus was first named Geert Geerts. A well-known wooden picture indicates: Goudæ conceptus, Roterodami natus. According to an article by historian Renier Snooy, Erasmus was born in Gouda; the exact year of his birth is controversial, but most agree it was in 1466.
Evidence confirming the year of Erasmus' birth in 1466 can be found in his own words: fifteen out of twenty-three statements he made about his age indicate 1466. He was christened "Erasmus" after the saint of that name. Although associated with Rotterdam, he lived there for only four years, never to return. Information on his family and early life comes from vague references in his writings, his parents were not married. His father, was a Catholic priest and curate in Gouda. Little is known of his mother, although her known name was Margaretha Rogerius and she was the daughter of a doctor from Zevenbergen, she may have been Gerard's housekeeper. Although he was born out of wedlock, Erasmus was cared for by his parents until their early deaths from the plague in 1483; this solidified his view of his origin as a stain, cast a pall over his youth. Erasmus was given the highest education available to a young man of his day, in a series of monastic or semi-monastic schools. At the age of nine, he and his older brother Peter were sent to one of the best Latin schools in the Netherlands, located at Deventer and owned by the chapter clergy of the Lebuïnuskerk, though some earlier biographies assert it was a school run by the Brethren of the Common Life.
During his stay there the curriculum was renewed by the principal of Alexander Hegius. For the first time Greek was taught at a lower level than a university in Europe, this is where he began learning it, he gleaned there the importance of a personal relationship with God but eschewed the harsh rules and strict methods of the religious brothers and educators. His education there ended when plague struck the city about 1483, his mother, who had moved to provide a home for her sons, died from the infection. Most in 1487, poverty forced Erasmus into the consecrated life as a canon regular of St. Augustine at the canonry of Stein, in South Holland, he took vows there in late 1488, was ordained to the Catholic priesthood at about the age of 25, in 1492. It is said that he never seemed to have worked as a priest for a longer time, certain abuses in religious orders were among the chief objects of his calls to reform the Church from within. While at Stein, Erasmus fell in love with a fellow canon, Servatius Rogerus, wrote a series of passionate letters in which he called Rogerus "half my soul".
He wrote, "I have wooed you both unhappily and relentlessly". This correspondence contrasts with the detached and much more restrained attitude he showed in his life. While tutoring in Paris, he was dismissed by the guardian of Thomas Grey; some have taken this as evidence of an illicit affair. No personal denunciation was made of Erasmus during his lifetime, he took pains in life to distance these earlier episodes by condemning sodomy in his works, praising sexual desire in marriage between men and women. Soon after his priestly ordination, he got his chance to leave the canonry when offered the post of secretary to the Bishop of Cambrai, Henry of Bergen, on account of his great skill in Latin and his reputation as a man of letters. To allow him to accept that post, he was given a temporary dispensation from his religious vows on the grounds of
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death in 1760. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain: he was born and brought up in northern Germany, his grandmother, Sophia of Hanover, became second in line to the British throne after about 50 Catholics higher in line were excluded by the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Acts of Union 1707, which restricted the succession to Protestants. After the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his father's reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, until they rejoined the governing party in 1720; as king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy.
He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, thus became the last British monarch to lead an army in battle. In 1745, supporters of the Catholic claimant to the British throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, led by James's son Charles Edward Stuart and failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, nine years before his father, so George II was succeeded by his grandson, George III. For two centuries after George II's death, history tended to view him with disdain, concentrating on his mistresses, short temper, boorishness. Since most scholars have reassessed his legacy and conclude that he held and exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments. George was born in the city of Hanover in Germany, was the son of George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Celle.
His sister, Sophia Dorothea, was born. Both of George's parents committed adultery, in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband, she was confined to Ahlden House and denied access to her two children, who never saw their mother again. George spoke only French, the language of diplomacy and the court, until the age of four, after which he was taught German by one of his tutors, Johann Hilmar Holstein. In addition to French and German, he was schooled in English and Italian, studied genealogy, military history, battle tactics with particular diligence. George's second cousin once removed, Queen Anne, ascended the thrones of England and Ireland in 1702, she had no surviving children, by the Act of Settlement 1701, the English Parliament designated Anne's closest Protestant blood relations, George's grandmother Sophia and her descendants, as Anne's heirs in England and Ireland. After his grandmother and father, George was third in line to succeed Anne in two of her three realms.
He was naturalized as an English subject in 1705 by the Sophia Naturalization Act, in 1706, he was made a Knight of the Garter and created Duke and Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, Baron Tewkesbury in the Peerage of England. England and Scotland united in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, jointly accepted the succession as laid down by the English Act of Settlement. George's father did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he had, wanted him to have the opportunity of meeting his bride before any formal arrangements were made. Negotiations from 1702 for the hand of Princess Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, Dowager Duchess and regent of Holstein-Gottorp, came to nothing. In June 1705, under the false name of "Monsieur de Busch", George visited the Ansbach court at their summer residence in Triesdorf to investigate incognito a marriage prospect: Caroline of Ansbach, the former ward of his aunt Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia; the English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley, reported that George was so taken by "the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else".
A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July. On 22 August / 2 September 1705O. S./N. S. Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, held the same evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. George was keen to participate in the war against France in Flanders, but his father refused permission for him to join the army in an active role until he had a son and heir. In early 1707, George's hopes were fulfilled. In July, Caroline fell ill with smallpox, George caught the infection after staying by her side devotedly during her illness, they both recovered. In 1708, George participated in the Battle of Oudenarde in the vanguard of the Hanoverian cavalry; the British commander, wrote that George "distinguished himself charging at the head of and animating by his example troops, who played a good part in this happy victory". Between 1709 and 1713, George and Caroline had three more children, all girls: Anne and Caroline. By 1714, Queen Anne's health had declined, British Whigs, politicians who supported the Hanoverian succession, thought it prudent for one of the Hanoverians to live in England, to safeguard
Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe
Browne Willis was an antiquary, author and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1705 to 1708. Willis was born at Blandford St Mary, the eldest Son of Thomas Willis of Bletchley and his wife Alice Browne, daughter of Robert Browne of Frampton, Dorset, he was grandson of the physician. He was educated at Westminster School, he attended Christ Church and entered the Inner Temple in 1700. In 1707 he married the daughter of Daniel Eliot, he joined the reformed Society of Antiquaries in 1717–18. In 1705, Willis was elected Member of Parliament for Buckingham, he held the seat until 1708. His published works are: Notitia Parliamentaria, vol. 1 Survey of St David’s Cathedral Notitia Parliamentaria, vol. 2 The Whole Duty of Man, Abridged for the Benefit of the Poorer Sort Mitred Abbies, vol. 1 An Survey of the Cathedral-Church of Landaff Mitred Abbies, vol. 2 Survey of St Asaph Reflecting Sermons Consider'd. He erected the church as a memorial to his grandfather Dr. Thomas Willis, a famous physician who lived in St. Martin's Lane in the parish of St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London and died on St. Martin's Day, 11 November 1675.
To perpetuate his own memory Browne Willis arranged for a sermon to be preached at St. Martin's Church on each St. Martin's Day, for which a fee was payable. During his lifetime, he celebrated the occasion with a dinner attended by local clergy and gentry; the firing of the "Fenny Poppers", six small cannon, dates from this time, but there is no record of their first use. In 1740 Browne Willis bought a house in Aylesbury Street, Fenny Stratford and the rent from this was used to pay for the sermon and gunpowder for the Fenny Poppers. Following his death in 1760, the traditions were carried on and documented. All six poppers were re-cast by the Eagle Northampton in 1859 after one of them burst, they are still in use today, were examined and x-rayed to ensure there are no cracks. During their long history, many sites have been used for this battery; these include. The poppers each weigh about 19 pounds; the bore, 6" by 1.75" will take up to 1oz. of gunpowder, plugged with well-rammed newspaper. They are fired three times on St. Martin's Day: 2 pm and 4 pm.
There is of course no connection with Remembrance Day. In 1901 they were fired to mark the death of Queen Victoria; the 81 salvoes were heard as far away as Olney. On 1 January 2000 at 11 am the poppers were fired to mark the beginning of the second millennium. On 4 August 2000 at 2 pm a salute of six poppers was fired to celebrate the 100th birthday of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother. On 5 June 2012 at 2 pm a salute was fired to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. "Willis, Browne". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Browne Willis's Library Survey of Bangor Cathedral 1721
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
John Colet was an English churchman and educational pioneer. John Colet, friend of Erasmus, was an English scholar, Renaissance humanist, member of the Worshipful Company of Mercers, Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, London. Colet wanted people to see the scripture as their guide through life. Furthermore, he wanted to restore theology and rejuvenate Christianity. Colet is an important early leader of Christian humanism as he linked humanism and reform. John Colet was a friend of Erasmus, a key figure in Christian humanism; the eldest son of Sir Henry Colet, he was born in London in January 1467, was educated at St Anthony's school and at Magdalen College, where he took his M. A. in 1490. He was nonresident rector of Dennington and vicar of St Dunstan's, now became rector of Thurning, Hunts. In 1493 he went to Paris and to Italy, studying canon and civil law and Greek. During his time abroad he became acquainted with Budaeus and Erasmus, with the teaching of Savonarola. On his return to England in 1496 he took orders and settled at Oxford, where he lectured on the epistles of Saint Paul, replacing the old scholastic method of interpretation with one more in harmony with the new learning.
Due to their influences, when he arrived back in England, he returned more than just a humanist. His methods did much to influence Erasmus, who visited Oxford in 1498, who received an annuity from Colet. Since 1494, Colet, a friend of Erasmus, had been prebendary of York, canon of St Martin le Grand, London. In 1502 he became prebendary of Salisbury, in 1505 prebendary of St Paul's, afterwards its dean, having taken the degree of doctor of divinity, he continued to lecture on the books of the Bible. While at St. Paul's between 1505 and 1519, Colet used his preaching, scriptural exegesis and education towards Church reform. Around 1508, having inherited his father's wealth, Colet, a friend of Erasmus, formed his plan for the re-foundation of St Paul's School, which he completed in 1512, endowed with estates of an annual value of £122 and upwards; the school, dedicated to the Infant Jesus, was in place to give young boys a Christian education. The celebrated grammarian William Lilye was the first master, the company of mercers were appointed trustees, the first example of non-clerical management in education.
Some held Colet's religious opinions to be heretical, but William Warham, the Archbishop of Canterbury, refused to prosecute him. King Henry VIII held him in high esteem despite his sermons against the French wars. Colet was rector of the guild of Jesus at St Paul's Cathedral and chaplain to Henry VIII. In 1514 he made the Canterbury pilgrimage and in 1515 preached at Wolsey's installation as cardinal. Colet, friend of Erasmus, had many distinguished sermons. One is the beginning of the Convocation of the clergy of Canterbury province at the London Cathedral on 6 February 1512. Archbishop Warham of Canterbury invited Colet to make the speech. Colet's speech is both direct and insightful, it represents his work, or as Colet said himself, he is "speaking out of zeal, a man sorrowing for the ruin of the Church". Furthermore, Colet stated that he came "…here today, fathers, to admonish you with all your minds to deliberate, in this your Council, concerning the reformation of the Church"; the Convocation sermon is one of the most well known of his sermons.
Many opinions regarding Colet, friend of Erasmus, emerged due to this sermon, in addition to the biographical information described by Erasmus. In addition, Colet gave a notable sermon before the royal court on Good Friday, 1513, he gave this speech in the wake of political tension. In his speech, Colet condemned war and prompted Christians to fight only for Jesus Christ. Colet, despite being a good friend of Erasmus, is not as well known as a Christian humanist, his writings are reflective and added to the tradition of Christian humanism. He studied Cicero, Jerome, John Chrysostom, Ignatius of Antioch and Polycarp. In his writings, Colet refers to Italian humanists and Platonists Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola. Erasmus said of Colet, “When I listen to Colet it seems to me that I am listening to Plato himself.” Erasmus portrayed Colet to show that one could be critical of the Church while still a loyal priest. His depiction of Colet was a depiction of himself. Colet has been studied over time and has experienced resurgences in popularity.
Bishop Kennett studied Colet during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Kennett passed his notes to Samuel Knight who used them to write a biography of Colet, published in 1724. During the nineteenth century, interest in Colet increased. Several editions of his works and an additional biography were published during that time. Scholars believed Colet impacted his friend Erasmus and the English Reformation. Critics went on to view Colet as Protestant-like, though historical revisionists believe that Colet was a reform preacher that wanted to improve the quality of the Church. Colet died in 1519 of the "sweating sickness." His monument was erected on the south aisle of the choir at the cathedral church of Saint Paul but destroyed in the Great Fire of London. Erasmus stated that Colet was a man for the ages and a true Christian. In addition to his sermons Colet's works include some scriptural commentary and works entitled Daily Devotions and Monition to a Godly Life. Together with Lilye, Erasmus
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t