Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
William Irvine (general)
William Irvine was an Irish-American physician and statesman from Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Irvine was born near County Fermanagh in Ireland, he served as a brigadier general in the Continental Army and represented Pennsylvania in both the Continental Congress and the United States House of Representatives. During the war, he convinced Colonel William Crawford to come out of retirement and lead an expedition against Indians in villages along the Sandusky River, which ended in Crawford's brutal execution; the militia troops went back under the command of a Baltic German officer from Estonia. He died in Philadelphia, where he was buried in a graveyard near Independence Hall, he was reburied in 1833 at the new Ronaldson's Cemetery. When it was closed in the 1950s, the graves of a few Revolutionary War officers such as Irvine were identified by the rector of Old Swedes' and reburied at Gloria Dei Church cemetery, his great-granddaughter Margaret Biddle married Thomas Biddle of the Biddle family of Philadelphia.
Irvine was the plaintiff in the Supreme Court case Sims's Lessee. Irvine's biographic sketch at the U. S. Congress website William Irvine at Find a Grave J. G. Wilson ed. J. Fiske ed. Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography "General William Irvine". ExplorePAHistory.com The Irvine-Newbold Family Papers, including correspondence, photographs and other materials beginning with General William Irvine and spanning over 200 years of family history, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania
George Logan was an American physician, farmer and politician from Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. He served in the Pennsylvania state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate. George Logan was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on September 9, 1753, he was the grandson of William Penn's secretary James Logan. As a child, he was sent to England for schooling, his Loyalist family again sent him overseas when the American Revolution broke out, this time to get medical training, he graduated from the University of Edinburgh Medical School in 1779. He returned to the United States in 1780, in 1781 he married Deborah Norris, who went on to become a noted historian and diarist. Two years they moved into Stenton, a mansion built in the Germantown area of Philadelphia by James Logan, now open to the public. Due to the demands of restoring and maintaining Stenton, Logan gave up his career as a physician and became a gentleman farmer and politician; the Logans had three sons, Gustavus George, Algernon Sydney.
At Stenton, the couple entertained a wide circle of politicians, artists and businesspeople, counting among their friends Thomas Jefferson and the painter Charles Willson Peale. Despite his Loyalist background, Logan was able to take part in the political life of the new United States. In 1785 he was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature. In 1790, he was disowned by the Society of Friends for having joined a militia, an activity wholly antithetical to the Quakers' pacifist views. A Jeffersonian Republican, in 1793 he helped to found the Democratic-Republican Societies. An accomplished farmer, he was a founder of the Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of Agriculture. In 1798, he went to Paris to negotiate peace with the French to settle the Quasi-War. On his return, he found he had been denounced by the anti-Jeffersonian Federalists, who had passed a statute informally known as the "Logan Act", which made it a crime for an individual citizen to interfere in a dispute between the United States and a foreign country.
In 1800, the year Jefferson was elected president, Logan was elected to the U. S. Senate for a six-year term. Logan's reputation was decidedly mixed. With reference to his political activities, he was called at various times a "busybody" and a "great fool", but Jefferson considered him “the best farmer in Pennsylvania, both in theory and practice.”Logan died in 1821, not long afterwards Deborah Logan wrote an account of his life under the title Memoir of Dr. George Logan of Stenton, including excerpts from letters, it was published in 1899. Stenton Logan, Deborah Norris. Memoir of Dr. George Logan of Stenton. Frances A. Logan, ed. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1899. Tolles, Frederick B. George Logan of Philadelphia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953. Tolles, Frederick B. "Unofficial Ambassador: George Logan's Mission to France, 1798." William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser. 7: pp. 1–25. United States Congress. "George Logan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Short article and portrait at "Discovering Lewis & Clark" George Logan at Find a Grave
Williamsport is a city in, the county seat of, Lycoming County, United States. In 2017, the population was estimated at 28,462, it is the principal city of the Williamsport, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of about 114,000. The city is the cultural and commercial center of Central Pennsylvania, it is 131 miles from Philadelphia, 166 miles from Pittsburgh and 85 miles from state capital Harrisburg. The city is renowned for arts scene and food. Williamsport was settled by Americans late in the 18th century, the town began to prosper due to its lumber industry. By the early 20th century, the town reached the height of its prosperity and the population has since declined by about a third from its peak of around 45,000 in 1950. Williamsport is the birthplace of Little League Baseball. South Williamsport, a town nearby, is the headquarters of Little League Baseball and annually hosts the Little League World Series in late summer. Colonial settlement in what is today Williamsport dates back to 1786 but the area was inhabited by the Iroquois.
Williamsport was incorporated as a borough on March 1, 1806, as a city on January 15, 1866. In the late 19th century, Williamsport was known as "The Lumber Capital of the World" because of its thriving lumber industry; the city is the original home of Little League Baseball, founded in 1939 as a three-team league. Following World War II the city's population and economic prosperity have declined. In 1763 the Battle of Muncy Hills took place during the French and Indian War, it was a clash between the Native Americans and colonists seeking homestead sites in Native American territory. In 1768, at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the British purchased the land that became Lycoming County from the Iroquois Nation who controlled the lands. In 1786 the first house was built in Williamsport. James Russell built his inn on what is now the northeast corner of East Third and Mulberry Streets in downtown. On April 13, 1795 Lycoming County was formed from Northumberland County, it encompassed all the lands of Northumberland County situated west of Muncy Hills and was a domain of 12,500 square miles, comprising most of north central Pennsylvania.
In 1796 the first recorded childbirth in Williamsport was James Russell the son of Mr. and Mrs. William Russell and grandson of James Russell of the Russell Inn and the first school was built as a one-room log addition to the building that would become the first Lycoming County Courthouse. In 1798 the first brick house in Williamsport was erected on Front Street, between Market and Mulberry, by Andrew Tulloh, a lawyer; the bricks were made on the banks of Grafius Run. In 1799, a post office opened at the corner of Third and State Streets in what is now downtown, the following year, a jail was constructed at the northeast corner of William and Third Streets; the post office was converted to a saloon,In 1801 the town's first store was opened by William Winter on Third Street. In 1831 Jacob L. Mussina established the Repasz Band, the oldest brass band in America still in existence. On Oct. 15 1834 The West Branch Canal opened and the first boat to pass through the canal en route to Jersey Shore was that of George Aughenbaugh.
The first freight carried into town was iron for the foundry of John B. Hall; the same year the enactment of the common school law by Pennsylvania Legislature led to public education here. In May 1835, the first public schools opened in Williamsport and the town's first bank, the West Branch National Bank; the Underground Railroad, used by enslaved African-Americans to obtain their freedom in the 30 years before the Civil War included routes from states in the South, which supported slavery, to "free" states in the North and Canada. From 1830 until 1865, the underground railroad, a system of safe houses and routes for slaves escaping to freedom, operated in Lycoming County. Based on the oral history of Mamie Sweeting Diggs, fourth generation descent and great-granddaughter, was a river raftsman on the Susquehanna river who had migrated from Oswego, New York, he lived on the Muncy Indian Reservation. During his trips transporting logs to Maryland, he brought escaped slaves back on foot from Baltimore, over Bald Eagle Mountain and hid them at his home and in the caves on Freedom Road.
Mamie's grandfather, helped his father, Daniel Hughes, hide escaped slaves in the caves behind their home on Freedom Road. They fed them, nursed the sick back to health and delivered them safely to the next "station", The Apker House in Trout Run; the Apker House was the home of Robert Fairies and president of the Williamsport-Elmira Railroad. The railroad ran through his property where escaped slaves were hidden in the barn and house and loaded into railway baggage cars for the trip to Elmira, NY, the next "station."Mamie's grandfather, Robert passed the stories to his children, including Mamie's mother, Marion. Marion tended the family homestead, maintained Freedom Road Cemetery and passed Daniel's stories down to her children. In 1849 the Market Street Bridge was built over the West Branch Susquehanna River, it was opened as a toll bridge to cover the state's costs of $23,797. In 1854 a brewery opened; the brewery was sold to Henry Flock in 1865. This brewery was run by the Flock family until the 1940s.
The Flock's business survived Prohibition by converting to a dairy. In 1875, the first tower clock in the United States to sound the Cambridge Quarters was installed at Trinity Episcopal Chur
William Findley was an Irish-born farmer and politician from Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. He served in both houses of the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in the U. S. House from 1791 until 1799 and from 1803 to 1817. By the end of his career, he was the longest serving member of the House, was the first to hold the honorary title "Father of the House". William Findley was born in Ulster and emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1763. In 1768, he bought a farm in Cumberland County, where he married and started a family. Findley worked for a time as a weaver. In the American Revolution he served on the Cumberland County Committee of Observation, enlisted as a private in the local militia, rose to the rank of captain of the Seventh Company of the Eighth Battalion of Cumberland County Associators. In 1783 he moved his family across the Allegheny Mountains to Pennsylvania. Upon arrival in Westmoreland County, Findley was immediately elected to the Council of Censors. On this Council, to decide whether the radical Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 needed revision, he established himself as an effective supporter of what the "best people" considered the radical position in state politics.
In the following years Findley served in the Ninth through Twelfth General Assemblies and on the Supreme Executive Council. Findley was an early exponent of a political style in which candidates expressed their interests and proposals, as opposed to the "disinterested" style of governance many Founding Fathers envisioned. In 1786 he was a critic of the Bank of the nation's first central bank. Findley publicized the statement of fellow legislator Hugh Henry Brackenridge that "the people are fools" for opposing the bank, contributing to Brackenridge's defeat in the subsequent election. Findley was a major opposition voice in the Pennsylvania convention that ratified the federal Constitution and was a signer of the Minority Dissent. Findley was mocked during convention's debates by gentry who attempted to portray him an uneducated' country hick'. At one point, Constitutional Convention delegate James Wilson and Pennsylvania Chief Justice Thomas McKean disputed one of Findley's statements about jury trials in Sweden.
Findley was one of the leaders in the convention that, in 1789, wrote a new Constitution for Pennsylvania. As an Anti-Federalist, Findley wrote papers under the name of "An Officer of the Late Continental Army". After serving in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, he was elected to the Second Congress from the district west of the mountains in 1791. William Findley served in the Second through the Fifth congresses. A Jeffersonian Republican, Findley opposed the financial plans of Federalist Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton and supported the cause of states' rights; as a voice of reason, in 1794 he helped to calm the passions of the Whiskey Insurrection. Unlike many Democratic-Republicans, he opposed slavery. After declining nomination to the Sixth Congress, he was elected to the Pennsylvania State Senate because he allowed his name to be placed on the local ticket to rally western support for Thomas McKean's campaign for Governor. Elected to the Eighth Congress, he served through the Fourteenth, the turbulent years of the Burr conspiracy, the embargo, the War of 1812 as a strong supporter of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
He was known as "The Venerable Findley," and because he was the senior representative in years of service, he was in 1811 designated "Father of the House", the first man to be awarded that honorary title. He died in his home along the Loyalhanna Creek on April 5, 1821, is buried in Latrobe's Unity Cemetery. History of the Insurrection in the Four Western Counties of Pennsylvania in the Year M. DCC. XCIV: With a Recital of the Circumstances Specially Connected Therewith, an Historical Review of the Previous Situation of the Country. Philadelphia: Samuel Smith, 1796. Observations on the Two Sons of Oil. Pittsburgh: Engles, 1812. Wood, Gordon S.. Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815. Oxford University Press. Caldwell, John. William Findley: A Politician in Pennsylvania, 1783–1791. Gig Harbor, WA: Red Apple Publishing, 2000. Caldwell, John. William Findley From West of the Mountains, 1783–1791. Gig Harbor, WA: Red Apple Publishing, 2000. Caldwell, John. William Findley From West of the Mountains, 1791–1821.
Gig Harbor, WA: Red Apple Publishing, 2002 Eicholz, Hans L. "A Closer Look at'Modernity:' The Case of William Findley and Trans-Appalachian Political Thought". In W. Thomas Mainwaring, ed; the Whiskey Rebellion and the Trans-Appalachian Frontier. Washington, Pennsylvania: Washington and Jefferson College, 1994, 57–72. Ewing, Robert. "Life and Times of William Findley". Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. 2: 240–51. Schramm, Callista. "William Findley in Pennsylvania Politics". Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. 20: 31–40. United States Congress. "William Findley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the Political Graveyard Explore Pennsylvania History
Pennsylvania's 6th congressional district
Pennsylvania's 6th Congressional District is a congressional district in the state of Pennsylvania. It includes the entirety of Chester County, the city of Reading and its southeastern suburbs in Berks County; the district is represented by Chrissy Houlahan. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania redrew the district in February 2018 after ruling the previous map unconstitutional. Jim Gerlach served as the District's Representative from 2003 to 2014. In 2004 and 2006, Gerlach won re-election against fellow attorney and now Montgomery County Court of Common Pleas Judge Lois Murphy. In 2008, he ran for re-election against businessman and veteran Bob Roggio. In the 2010 and 2012 elections, Gerlach defeated physician and Iraq War veteran Manan Trivedi, the Democratic nominee. In January 2014, Gerlach announced. In the race to succeed Gerlach, Chester County Commissioner Ryan Costello won the Republican nomination and physician and Iraq war veteran Manan Trivedi secured the Democratic party's nomination. In February 2018, following the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania's ordered redrawing of congressional districts, Costello announced he would not stand for reelection and retire at the end of the 115th Congress, leaving businessman Greg McCauley as the sole Republican candidate while the Democrats nominated Air Force veteran Chrissy Houlahan.
Houlahan defeated McCauley in the general election. Prior to the court-ordered redistricting, the 6th district's incarnation dated back to 2002, its strange shape brought charges of gerrymandering by Democrats who argued it "looms like a dragon descending on Philadelphia from the west, splitting up towns and communities throughout Montgomery and Berks Counties." The combination of affluent suburban areas of Philadelphia and sparsely populated rural areas was designed to capture Republican voters, but changes in voting patterns in southeastern Pennsylvania has made the District much more competitive. The District had a Cook Partisan Voting Index score of R+1 after the 2012 redistricting, it was rated D+4 before then. The district included parts of Chester County, Berks County and Lehigh County; the largest cities in the district were Norristown. The redistricting of 2011/2012 changed it to include parts of Chester, Montgomery and Lebanon counties; the following municipalities constituted the sixth district:Berks County Chester County Lebanon County Montgomery County The court-ordered map made the 6th a more compact district in Berks and Chester counties.
District created in 1791 from the at-large district. District redistricted in 1793 to the at-large district. District created in 1795. List of United States congressional districts Pennsylvania's congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System, it began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians, opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after republicanism, they distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in 1824, with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement, the faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay forming the National Republican Party and some other groups going on to form the Anti-Masonic Party.
The National Republicans, Anti-Masons, other opponents of Andrew Jackson formed themselves into the Whig Party. During the time that this party existed, it was referred to as the Republican Party. To distinguish it from the modern Republican Party, political scientists and pundits refer to this party as the Democratic-Republican Party or the Jeffersonian Republican Party; when the modern Republican Party was founded in 1854, it deliberately chose to name itself after the Jeffersonians. In response, contemporary Democrats embraced the name Democratic-Republican to reinforce their party's claim to the party's pre-Jacksonian history. Modern Democratic politicians continue to claim Jefferson as their founder; the party arose from the Anti-Administration faction which met secretly in the national capital to oppose Alexander Hamilton's financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–1795 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with the United Kingdom, at war with France. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its Revolution while the United Kingdom represented the hated monarchy; the party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional the national bank. The party was weakest in the Northeast, it demanded states' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers. Republicans were committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists; the party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election. The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away and collapsed after 1815. Despite internal divisions, the Republicans dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.
The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included James Madison and James Monroe. By 1824, the caucus system had collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated most state governments outside New England. By 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center as the First Party System collapsed; the emergence of the Second Party System in the 1820s and 30s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, formed the National Republican Party in 1824 while some remaining smaller factions formed the Anti-Masonic Party, which along with some National Republican groups developed into the Whig Party by 1836. Most remaining National Republicans would soon after go on to be a part of the Free Soil and modern Republican parties in the 1840s and 1850s. Congressman James Madison started the party among Representatives in Philadelphia as the "Republican Party".
He, Jefferson and others reached out to include state and local leaders around the country New York and the South. The precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate and some time by 1792 is certain; the new party set up newspapers that made withering critiques of Hamiltonianism, extolled the yeoman farmer, argued for strict construction of the Constitution, favored the French Revolution opposed the United Kingdom and called for stronger state governments than the Federalist Party was proposing. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized—as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it—as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were a Federalist. Four states' electors voted for Clinton and one for Jefferson for Vice President in opposition to incumbent John Adams as well as casting their votes for President Washington.
Before 1804, electors cast two votes together wi