John Savile, 3rd Earl of Mexborough
John Savile, 3rd Earl of Mexborough, styled Viscount Pollington until 1830, was a British peer and Tory politician. Mexborough was the son of John Savile, 2nd Earl of Mexborough, Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Stephenson. At the 1807 general election, Mexborough was returned as a Member of Parliament for Pontefract, having unsuccessfully contested the seat in 1806, he was defeated at the 1812 general election, but won the seat back at by-election in December 1812, held it until he stood down at the 1826 election. He did not stand again at the 1832 general election, he succeeded his father in the earldom in 1830. However, as this was an Irish peerage it did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords. Lord Mexborough married Lady Anne, daughter of Philip Yorke, 3rd Earl of Hardwicke, in 1807, he died in December 1860, aged 87, was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, John. Lady Mexborough died July 1870. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Mexborough
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
Pontefract (UK Parliament constituency)
Pontefract was an English parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Pontefract in the West Riding of Yorkshire, which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the 13th century and again from 1621 until 1885, one member from 1885 to 1974. Pontefract had representation in the Model Parliament of 1295, in that which followed it in 1298, but gained a continuous franchise only from 1621; the constituency was a parliamentary borough, returning two members, consisting only of the town of Pontefract itself. Until 1783, Pontefract was a burgage borough, where the right to vote was attached to the holders of about 325 specified properties in the borough; as in most burgage boroughs, the majority of the burgage tenements were concentrated in a small number of hands, giving their owners an effective stranglehold on the choice of representatives. In Pontefract the two chief landowners in the first half of the 18th century, George Morton Pitt and Lord Galway, owned between them a narrow majority of the burgages, but rather than putting in dummy voters to enforce their control they had preferred to reach an amicable settlement at each election with the remaining small burgage holders, who were residents of the town.
The inhabitants had some voice in the choice of their MPs, as well as benefiting from the monetary outlay that the patrons expended to secure their goodwill. However, in 1766 Pitt sold his burgages to John Walsh, who persuaded Galway to join him in abandoning canvassing and treating of the other voters, instead bringing in "faggot voters" to enforce their majority. At the next general election, in 1768, the indignant inhabitants put up their own candidates, a riot on polling day prevented the imported voters from reaching the polling booth; the election was declared void and Walsh's nominee duly returned at the by-election, but the townsmen refused to abandon their quest. Defeated in 1774, when Charles James Fox stood as one of their candidates, they petitioned against the result, but the Commons upheld the burgage franchise, but in 1783, when they tried again, the Commons abandoned its usual practice of refusing to reconsider a decision on a constituency's franchise, declared that the right to vote was properly vested in all the resident householders.
By the time of the Great Reform Act in 1831 800 householders qualified to vote, 699 did so in the contested election of 1830. Pontefract still classed as a pocket borough, where the Earl of Harewood had the effective power to choose one of its two MPs; the Reform Act of 1832 extended the boundaries of the constituency, bringing in the neighbouring townships of Tanshelf, Knottingley and Carleton, as well as Pontefract Castle and Pontefract Park, excluded. This doubled the population in 4,832 houses. In 1872 Pontefract became the first British constituency to hold a parliamentary election by secret ballot, at a by-election held shortly after the Act ending the old practice of open voting had come into effect. There was considerable interest in the outcome, many observers believing that support for the parties might be drastically different once voters were able to make their choice in secret. Hugh Childers was re-elected on 15 August 1872 following his appointment as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
The Pontefract museum holds the original ballot box, sealed in wax with a liquorice stamp. The third Reform Act, which came into effect at the general election of 1885, reduced Pontefract's representation from two members to one, though the boundaries remained unchanged. In 1918, Pontefract became a county constituency, with boundaries extended to cover a much wider area - Pontefract itself, the towns of Knottingley and Goole, the Pontefract and Goole rural districts. At the 1950 general election Pontefract regained its borough status, being redrawn as a wholly urban constituency consisting of Pontefract and Featherstone. From February 1974, the constituency was renamed Pontefract and Castleford, although its composition remained unchanged. Martin resigned after being appointed a judge of the Court of the Exchequer. Overend resigned. Milnes was becoming Lord Houghton and causing a by-election. Childers was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty. Childers was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty.
Childers was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Childers was appointed Secretary of State for War. Winn succeeded to the peerage; the by-election was declared requiring a by-election. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.
The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple known as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court entitled to call their members to the English Bar as barristers, the others being the Inner Temple, Gray's Inn and Lincoln's Inn. It is located in the wider Temple area of London, near the Royal Courts of Justice, within the City of London. During the 12th and early 13th centuries the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy, but a papal bull in 1218 prohibited the clergy from practising in the secular courts. As a result, law began to be taught by laymen instead of by clerics. To protect their schools from competition, first Henry II and Henry III issued proclamations prohibiting the teaching of the civil law within the City of London; as a result, the common law lawyers moved to premises outside the City, which in time became the inns of court. The Middle Temple is the western part of "The Temple", the headquarters of the Knights Templar until they were dissolved in 1312. There have been lawyers in the Temple since 1320, when they were the tenants of the Earl of Lancaster, who had held the Temple since 1315.
The Temple belonged to the Knights Hospitallers. In 1346 the knights again leased the premises to the lawyers – the eastern part to lawyers from Thavie's Inn, an Inn of Chancery in Holborn, the western part to lawyers from St George's Inn; the Cross of St George is still part of the arms of Middle Temple today. After Henry VIII seized the Temple from the Knights Hospitallers in 1540, each Inn continued to hold its share of the Temple as tenants of the Crown for £10 a year, until it was granted to them jointly in 1608 by James I, to be held in perpetuity so long as they continue to provide education and accommodation to lawyers and students and maintain the Temple Church and its Master; the Temple Church, consecrated in 1185, still stands as a "Royal Peculiar" church of the Inner and Middle Temples. Much of the Middle Temple was destroyed in a fire in 1678, which caused more damage to the Inn than the Great Fire of 1666; the Thames being frozen over, beer from the Temple cellars was used to fight the fire, only contained by blowing up some buildings with gunpowder.
The Lord Mayor of London tried to exploit the occasion to assert his own jurisdiction over the Temple –, independent of the City – and on being thwarted in this endeavour, he turned back a fire engine, on its way to the fire from the City. The Inns served as colleges for the education of lawyers until they stopped being responsible for legal education in 1852, although they continue to provide training in areas such as advocacy and ethics for students, pupil barristers and newly qualified barristers. Most of the Inn is occupied by barristers' offices, known as chambers. One of the Middle Temple's main functions now is to provide education and support to new members of the profession; this is done through advocacy training, the provision of scholarships, subsidised accommodation both in the Temple and in Clapham, by providing events where junior members may meet senior colleagues for help and advice. In 2008 the 400th anniversary of the charter of James I was celebrated by Elizabeth II issuing new letters patent confirming the original grant.
The Middle Temple owns 43 buildings. The ones in the Temple itself are still held under the 1608 letters patent of James I, but some others just outside the Temple were bought subsequently; some buildings are modern, replacing ones which were destroyed in The Blitz, but others date back to the 16th century. The Inn is jointly responsible, with Inner Temple, for Temple Church and the Master's House next to the church, a Georgian townhouse built in 1764. Construction of Middle Temple Hall began in 1562 and was completed in 1572, although it was opened in 1576, by Queen Elizabeth I, its hammerbeam roof has been said to be the best in London. One of the tables at the end of the hall is made from the timbers of the Golden Hinde, the ship used by Sir Francis Drake to circumnavigate the world. Above the table is a massive painting of King Charles I by Anthony van Dyck, portraits of Charles II, James II, William III, Elizabeth I, Queen Anne and George I. On the walls are panels bearing the coats of arms of Readers dating back to 1597.
The first recorded performance of Shakespeare's play Twelfth Night occurred in the hall on 2 February 1602. Shakespeare himself was present; the hall survived the Great Fire of London in 1666, but was damaged by bombing in the Second World War. Middle Temple Hall is at the heart of the Inn, the Inn's student members are required to attend a minimum of 12 qualifying sessions there. Qualifying sessions known as "dinners", combine collegiate and educational elements and will combine a dinner or reception with lectures, mooting, or musical performances. Middle Temple Hall is a popular venue for banqueting, weddings and parties. In recent years, it has become a much-used film location—the cobbled streets, historic buildings and gas lighting give it a unique atmosphere. Nothing is known about the original library, just a room in a barristers' chambers. All the books were stolen prior to the reign of Henry VIII. In 1625 a new library was established at the site of what is now Garden Court, in 1641 it was enlarged when a member of the Inn, Robert Ashley and left his collection of books and £300 to the Inn.
This library w
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Sir Frederick Pollock, 1st Baronet
Sir Jonathan Frederick Pollock, 1st Baronet, PC was a British lawyer and Tory politician. Pollock was the son of saddler David Pollock, of Charing Cross and the elder brother of Field Marshal Sir George Pollock, 1st Baronet; the Pollock family were a branch of that family of Dumfriesshire. His business as a saddler was given the official custom of the royal family. Sir John Pollock, 4th Baronet, great-great-grandson of David Pollock, stated in Time's Chariot that David was,'perhaps without knowing it', Pollock of Balgray, the senior line of the family having died out. Pollock was educated at Cambridge, he was Senior Wrangler at Cambridge University. He is thought to be one of the founding members of the Cambridge Union Society, along with Henry Bickersteth and Sir Edward Hall Alderson, both of Gonville and Caius College. Pollock was Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1831 to 1844, he served as Attorney General between 1834 and 1835 and 1841 and 1844 in the Tory administrations of Sir Robert Peel.
In 1841 he was admitted to the Privy Council and appointed Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, a post he held until 1868. Having been knighted on 29 December 1834, Pollock was created a Baronet, of Hatton in the County of Middlesex, on 2 August 1866. Apart from his political and legal career Pollock was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816, he contributed a number of papers in mathematics to the Royal Society, including one on what is now known as the Pollock's conjecture. Pollock died in August 1870, aged 86, was succeeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son, William, his fourth son, Charles Edward Pollock, apprenticed to his father, had no university education. He became a law reporter co-serving Baron of the Court of Exchequer, becoming the last in that appeal court. Two of Pollock's grandsons became prominent lawyers: Sir Frederick Pollock, 3rd Baronet, was Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Oxford. Works written by or about Sir Frederick Pollock, 1st Baronet at Wikisource "SIR FREDERICK POLLOCK".
Eminent Persons: Biographies Reprinted from The Times. I. London: Macmillan & Co. 1892. Pp. 28–32. Retrieved 28 February 2019 – via HathiTrust. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Frederick Pollock Descendants of Sir Frederick Pollock, 1st Bt