National Register of Historic Places listings in Georgia
This is a list of the more than 2,000 properties and historic districts in the U. S. state of Georgia that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Listings are distributed across all of Georgia's 159 counties. Listings for the city of Atlanta are in Fulton County's list but spill over into DeKalb County's list; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are tallies of current listings by county. List of National Historic Landmarks in Georgia List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Georgia
The Levisa Fork is a tributary of the Big Sandy River 164 miles long, in southwestern Virginia and eastern Kentucky in the United States. It rises in the Appalachian Mountains of southwestern Virginia, in eastern Buchanan County, near Grundy, it flows west into Pike County, where it is impounded to form Fishtrap Lake reservoir. After collecting the Russell Fork, it flows northwest through Prestonsburg; the natural course of the river formed a loop surrounding downtown Pikeville, but a massive earthmoving project completed in 1987 rerouted the river to bypass the city. At Paintsville it turns to the north-northeast, flowing through Lawrence counties, it joins the Tug Fork from the southwest at Louisa on the West Virginia state line to form the Big Sandy. The Levisa Fork was an important river for log driving; the river is navigable for commercial purposes through a series of locks. In the early 1900s the river was navigable as far as Pikeville. Variant names, according to the USGS, include Louisa River, Louisa Fork, Lavisa Fork, West Fork, in addition to Levisa Fork River and Levisa Fork of the Big Sandy River.
The official name according to the USGS is Levisa Fork. According to Robert F. Collins of the United States Forest Service, 18th-century explorer Dr. Thomas Walker had named the nearby Kentucky River the Louisa River, after Princess Louisa, sister of Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. According to George R. Stewart, frontiersmen "forgot" who it was named for and it changed over time to Levisa. An alternate story is that one of Ephraim Vause' daughters, was carried away by the Shawnee after the attack on Fort Vause in 1756, she had placed her name on the trunks of beech and sycamore trees as she had been carried along, thus giving her name to Levisa Fork. On February 28, 1958, a Floyd County school bus tumbled into the Levisa Fork after a collision with a wrecker truck, leading to one of the worst bus disasters in American history. List of rivers of Kentucky List of rivers of Virginia Stewart, George R. "Names on the Land". Collins, Robert F. "A History of the Daniel Boone National Forest"
National Register of Historic Places listings in New Hampshire
This is a directory of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in New Hampshire. There are more than 750 listed sites in New Hampshire; each of the 10 counties in New Hampshire has at least twenty listings on the National Register. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019; the following are approximate tallies of current listings by county. These counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
The numbers of NRHP listings in each county are documented by tables in each of the individual county list-articles. List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in New Hampshire New Hampshire State Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral composed of oxides, hydroxide calcium oxide and/ or calcium hydroxide. It is the name for calcium oxide which occurs as a product of coal seam fires and in altered limestone xenoliths in volcanic ejecta; the word lime originates with its earliest use as building mortar and has the sense of sticking or adhering. These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering materials, as chemical feedstocks, for sugar refining, among other uses. Lime industries and the use of many of the resulting products date from prehistoric times in both the Old World and the New World. Lime is used extensively for wastewater treatment with ferrous sulfate; the rocks and minerals from which these materials are derived limestone or chalk, are composed of calcium carbonate. They may be crushed, or pulverized and chemically altered. Burning converts them into the caustic material quicklime and, through subsequent addition of water, into the less caustic slaked lime or hydrated lime, the process of, called slaking of lime.
Lime kilns are the kilns used for lime slaking. When the term is encountered in an agricultural context, it refers to agricultural lime, crushed limestone, not a product of a lime kiln. Otherwise it most means slaked lime, as the more dangerous form is described more as quicklime or burnt lime. In the lime industry, limestone is a general term for rocks that contain 80% or more of calcium or magnesium carbonates, including marble, chalk and marl. Further classification is by composition as high calcium, silicious, magnesian and other limestones. Uncommon sources of lime include coral, sea shells and ankerite. Limestone is extracted from mines. Part of the extracted stone, selected according to its chemical composition and optical granulometry, is calcinated at about 1,000 °C in different types of lime kilns to produce quicklime according to the reaction: CaCO 3 calcium carbonate → heat CaO calcium oxide + CO 2 carbon dioxide. Before use, quicklime is hydrated, combined with water, called slaking, so hydrated lime is known as slaked lime, is produced according to the reaction: CaO + H 2 O water ⟶ Ca 2 calcium hydroxide.
Dry slaking is when quicklime is slaked with just enough water to hydrate the quicklime, but remain as a powder and is referred to as hydrated lime. In wet slaking, a slight excess of water is added to hydrate the quicklime to a form referred to as lime putty; because lime has an adhesive property with bricks and stones, it is used as binding material in masonry works. It is used in whitewashing as wall coat to adhere the whitewash onto the wall; the process by which limestone is converted to quicklime by heating to slaked lime by hydration, reverts to calcium carbonate by carbonation is called the lime cycle. The conditions and compounds present during each step of the lime cycle have a strong influence of the end product, thus the complex and varied physical nature of lime products. An example is when slaked lime is mixed into a thick slurry with sand and water to form mortar for building purposes; when the masonry has been laid, the slaked lime in the mortar begins to react with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate according to the reaction: Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O.
The carbon dioxide that takes part in this reaction is principally available in the air or dissolved in rainwater so pure lime mortar will not recarbonate under water or inside a thick masonry wall. The lime cycle for dolomitic and magnesium lime is not well understood but more complex because the magnesium compounds slake to periclase which slake more than calcium oxide and when hydrated produce several other compounds thus these limes contain inclusions of portlandite, brucite and other magnesium hydroxycarbonate compounds; these magnesium compounds have limited, contradictory research which questions whether they "...may be reactive with acid rain, which could lead to the formation of magnesium sulfate salts." Magnesium sulfate salts may damage the mortar when they dry and recrystalize due to expansion of the crystals as they form, known as sulfate attack. Lime used in building materials is broadly classified as "pure", "hydraulic", "poor" lime. Uses include lime mortar, lime plaster, lime render, lime-ash floors, tabby concrete, silicate mineral paint, limestone blocks which may be of many types.
The qualities of the many types of processed lime affect. The Romans used two types of lime mortar to make Roman concrete, which allowed them to revolutionize architectur
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
National Register of Historic Places listings in New York
Buildings, sites and objects in New York listed on the National Register of Historic Places: There are over 6,000 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in New York State. Some are listed within each one of the 62 counties in New York State. Of these, 258 are further designated as National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. The numbers of properties and districts in New York State or in any of its 62 counties are not reported by the National Register. Following are approximate tallies of current listings from lists of the specific properties and districts. List of National Historic Landmarks in New York List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in New York New York State Office of Parks and Historic Preservation National Register of Historic Places applications for New York StateNational Register of Historic Places travel itineraries: Shaker historic trail Places Where Women Made History Historic Places of the civil rights movement Aboard the Underground Railroad Aviation: From sand dunes to sonic booms