Congregational or Congregationalist churches are Protestant churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism is often considered to be a part of the wider Reformed tradition, ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England laid foundation for these churches. Congregationalists differed with the Reformed churches using episcopalian church governance, within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York, into the Old North West, and further. With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in social reform movements, including abolitionism, temperance. Congregationalist tradition has a presence in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and it has been introduced either by immigrant dissenter Protestants or by missionary organization such as the London Missionary Society.
Congregationalists believe their model of church governance fulfils the description of the early church, Congregationalism is more easily identified as a movement than a single denomination, given its distinguishing commitment to the complete autonomy of the local congregation. The early Congregationalists shared with Anabaptist theology the ideal of a pure church and they believed the adult conversion experience was necessary for an individual to become a full member in the church, unlike other Reformed churches. As such, the Congregationalists were an influence on the Baptists. They differed in counting the children of believers in some members of the church. On the other hand, the Baptists required each member to experience conversion, in England, the Anglican system of church government was taken over by King Henry VIII. It declared the sovereign of England to be the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England. In the reign of Elizabeth I, this title was changed to Supreme Governor of the Church of England, an act still in effect.
Robert Browne, Henry Barrow, John Greenwood, John Penry, William Brewster, Thomas Jollie, the underground churches in England and exiles from Holland provided about 35 out of the 102 passengers on the Mayflower, which sailed from London in July 1620. They became known in history as the Pilgrim Fathers, the early Congregationalists sought to separate themselves from the Anglican church in every possible way and even eschewed having church buildings. They met in homes for many years, in 1639 William Wroth, Rector of the parish church at Llanvaches in Monmouthshire, established the first Independent Church in Wales according to the New England pattern, i. e. Congregational. The Tabernacle United Reformed Church at Llanvaches survives to this day, during the English Civil War, those who supported the Parliamentary cause were invited by Parliament to discuss religious matters. This government would last until 1660 when the monarch was restored, in 1658 the Congregationalists created their own version of the Westminster Confession, called the Savoy Declaration, which remains the principal subordinate standard of Congregationalism.
The work in South America began in 1921 when four Argentine churches urgently requested that denominational recognition be given to George Geier, the Illinois Conference licensed Geier, who worked among Germans from Russia who were very similar to their kin in the United States and in Canada
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone, FRS, FSS was a British Liberal and earlier conservative politician. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served as Prime Minister four separate times, more than any other person, Gladstone was Britains oldest Prime Minister, he resigned for the final time when he was 84 years old. Gladstone first entered Parliament in 1832, beginning as a High Tory, Gladstone served in the Cabinet of Sir Robert Peel. After the split of the Conservatives Gladstone was a Peelite – in 1859 the Peelites merged with the Whigs, as Chancellor Gladstone became committed to low public spending and to electoral reform, earning him the sobriquet The Peoples William. Gladstones first ministry saw many reforms including the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland, after his electoral defeat in 1874, Gladstone resigned as leader of the Liberal Party, but from 1876 began a comeback based on opposition to Turkeys reaction to the Bulgarian April Uprising. Gladstones Midlothian Campaign of 1879–80 was an example of many modern political campaigning techniques.
The government passed the Third Reform Act, Back in office in early 1886, Gladstone proposed Irish home rule but this was defeated in the House of Commons in July. The resulting split in the Liberal Party helped keep out of office, with one short break. In 1892 Gladstone formed his last government at the age of 82, the Second Home Rule Bill passed the Commons but was defeated in the Lords in 1893. Gladstone resigned in March 1894, in opposition to increased naval expenditure and he left Parliament in 1895 and died three years aged 88. Gladstone was known affectionately by his supporters as The Peoples William or the G. O. M, Gladstone is consistently ranked as one of Britains greatest Prime Ministers. Born in 1809 in Liverpool, at 62 Rodney Street, William Ewart Gladstone was the son of the slave-owning merchant Sir John Gladstone. Although born and brought up in Liverpool, William Gladstone was of purely Scottish ancestry, in 1814 young Willy visited Scotland for the first time, as he and his brother John travelled with their father to Edinburgh and Dingwall to visit their relatives.
William and his brother were both made freemen of the burgh of Dingwall, in 1815 Gladstone travelled to London and Cambridge for the first time with his parents. In London he attended a service of thanksgiving with his family at St Pauls Cathedral following the Battle of Waterloo, William Gladstone was educated from 1816 to 1821 at a preparatory school at the vicarage of St Thomass Church at Seaforth, close to his familys residence, Seaforth House. In December 1831 he achieved the double first-class degree he had long desired, Gladstone served as President of the Oxford Union debating society, where he developed a reputation as an orator, which followed him into the House of Commons. At university Gladstone was a Tory and denounced Whig proposals for parliamentary reform, following the success of his double first, William travelled with his brother John on a Grand Tour of Europe, visiting Belgium, France and Italy. On his return to England, William was elected to Parliament in 1832 as Tory Member of Parliament for Newark, partly through the influence of the local patron, the Duke of Newcastle
The Rev. Dr. Thomas Binney was an English Congregationalist divine of the 19th century, popularly known as the Archbishop of Nonconformity. He was noted for sermons and writings in defence of the principles of Nonconformity, for devotional verse, Binney was born of Presbyterian parents at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1798, and educated at an ordinary day school. He spent his first seven years in the employment of a G Angus and printer of The Side, where he had as a fellow apprentice, Robert Emery. It was during this period that Emery wrote his song about The Great Frost on the River Tyne which caused the river to freeze over during January and February 1814. Binney is credited by Thomas Allan, in his Illustrated Edition of Tyneside Songs and Readings with finishing off the song, after his time with the bookseller, he entered the theological school at Wymondley, incorporated in New College, Hampstead. In 1829, after short pastorates at Bedford and Newport, Isle of Wight, he accepted a call to the historic Kings Weigh House Chapel, London in succession to the elder John Clayton.
Here he became popular, and it was found necessary to build a much larger chapel on Fish Street Hill. Its eminent members included Samuel Morley MP, Thomas Binney laid the foundation stone of the new chapel himself, in 1834. Throughout his career Binney was an opponent of the state church principle. From 1865 to 1869, Llewelyn David Bevan assisted Binney at Kings Weigh House Chapel and his liberality of view and breadth of ecclesiastical sympathy entitle him to rank, on questions of Nonconformity, among the most distinguished of the school of Richard Baxter. Indeed, he known as the Archbishop of Nonconformity. Thomas Binney was an member of the British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society formed in 1839. Thomas Binney became the biographer of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton and he continued to discharge the duties of the ministry until 1869, when he resigned. In 1845 he paid a visit to Canada and the United States, the University of Aberdeen conferred the LL. D. degree on him in 1852, and he was twice chairman of the Congregational Union of England and Wales.
Of numerous other works the best-known is his Is it Possible to Make the Best of Both Worlds, an expansion of a lecture delivered to young men in Exeter Hall, which attained a circulation of 30,000 copies within a year of its publication. He wrote much verse, including the well-known hymn Eternal Light. Binney preached his last sermon in November 1873, after some months of suffering, he died on 24 February 1874. Among his many books and numerous collections of sermons, published throughout his life, Binney, a study for young men or A Sketch of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton
Parliament of the United Kingdom
It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories. Its head is the Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its seat is the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the boroughs of the British capital, the parliament is bicameral, consisting of an upper house and a lower house. The Sovereign forms the third component of the legislature, prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections held at least every five years. The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London, most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The UK parliament and its institutions have set the pattern for many throughout the world. However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it with reference to a rather than a parliament. In theory, the UKs supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown normally acts on the advice of the Prime Minister, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union. The principle of responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an electoral system. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive.
The supremacy of the British House of Commons was established in the early 20th century, in 1909, the Commons passed the so-called Peoples Budget, which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners. The House of Lords, which consisted mostly of powerful landowners, on the basis of the Budgets popularity and the Lords consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, in the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the Government of Ireland Act 1920 created the parliaments of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland and reduced the representation of both parts at Westminster
Hosiery, referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs. The term originated as the term for products of which a maker or seller is termed a hosier. The term is used for all types of knitted fabric. Lower denier measurements of 5 to 15 describe a hose which may be sheer in appearance, whereas styles of 40 and above are dense, with little to no light able to come through on 100 denier items. The first references to hosiery can be found in works of Hesiod, even the Egyptians are speculated to have used hosiery as socks have been found in certain tombs. Most hosiery garments are made by knitting methods, modern hosiery is usually tight-fitting by virtue of stretchy fabrics and meshes. Older forms include binding to achieve a tight fit, due to its close fit, most hosiery can be worn as an undergarment, but it is more commonly worn as a combined under/outer garment. Hosiery garments are the product of hosiery fabric produced from hosiery yarn, unlike the yarn used for making woven fabric, hosiery yarn comes from a separate spinning process, and is used with circular knitting machines to form fabric.
One or more hosiery yarn is used to make knitted or hosiery fabric, and garments produced out of this are generally referred to as hosiery garments
John Russell, Viscount Amberley
John Russell, Viscount Amberley, was a British politician and writer. He was the eldest son of John Russell, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. John Russell was born on 10 December 1842 at Chesham Place and his mother was Lord Russells second wife, Lady Frances, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Minto. In 1846, his father became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, due to Lord Johns elevation to peerage as Earl Russell in 1861, his son and heir apparent became known as Viscount Amberley. After a home education, he was sent to Harrow School and he was an exceptionally studious boy and his performance at school pleased his father. He attended the University of Edinburgh and Trinity College, Cambridge, at Cambridge, he formed a close and lasting friendship with T. J. Cobden-Sanderson, who shared his religious views. Both left Cambridge without taking a degree, Amberleys departure in February 1863 was due to his dislike for Cambridges social tone and focus on mathematics. Rejecting the divinity of Christ in the early 1860s, Amberley wrote on his 21st birthday, in 1864, he embarked on a comparative study of religions and started writing An Analysis of Religious Belief.
Amberley was pressured by his father to take up politics, and his friend, following an unsuccessful 1865 candidature at Leeds, he was elected Member of Parliament for Nottingham on 11 May 1866. A progressive Liberal, he served until 17 November 1868, Amberleys religious views presented a great obstacle to his political career, with even Liberal clergymen angered by his refusal to observe Sunday. He advocated birth control as means of countering overpopulation and public issues, for which he was accused of depreciating marriage, supporting abortion. This stance cost him a seat in the South Devon election in 1868, following this defeat, he gave up his parliamentary career, but continued to write and speak in favour of womens suffrage. Quitting politics left Amberley with more time to spend researching religions and his parents and siblings tolerated his unorthodox ideas but disagreed with them. They did, denounce his affiliation with Positivism and he joined the Workmens Peace Association, formed in 1870, but opposed the idea of disarmament, stating that it would most likely lead to war.
In November 1860, the black-haired and short statured Lord Amberley met and fell in love with Janet Chambers, the affection remained strong until her death in 1863, but it does not appear probable that Amberley ever contemplated marrying her. He met the Hon. Katharine Louisa Stanley in early 1864, Lord and Lady Russell disliked her parents, the politician Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley, and the womens education campaigner Henrietta Stanley, Baroness Stanley of Alderley. The couple was thus prohibited from seeing each other for six months, in sharp contrast to her serious and shy husband, Lady Amberley was remarkably vivacious, and their brief marriage was very happy. Amberley had two sons and twin daughters, one of whom was stillborn, the eldest child, John Francis Stanley, was born nine months after their marriage
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a movement to end the African and Indian slave trade. An abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, soon after his death in 1785, they joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal, freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans, during the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, and Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. France abolished slavery within the French Kingdom in 1315, Haiti achieved independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory.
The northern states in the U. S. all abolished slavery by 1804, the United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia and it was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania, where it was officially abolished by presidential decree in 1981. In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that France signifies freedom and this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Some cases of African slaves freed by setting foot on the French soil were recorded such as example of a Norman slave merchant who tried to sell slaves in Bordeaux in 1571. He was arrested and his slaves were freed according to a declaration of the Parlement of Guyenne which stated that slavery was intolerable in France, born into slavery in Saint Domingue, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became free when his father brought him to France in 1776.
As in other New World colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labour for their sugar plantations in their Caribbean colonies. In addition, French colonists in Louisiane in North America held slaves, particularly in the South around New Orleans, Louis XIVs Code Noir regulated the slave trade and institution in the colonies. It gave unparalleled rights to slaves and it includes the right to marry, gather publicly, or take Sundays off. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions and it forced the owners to instruct them in the Catholic faith, implying that Africans were human beings endowed with a soul, a fact that was not seen as evident until then. It resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free in 1830 and they were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and even slaves. Other free people of colour, such as Julien Raimond, spoke out against slavery, during the Age of Enlightenment, many philosophers wrote pamphlets against slavery and its moral and economical justifications, including Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws or in the Encyclopédie
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
Abney Park Cemetery
Abney Park cemetery is one of the Magnificent Seven cemeteries in London, England. In 1840 it became a garden cemetery, a semi-public park arboretum, and an educational institute. A total of 196,843 burials had taken place there up to the year 2000 and it is a Local Nature Reserve. The official address of Abney Park is Stoke Newington High Street, the main gate is at the junction of this street and Rectory Road, with a smaller gate on Stoke Newington Church Street. The park lies within the London Borough of Hackney, the cemetery is named after Sir Thomas Abney, who served as Lord Mayor of London in 1700–01. The manor of Stoke Newington belonged to him in the early 18th century and his house, built in 1676. Details of the Abney Park Cemetery Company can be found in the diaries of William Copeland Astbury, in 1840, Abney Park opened as a model garden cemetery, a pioneering non-denominational place of rest. Its approach was based on the Congregational churchs role in the London Missionary Society and it drew on American burial ideas, specifically Mount Auburn in Massachusetts.
The trustees would be appointed by the members, under the trust deed, the founders sought to preserve the park in perpetuity. The weakness of the lay in the detail however. In consequence, company income could not be held in trust for the park, from onwards standardised park-like landscaping principles came to be applied at Abney Park, replacing much of the unique arboretum planting. Air pollution took its toll, affecting the conifer walks, after the First World War, path infill began to be practised, a situation that became severe in the 1950s and was continued into the 1970s, when the commercial cemetery company went into liquidation. In 1978, apart from one building, the park passed to the local council as a burial ground. Abney Park was included on the Heritage at Risk Register in 2009, as one of Britains historic parks and gardens at risk from neglect and decay. Similarly, from time to time, some sections of boundary wall become too weak due to people climbing over them, and decay has set in.
However these matters could be put right and the park is a place to visit, with a range of educational and cultural events. It is a designated Local Nature Reserve and Conservation Area, apart from the South Lodge extension on the forecourt, Abney Parks freehold is owned by the London Borough of Hackney. The park is situated near Stoke Newington High Street, London N16 and it occupies 12.53 hectares, which includes a nature reserve, a classroom, a visitors centre and a central chapel which is disused
Maidenhead is a large town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead, in Berkshire, England. It lies south-west of the River Thames, but at Maidenhead, the town has a population of 73,404. Its urban area has a population of just under 95,000, Maidenheads name stems from the riverside area where the New wharf or Maiden Hythe was built, perhaps as early as Saxon times. It has been suggested that the nearby Great Hill of Taplow was called the Mai Dun by the Iron Age Brythons, the area of the town centre was originally known as South Ellington and is recorded in the Domesday Book as Ellington in the hundred of Beynhurst. In 1280, a bridge was erected across the river to replace a ferry in what was the hamlet of South Ellington, the Great West Road to Reading and Bristol was diverted over the new bridge. Previously, it had kept to the bank and crossed the Thames by ford at Cookham. Within a few years a wharf was constructed next to the bridge, the earliest record of this name change is in the Bray Court manorial rolls of 1296.
The bridge led to the growth of Maidenhead, a point for coaches on the journeys between London and Bath and the High Street became populated with inns. The current Maidenhead Bridge, a landmark, dates from 1777 and was built at a cost of £19,000. King Charles I met his children for the last time before his execution in 1649 at the Greyhound Inn on the High Street, when the Great Western Railway came to the town, it began to expand. Muddy roads were replaced and public services were installed, the High Street began to change again, and substantial Victorian red brick architecture began to appear throughout the town. Maidenhead became its own entity in 1894, being split from the parishes of both Bray and Cookham. Maidenhead Citadel Corps of the Salvation Army was first opened in the town in the mid-1880s, Maidenhead Citadel Band was soon founded in 1886 by Bandmaster William Thomas, who became mayor of the town. By Edwardian times, nearby Boulters Lock became a resort, especially on Ascot Sunday.
The town is part of the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead and it was previously an independent municipal borough. The Maidenhead constituency is one of the safest Conservative seats in the country, and its current MP is Theresa May, the mayor of Windsor & Maidenhead is Councillor Sayonara Luxton. Bray village is linked to Maidenhead by the exclusive Fishery Estate which lies on the banks of the Thames, to the north are the Cookhams, Cookham Village, Cookham Rise and Cookham Dean. To the west is the area of Pinkneys Green and these lie south of the Berkshire-Buckinghamshire border, which is formed by the River Thames
The Daily News (UK)
The Daily News was a national daily newspaper in the United Kingdom. The News was founded in 1846 by Charles Dickens, who served as the newspapers first editor. It was conceived as a rival to the right-wing Morning Chronicle. The paper was not at first a commercial success, Dickens edited 17 issues before handing over the editorship to his friend John Forster, who had more experience in journalism than Dickens. Forster ran the paper until 1870, in 1870, the News absorbed the Morning Star. In 1876, Daily News and its correspondent Edwin Pears, and Januarius MacGahan, in 1901, Quaker chocolate manufacturer George Cadbury bought the Daily News and used the paper to campaign for old age pensions and against sweatshop labour. As a pacifist, Cadbury opposed the Boer War – and the Daily News followed his line, in 1906, the News sponsored an exhibition on sweated labour at the Queens Hall. This exhibition was credited with strengthening the womens suffrage movement, in 1909, H. N. Brailsford and H. W.
Nevinson resigned from the paper when it refused to condemn the force feeding of suffragettes. In 1912, the News merged with the Morning Leader, and was for a known as the Daily News. In 1928, it merged with The Westminster Gazette, and in 1930, the chairman from 1911 to 1930 was Edward Cadbury, eldest son of George Cadbury
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe was an American abolitionist and author. She came from the Beecher family, a religious family. It depicts the life for African Americans under slavery. It reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the United States and it energized anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South. She wrote 30 books, including novels, three memoirs, and collections of articles and letters. She was influential for both her writings and her public stands on issues of the day. Harriet Elisabeth Beecher was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, on June 14,1811 and she was the seventh of 13 children born to outspoken Calvinist preacher Lyman Beecher and Roxana, a deeply religious woman who died when Stowe was only five years old. Roxanas maternal grandfather was General Andrew Ward of the Revolutionary War, among her classmates was Sarah P. Willis, who wrote under the pseudonym Fanny Fern. In 1832, at the age of 21, Harriet Beecher moved to Cincinnati, Ohio to join her father, who had become the president of Lane Theological Seminary.
There, she joined the Semi-Colon Club, a literary salon and social club whose members included the Beecher sisters, Caroline Lee Hentz, Salmon P. Chase, Emily Blackwell. Areas of the city had been wrecked in the Cincinnati riots of 1829, Beecher met a number of African Americans who had suffered in those attacks, and their experience contributed to her writing about slavery. Riots took place again in 1836 and 1841, driven by native-born anti-abolitionists and it was in the literary club that she met Calvin Ellis Stowe, a widower who was a professor at the seminary. The two married on January 6,1836 and he was an ardent critic of slavery, and the Stowes supported the Underground Railroad, temporarily housing several fugitive slaves in their home. Most slaves continued north to freedom in Canada. The Stowes had seven children together, including twin daughters, in 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law, prohibiting assistance to fugitives and strengthening sanctions even in free states. At the time, Stowe had moved with her family to Brunswick and their home near the campus is protected as a national historic resource in her honor.
Stowe claimed to have a vision of a slave during a communion service at the college chapel. However, what more likely allowed her to empathize with slaves was the loss of her eighteen-month-old son and she even stated the following, Having experienced losing someone so close to me, I can sympathize with all the poor, powerless slaves at the unjust auctions