University of Georgia
The University of Georgia referred to as UGA or Georgia, is a public flagship research university with its main campus in Athens, Georgia. Founded in 1785, it is one of the oldest public universities in the United States; the Center for Measuring University Performance ranks the University of Georgia among the top research universities in the nation and the university is classified by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as a Research I university. It classifies the student body as "more selective," its most selective admissions category, while the ACT Assessment Student Report places UGA student admissions in the "highly selective" category, the highest category. Incoming students include those from 47 countries around the world; the university is ranked as one of the "Best National Universities for Undergraduate Teaching", tied for 13th overall among all public national universities in the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings, is a Kiplinger's and Princeton Review top ten in value.
The university is organized into 17 constituent schools and colleges offering more than 140 degree programs. The university's historic North Campus is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places as a designated historic district; the contiguous campus areas include rolling hills and extensive green space including nature walks, fields and large and varied arboreta. Close to the contiguous campus is the university's 58-acre Health Sciences Campus that has an extensive landscaped green space, more than 400 trees, several additional historic buildings. Athens has ranked among America's best college towns due to its vibrant restaurant and music scenes. In addition to the main campus in Athens with its 460 buildings, the university has two smaller campuses located in Tifton and Griffin; the university has two satellite campuses located in Lawrenceville. The university operates several outreach stations spread across the state; the total acreage of the university in 30 Georgia counties is 41,539 acres.
The university owns a residential and research center in Washington, D. C. and three international residential and research centers located at Oxford University in Oxford, England, at Cortona, at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Over 750 student organizations including academic associations, honor societies, cultural groups and intramural athletics, religious groups, social groups and fraternities and community service programs, philanthropic groups are integral parts of student life; the University of Georgia's intercollegiate sports teams known by their Georgia Bulldogs nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. UGA served as a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more than 120-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 45 national championships, 264 individual national championships, 170 conference championships, 45 Olympic medals; the Georgia Redcoat Marching Band, the official marching band of the university, performs at athletic and other events.
In 1784, Lyman Hall, a Yale University graduate and one of three doctors to sign the Declaration of Independence, as Governor of Georgia persuaded the Georgia legislature to grant 40,000 acres for the purposes of founding a "college or seminary of learning." Besides Hall, credit for founding the university goes to Abraham Baldwin who wrote the original charter for University of Georgia. From Connecticut, Baldwin graduated from and taught at Yale University before moving to Georgia; the Georgia General Assembly approved Baldwin's charter on January 27, 1785 and UGA became the first university in the United States to gain a state charter. Considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Baldwin would represent Georgia in the 1786 Constitutional Convention that created the Constitution of the United States and go on to be President pro tempore of the United States Senate; the task of creating the university was given to the Senatus Academicus, which consisted of the Board of Visitors – made up of "the governor, all state senators, all superior court judges and a few other public officials" – and the Board of Trustees, "a body of fourteen appointed members that soon became self-perpetuating."
The first meeting of the university's Board of Trustees was held in Augusta, Georgia on February 13, 1786. The meeting installed Baldwin as the university's first president. For the first sixteen years of the school's history, the University of Georgia only existed on paper. By the new century, a committee was appointed to find suitable land to establish a campus. Committee member John Milledge purchased 633 acres of land on the west bank of the Oconee River and gifted it to the university; this tract of land, now a part of the consolidated city–county of Athens-Clarke County, was part of Jackson County. As of 2013, 37 acres of that land remained as part of the North Campus; because Baldwin was elected to the U. S. Senate, the school needed a new president. Baldwin chose his former fellow professor at Yale, Josiah Meigs, as his replacement. Meigs became the school's president, as well as the only professor. After traveling the state to recruit a few students, Meigs opened the school with no building in the fall of 1801.
The first school building patterned after Yale's Connecticut Hall was built the year later. Yale's early influence on the new university extended into the classical curriculum with emphasis on Latin and Greek. By 1803, the students
East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railway
The East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad was a rail transport system that operated in the southeastern United States during the late 19th century. Created with the consolidation of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad and the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad in 1869, the ETV&G played an important role in connecting East Tennessee and other isolated parts of Southern Appalachia with the rest of the country, helped make Knoxville one of the region's major wholesaling centers. In 1894, the ETV&G merged with the Danville Railroad to form the Southern Railway. While efforts to establish a railroad in East Tennessee began in the 1830s, financial difficulties stalled construction until the late 1840s; the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad was built between 1847 and 1859, connecting Knoxville, Tennessee with Dalton, Georgia. The East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad was built between 1850 and 1856, connecting Knoxville with Bristol, Tennessee. Knoxville financier Charles McClung McGhee formed a syndicate which purchased both lines to form the ETV&G in 1869, through McGhee's efforts, the new ETV&G bought out numerous other rail lines across the region.
By 1890, the ETV&G controlled over 2,500 miles of tracks in five states. Throughout the first half of the 19th century, East Tennessee struggled to overcome the economic isolation created by its natural barriers, namely the Blue Ridge Mountains on the south and east and the Cumberland Plateau on the north and west. Shortly after the advent of railroads in the 1820s, the region's business leaders began discussing railroad construction as a way to relieve this isolation. In the mid-1830s, several businessmen, among them Knoxville physician J. G. M. Ramsey and promoted a line connecting Cincinnati and Charleston, but the Panic of 1837 doomed this initiative. In 1836, a group of businessmen chartered the Hiwassee Railroad, based in Athens, which sought to construct a line from Knoxville southward to Dalton, where it would join a planned extension of the Charleston and Hamburg line, providing Knoxville with a link to the Atlantic Coast. Like its competitors with the Cincinnati and Charleston, the Hiwassee ran into financial difficulties, the Hiwassee Company nearly collapsed.
The company was forced to focus on turnpike iron production to survive. In 1844, the Charleston and Hamburg extension to Dalton was completed, Knoxville and Athens businessmen again entertained the idea of building a rail line to Georgia; the Hiwassee Company was recharted in 1847 as the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, with renewed support from the Tennessee state legislature, work on the line began the following year. By 1852, the line had reached just southeast of Knoxville. On June 22, 1855, the first train rolled into Knoxville over the East Tennessee and Georgia's tracks. On July 4, 1855, as Knoxvillians celebrated the arrival of the railroad, track work began on the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, which sought to connect Knoxville with Bristol, where it would join existing tracks to create an unbroken rail line from New York to Memphis. Under the direction of Jonesborough physician Samuel B. Cunningham, this line reached New Market in 1856. After overcoming financial and engineering difficulties, the tracks from Knoxville to Bristol were completed on May 14, 1858, with Cunningham driving the last spike.
During the 1850s every major business and political leader in Knoxville was involved in railroad building. In 1852, congressmen Horace Maynard, William Montgomery Churchwell, John H. Crozier, along with attorney Oliver Perry Temple and minister Thomas William Humes, chartered the Knoxville and Kentucky Railroad, which planned to build a line northward into Kentucky, where it would join existing lines to Cincinnati and Louisville. By the outbreak of the Civil War, this company had laid just nine miles of track; the railroads in East Tennessee provided a major supply route between Virginia and the Deep South, thus both Confederate and Union forces considered the region of vital importance. On November 8, 1861, East Tennessee Union loyalists destroyed five railroad bridges, forcing the Confederate government to invoke martial law in the region. Throughout the war, both Confederate and Union forces destroyed railroad tracks and facilities to prevent them from falling under the other's control. After the war, Knoxville businessman Charles McClung McGhee and several other investors formed a syndicate which purchased both the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad and the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad.
In 1869, the two lines were consolidated to form the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, with Thomas Calloway as president, McGhee and Richard T. Wilson as agents; as a nexus between northern financiers and local interests, McGhee was able to obtain for the ETV&G large amounts of capital, the new company expanded. In 1869, the ETV&G bought the Knoxville and Kentucky Railroad, revived after the war, over the subsequent decade extended its tracks to the Kentucky state line at Jellico. During this same period, the ETV&G acquired the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, which connected Memphis and Chattanooga, the Georgia Southern Railroad, which connected Dalton with Rome and the Macon and Brunswick Railroad, which connected Macon, Georgia with Brunswick, Georgia on the Atlantic Coast. By 1882, the ETV&G had completed tracks from Rome to Macon. In the early 1880s, the ETV&G managed to build a line through the rugged French Broad valley along the Tennessee-North Carolina state line to join with the Weste
Long Island Rail Road
The Long Island Rail Road abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday ridership of 354,800 passengers in 2016, it is the busiest commuter railroad in North America, it is one of the world's few commuter systems that runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year-round. It is publicly owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which refers to it as MTA Long Island Rail Road; the LIRR logo combines the circular MTA logo with the text Long Island Rail Road, appears on the sides of trains. The LIRR is one of two commuter rail systems owned by the MTA, the other being the Metro-North Railroad in the northern suburbs of the New York area. Established in 1834 and having operated continuously since it is one of the oldest railroads in the United States still operating under its original name and charter. There are 124 stations and more than 700 miles of track on its two lines to the two forks of the island and eight major branches, with the passenger railroad system totaling 319 miles of route.
As of 2018, the LIRR's budgetary burden for expenditures was $1.6 billion, which it supports through the collection of taxes and fees. The Long Island Rail Road Company was chartered in 1834 to provide a daily service between New York and Boston via a ferry connection between its Greenport, New York, terminal on Long Island's North Fork and Stonington, Connecticut; this service was superseded in 1849 by the land route through Connecticut that became part of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. The LIRR refocused its attentions towards serving Long Island, in competition with other railroads on the island. In the 1870s, railroad president Conrad Poppenhusen and his successor Austin Corbin acquired all the railroads and consolidated them into the LIRR; the LIRR was unprofitable for much of its history. In 1900, the Pennsylvania Railroad bought a controlling interest as part of its plan for direct access to Manhattan which began on September 8, 1910; the wealthy PRR subsidized the LIRR during the first half of the new century, allowing expansion and modernization.
Electric operation began in 1905. After the Second World War, the railroad industry's downturn and dwindling profits caused the PRR to stop subsidizing the LIRR, the LIRR went into receivership in 1949; the State of New York, realizing how important the railroad was to Long Island's future, began to subsidize the railroad in the 1950s and 1960s. In June 1965, the state finalized an agreement to buy the LIRR from the PRR for $65 million; the LIRR was placed under the control of a new Metropolitan Commuter Transit Authority. The MCTA was rebranded the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1968 when it incorporated several other New York City-area transit agencies. With MTA subsidies the LIRR modernized further, continuing to be the busiest commuter railroad in the United States; the LIRR is one of the few railroads that has survived as an intact company from its original charter to the present. The LIRR operates out of three western terminals in New York City, with a fourth expected by the early 2020s.
Major terminals include: Pennsylvania Station, in Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest of the western terminals, serving 500 daily trains. It is reached via the Amtrak-owned East River Tunnels from the Main Line in Long Island City; the New York City Subway's 34th Street–Penn Station and 34th Street–Penn Station stations are next to the terminal. It connects LIRR with Amtrak and NJ Transit trains. Atlantic Terminal Flatbush Avenue, in Downtown Brooklyn serves most other trains, it is next to the New York City Subway's Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center station complex, providing easy access to Lower Manhattan. Rush-hour trains run to one of two stations in Long Island City, Queens: the Hunterspoint Avenue station, or the Long Island City station on the East River. From Hunterspoint Avenue, the Hunters Point Avenue subway station can be reached for Midtown Manhattan access; the same subway trains can be reached from Long Island City station at the Vernon Boulevard–Jackson Avenue subway station. It connects to the NYC Ferry's East River Ferry to Midtown or Lower Manhattan.
Access to a fourth major terminal is under construction. As early as 2022, the LIRR intends to start service to a new station under Grand Central Terminal via the East Side Access; the East Side Access project will reduce congestion while increasing the number of trains during peak hours. However, some February 2014 estimates push the opening date as far back as September 2024. In addition, the Jamaica station is a major hub transfer point in Jamaica, Queens, it has yard and bypass tracks. Passengers can transfer between trains on all LIRR lines except the Port Washington Branch. A sixth platform with two tracks is under construction and will serve Atlantic Branch shuttle trains to Brooklyn once completed. Transfer is made to separate facilities for three subway services at the Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK station, a number of bus routes, the AirTrain automated electric rail system to JFK Airport; the railroad's headquarters are next to the station. The Long Island Rail Road system has eleven passenger branches
Daniel Chester French
Daniel Chester French, one of the most prolific and acclaimed American sculptors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, is best known for his design of the monumental statue of Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC. Parents: Mother, Anne Richardson, daughter of William Merchant Richardson, chief justice of New Hampshire. Father, Henry Flagg French Siblings: Henriette Van Mater French Hollis, Sarah Flagg French Bartlett, William M. R. French French was born in Exeter, California, to Henry Flagg French, a lawyer, Assistant US Treasury Secretary, author of a book that described the French drain, his wife Anne Richardson. In 1867, French moved with his family to Concord, where he was a neighbor and friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson, the Alcott family, his decision to pursue sculpting was influenced by Louisa May Alcott's sister May Alcott. French's early education included training in anatomy with William Rimmer and in drawing with William Morris Hunt. French spent a year studying at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, several years in Florence, Italy studying in the studio of Thomas Ball.
French first earned acclaim for the Minute Man, commissioned by the town of Concord, unveiled April 19, 1875, on the centenary of the Battle of Lexington and Concord. He soon established his own studio, first in Washington, DC, moving to Boston and to New York City. French's reputation grew with his Statue of the Republic for the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, in Chicago. Other memorable works by French include: the First Division Monument and the Butt-Millet Memorial Fountain in Washington. In addition to the Lincoln Memorial, French collaborated with architect Henry Bacon on numerous memorials around the country and on the Dupont Circle fountain in Washington, DC. In 1893, French was a founding member of the National Sculpture Society, he was appointed a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1913. French became a member of the National Academy of Design, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the Architectural League, the Accademia di San Luca, of Rome, he was a trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, a co-founder of the American Academy in Rome.
He was a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor and was awarded a medal of honor from the Paris Exposition of 1900. He was a founding member of the U. S. Commission of Fine Arts, serving from 1910 to 1915, including as chairman from 1912 to 1915. In 1917, French and a colleague, H. Augustus Lukeman, designed the Pulitzer Prize gold medal presented to laureates. French designed the side of the prize with Benjamin Franklin on it, while Lukeman created the iconic design of the printing press and the wording on the award: "For disinterested and meritorious public service rendered by an American newspaper during the year….". In collaboration with Edward Clark Potter he modeled the George Washington statue, commissioned by a group that called itself "The Association of American Women for the Erection of a Statue of Washington in Paris" and unveiled in the Place d'Iena in Paris, France, in 1900. French was one of many sculptors who employed Audrey Munson as a model. Together with Walter Leighton Clark and others, he was one of the founders of the Berkshire Playhouse, which became the Berkshire Theatre Festival.
In 1917, Harvard's citation in conferring an honorary Master of Arts referred to his statue of Emerson when it called him "a sculptor, whose skillful hand, unlike that of the friend whom he portrayed, has not been stopped but spared to adorn our land by the creation of his art". French taught. French died in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in 1931 at age 81 and was buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Massachusetts. Chesterwood, French's summer home and studio – designed by his architect friend and frequent collaborator Henry Bacon – is now an historic site owned and operated by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. In 1940, French was selected as one of five artists to be honored in the 35-stamp "Famous Americans" series. Chester French was an American indie band named for the artist. Minute Man at the Old North Bridge in Concord, Bust of Major General William Francis Bartlett at Memorial Hall, Harvard University, John Harvard, Harvard Yard in Cambridge, Lewis Cass, National Statuary Hall, Washington DC, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Alice Cogswell, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC Thomas Starr King monument San Francisco, Statue of The Republic, the colossal centerpiece of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.
His 24-foot gilt-bronze reduced version made in 1918 survives in Chicago. John Boyle O'Reilly Memorial, intersection of Boylston Street and the Fenway in Boston, Rufus Choate memorial, Old Suffolk County Court House, Massachusetts, Richard Morris Hunt Memorial, on the perimeter wall of Central Park, at 5th Avenue at 70th Street, opposite the Frick Collection, in New York City, Commodore
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th