A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment rather than used in day-to-day commerce. A bullion coin is distinguished by an explicit statement of weight and fineness on the coin; the United Kingdom defines investment coins more as coins that have been minted after 1800, have a purity of not less than 900 thousandths and are, or have been, legal tender in their country of origin. Under United States law, "coins" that fail the last of these requirements are not coins at all, must be advertised as "rounds" instead. Bullion coins are available in both gold and silver, with the exceptions of the Krugerrand and the Swiss Vreneli, which are only available in gold; the American Eagle and Canadian Gold Maple Leaf series are available in gold, silver and palladium. Bullion coins are available in various weights; these are multiples or fractions of 1 troy ounce, but some bullion coins are produced in limited quantities in kilograms or heavier. Bullion coins sell for a premium over the market price of the metal on the commodities exchanges.
Reasons include their comparative small size and the costs associated with manufacture and distribution. The amount of the premium varies depending on the precious metal; the premium is affected by prevailing demand. The ISO currency code for gold bullion is XAU. ISO 4217 includes codes not only for currencies, but for precious metals and certain other entities used in international finance, e.g. special drawing rights. The European Commission publishes annually a list of gold coins which must be treated as investment gold coins in all EU Member States; the list supplements the law. In the United Kingdom, HM Revenue and Customs have added an additional list of gold coins alongside the European Commission list; these are gold coins that HMRC recognise as falling within the VAT exemption for investment gold coins. The following list presents. Silver coin Palladium coin Platinum coin
Laura E. Richards
Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards was an American writer. She wrote more than 90 books including biographies and several for children. One well-known children's poem is her literary nonsense verse "Eletelephony". Laura Elizabeth Howe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on February 27, 1850, her father was Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe, an abolitionist and the founder of the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind, she was named after his famous deaf-blind pupil Laura Bridgman. Her mother Julia Ward Howe wrote the words to "The Battle Hymn of the Republic". In 1871 Laura married Henry Richards, he would accept a management position in 1876 at his family's paper mill at Gardiner, where the couple moved with their three children. In 1917 Laura won a Pulitzer Prize for Julia Ward Howe, 1819-1910, a biography, which she co-authored with her sisters, Maud Howe Elliott and Florence Hall, she died on January 14, 1943. A pre-kindergarten to second grade elementary school in Gardiner, Maine bears her name.
Her children's book Tirra Lirra won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1959. Her home in Gardiner, the Laura Richards House, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Richards contributed poetry to St. Nicholas Magazine. Letter and Journals of Samuel Gridley Howe Florence Nightingale: Angel of the Crimea Two Noble Lives: Samuel Gridley Howe and Julia Ward Howe Julia Ward Howe, 1819-1910 Elizabeth Fry, the Angel of the Prisons Abigail Adams and Her Times Joan of Arc Laura Bridgman: The Story of an Opened Door Stepping Westward Baby's Rhyme Book Babyhood: Rhymes and Stories and Silhouettes for Our Little Ones Baby's Story Book Five Mice in a Mouse Trap The Little Tyrant Our Baby's Favorite Sketches and Scraps Baby Ways The Joyous Story of Toto Beauty and the Beast Four Feet, Two Feet, No Feet Hop o' My Thumb Kaspar Kroak's Kaleidoscope L. E. R. Tell-Tale from Hill and Dale Toto's Merry Winter Julia Ward Howe Birthday-Book In My Nursery Captain January Star Bright The Hildegarde Series Queen Hildegarde Hildegarde's Holiday Hildegarde's Home Hildegarde's Neighbors Hildegarde's Harvest The Melody Series Melody Marie Bethsada Pool Rosin the Beau The Margaret Series Three Margarets Margaret Montfort Peggy Rita Fernley House The Merryweathers Glimpses of the French Court When I Was Your Age Narcissa, or the Road to Rome Five Minute Stories Jim of Hellas, or In Durance Vile Nautilus Isla Heron "Some Say" and Neighbors in Cyrus The Social Possibilities of a Country Town Love and Rocks Chop-Chin and the Golden Dragon Quicksilver Sue The Golden-Breasted Kootoo Sundown Songs For Tommy and Other Stories Snow-White, or The House in the Wood Geoffrey Strong Mrs. Tree The Hurdy-Gurdy More Five Minute Stories The Green Satin Gown The Tree in the City Mrs. Tree's Will The Armstrongs The Piccolo The Silver Crown, Another Book of Fables At Gregory's House Grandmother, the Story of a Life that Never was Lived Ten Ghost Stories The Pig Brother, Other Fables and Stories The Wooing of Calvin Parks A Happy Little Time Up to Calvin's On Board the Mary Sands Jolly Jingles Miss Jimmy The Little Master Three Minute Stories The Pig Brother Play-Book Fairy Operettas Pippin, a Wandering Flame A Daughter of Jehu To Arms!
Songs of the Great War Honor Bright: A Story for Girls In Blessed Cyrus The Squire Acting Charades Seven Oriental Operettas Honor Bright's New Adventure Tirra Lirra: Rhymes Old and New Merry-Go-Round: New Rhymes and Old E. A. R. Please! Rhymes of Protest Harry in England I Have a Song to Sing You The Hottentot and Other Ditties What Shall the Children Read Laura E. Richards and Gardiner Laura E. Richards biography Antonio- audio poem Works by Laura E. Richards at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Laura E. Richards at Internet Archive Works by Laura E. Richards at LibriVox
James Grant Wilson
James Grant Wilson was an American editor, author and publisher, who founded the Chicago Record in 1857, the first literary paper in that region. During the American Civil War, he served as a colonel in the Union Army. In recognition of his service, in 1867, he was nominated and confirmed for appointment as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers to rank from March 13, 1865, he settled in New York, where he edited biographies and histories, was a public speaker, served as president of the Society of American Authors and the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. James Grant Wilson was born on April 28, 1832 in Edinburgh, the son of the poet William Wilson and his second wife, Miss Jane Sibbald of Hawick. In infancy, he moved with his family to the United States, where they settled at Poughkeepsie, New York, he had two younger brothers. Wilson was educated in Poughkeepsie at College Hill, continued his studies in the languages and drawing, under private teachers, he joined his father in business as a bookseller/publisher becoming his partner.
In 1855, Wilson started on his tour of Europe and its capitals. Upon his return in 1857, he settled in the growing city of Chicago, where he founded the Chicago Record, a journal of art and literature, it was the first literary paper published in that region. He became known as a speaker. During the Civil War, Wilson sold his journal and entered the Union Army late in 1862, he was commissioned as a major of the 15th Illinois Cavalry, commanded the 4th U. S. C. Cavalry as colonel, he resigned from the Army on June 16, 1865. On February 27, 1867, President Andrew Johnson nominated Wilson for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers to rank from March 13, 1865, the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on March 2, 1867, his middle brother was killed at Fredericksburg and his youngest brother served. After the war, Wilson settled in New York City, he became known as a speaker, a frequent contributor to periodicals, president of the Society of American Authors, after 1885, of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society.
He edited Fitz-Greene Halleck's Poems and wrote his biography, published in 1869. He edited A Memorial History of the City of New York. On November 3, 1869, he married Jane Emily Searle Cogswell, the sister of Andrew Kirkpatrick Cogswell and the daughter of Rev. Jonathan Cogswell and Jane Eudora Kirkpatrick. Jane's grandfather was Andrew Kirkpatrick and her great-grandfather was John Bayard. Before her death in 1904, they had one daughter together: Jane Wilson, who married Frank Sylvester Henry After his first wife's death in 1904, he married Mary H. Nicholson, the widow of his friend Admiral James William Augustus Nicholson, in 1907, he resided at 143 West 79th Street in New York City. Wilson died in New York City and is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery, New York. Biographical Sketches of Illinois Officers Life of Fitz-Greene Halleck Sketches of Illustrious Soldiers Poets and Poetry of Scotland Blackie & Son, Edinburgh 1876 Centennial History of the Diocese of New York, 1775-1885 Bryant and his Friends Commodore Isaac Hull and the Frigate Constitution Wilson, James Grant.
The Memorial History of the City of New York: From Its First Settlement to the Year 1892. New York History Co. Love in Letters Life of General Grant Thackeray in the United States List of American Civil War brevet generals Notes SourcesEicher, John H.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. "Wilson, James Grant". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Wilson, James Grant". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Maud Howe Elliott
Maud Howe Elliott was an American writer, most notable for her Pulitzer prize-winning collaboration with her sisters, Laura E. Richards and Florence Hall, on their mother's biography The Life of Julia Ward Howe, her other works included A Newport Aquarelle. Maud Howe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on November 9, 1854, she was the daughter of Julia Ward Howe. She married English artist John Elliott in 1887. A socialite, Elliott is one of the founding members of the Society of the Four Arts in Palm Beach, FL, she was the honorary president of the organization until her death. Elliott was born at the Perkins School for the Blind in Boston, founded by her father, its first director. After her marriage, she lived in Chicago and Italy, before moving to Newport where she spent the rest of her life, she was a patron of the arts, was a founding member of the Newport Art Association, served as its secretary from 1912-1942. Howe was a founder of the Progressive Party and took part in the suffrage movement.
She died in 1948 in Rhode Island. Boyer, Paul S. "Howe, Julia Ward" in Notable American Women 1607–1950. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971. 2:225-229. Grinnell, Nancy Whipple, Carrying the Torch. Maud Howe Elliott and the American Renaissance. University Press of New England, 2014. Elliott, Maud Howe, Three Generations. Boston, Brown, Co. 1923. Works by Maud Howe Elliott at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Maud Howe Elliott at Internet Archive Maud Howe Elliott. Rhode Island Heritage Hall of Fame web page. 2014-05-21. Maud Howe Elliott Papers, 1882-1948 Finding Aid, John Hay Library, Brown University. 2014-05-21. The collection includes unpublished manuscripts for Elliott's memoirs "Afternoon Tea" and "Memories of Eighty Years."
Samuel Ward (American statesman)
Samuel Ward was an American farmer, Supreme Court Justice, Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, delegate to the Continental Congress. He was the son of Rhode Island governor Richard Ward, was well-educated, grew up in a large Newport, Rhode Island family. After marrying, he and his wife received property in Westerly, Rhode Island from his father-in-law, the couple settled there and took up farming, he entered politics as a young man and soon took sides in the hard-money vs. paper-money controversy, favoring hard money or specie. His primary rival over the money issue was Providence politician Stephen Hopkins, the two men became bitter rivals—and the two alternated as governors of the Colony for several terms. During this time of political activity, Ward became a trustee of Brown University; the most contentious issue that he faced during his three years as governor involved the Stamp Act, passed by the British Parliament just before he took office for the second time.
The Stamp Act placed a tax on all official documents and newspapers, infuriating the American colonists by being done without their consent. Representatives of the colonies met to discuss the act but, when it came time for the colonial governors to take a position, Ward was the only one who stood firm against it, threatening his position but bringing him recognition as a great patriot. Ward's final term as governor ended in 1767. However, he was called back into service in 1774 as a delegate to the Continental Congress. War was looming with England, to this end he devoted all of his energy. After hostilities began, Ward stated, "'Heaven save my country,' is my first, my last, my only prayer." He died of smallpox during a meeting of the Congress in Philadelphia, three months before the signing of the American Declaration of Independence, was buried in a local cemetery. His remains were re-interred in the Common Burying Ground in Newport. Ward was born in Newport in the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1725, the son of Rhode Island colonial governor Richard Ward.
His mother Mary Tillinghast was the daughter of John Tillinghast and Isabel Sayles, a granddaughter of Pardon Tillinghast who had come from Seven Cliffs, England. She was a granddaughter of John Sayles and Mary Williams, a great granddaughter of Rhode Island founder Roger Williams, making Ward the great great grandson of the colony's founder. Ward's great grandfather John Ward was born in Gloucester and had been an officer in Oliver Cromwell army, but he came to the American colonies following the accession of King Charles II to the English throne. Ward was the ninth of 14 children, he grew up in a home of liberal tastes and cultivated manners, he was trained under the discipline and instruction of a celebrated grammar school in his home town. He may have been tutored by his older brother Thomas, who had graduated from Harvard College in 1733; as a young man, Ward married Anne Ray, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer on Block Island, from whom the couple received land in Westerly where they settled as farmers.
He devoted much effort to improving the breeds of domestic animals, he raised a breed of racehorse known as the Narraganset pacer. Samuel and Anna Ward had eleven children, their second son Samuel Ward, Jr. served as the lieutenant colonel of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment in the Continental Army. A great-granddaughter was Julia Ward Howe who composed the "Battle Hymn of the Republic". Ward's aunt Mary Ward married a grandson of Governor Benedict Arnold. In 1937, the town of Westerly honored Ward's memory by dedicating its high school to him, it was renamed Westerly High School in the late 20th century, but the main auditorium was given his name. Ward first became active in politics in 1756; the divisive political issue of the day was the use of hard money versus the use of paper money, Ward sided with the former group. His chief rival was Stephen Hopkins of Providence. So bitter was the animosity between these two men that Hopkins commenced an action for slander against Ward; the case was moved to Massachusetts for a fair trial, the judgment went against Hopkins by default in 1759.
For ten years, the two men went back and forth as governor of the colony, each at the head of a powerful party. Josias Lyndon was elected as a compromise candidate in 1768, the constant butting heads stopped. Hopkins won the election as governor in 1758, beat Ward again in the following three elections. In 1761, the Assembly named Ward to the office of Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court, but he only served in this capacity for a year being elected governor in 1762. During this first year in office, the plan was discussed of founding a college in the Rhode Island colony, it received Ward's hearty support, he took an active part in the establishment of "Rhode island College," Brown University. When the school was incorporated in 1765, he was one of the trustees and one of its most generous supporters. In 1763 Hopkins once again beat out Ward in the election for governor, serving for the next two years. However, in 1765 Ward for the second time won the contest between the two men. During this term one of the most contentious issues of the age arose, uniting the divided elements into a common cause.
Two months before Ward's election the Stamp Act was passed by both houses of the Parliament of Great Britain. This act was a scheme for taxing the colonies, directing that all commercial and legal documents, to be valid in a court of law, must be written on
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Samuel Cutler Ward
Samuel Cutler "Sam" Ward, was an American poet, politician and gourmet, in the years after the Civil War he was known as the "King of the Lobby." He combined delicious food, fine wines, good conversation to create a new type of lobbying in Washington, DC — social lobbying — over which he reigned for more than a decade. Sam was the eldest of seven children, his father, Samuel Ward III, was a respected banker with the firm of Prime, Ward & King. His grandfather, Col. Samuel Ward, Jr. was a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Sam's mother, Julia Rush Cutler, was related to Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox" of the American Revolution; when Sam's mother died while he was a student at the Round Hill School in Northampton, his father became morbidly obsessed with his children's moral and physical health. It wasn't until he was a student at Columbia College, where he joined the Philolexian Society and from which he graduated in 1831, that he began to learn about the wider world; the more he learned, the less he wanted to become a banker.
He convinced his father first to let him study in Europe. He stayed for four years, mastering several languages, enjoying high society, earning a doctorate degree from the University of Tübingen, and, in Heidelberg, meeting Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who became his friend for life. Sam dined out for decades on stories of his experiences during these years, he returned to New York, married Emily Astor, the eldest daughter of businessman William Backhouse Astor, Sr. in January 1838 and tried to settle into the life of a young banker. His father, Samuel Ward III, died unexpectedly in November 1839. Next, Sam's brother Henry died of typhoid fever. In February 1841, his wife gave birth to a son. Sam was executor of his father's several-million-dollar estate, partner now in a prestigious banking firm, guardian of his three sisters, a widower, father of a toddler, 27 years old, he remarried in 1843, urged on by his new wife, Sam began speculating on Wall Street. In September 1847, the financial world was stunned by news that Ward and Co. had collapsed.
Broke, Sam joined the'49ers rushing to California. He opened a store on the San Francisco waterfront. For a time he operated a ferry in the California wilderness, he plunged back into speculating and lost all of his money again, with it went Medora's affection. This time he finagled a berth on a diplomatic mission to Paraguay; when he sailed home in 1859, he brought with him a secret agreement with the president of Paraguay to lobby on that country's behalf and headed to Washington, DC, to begin a new career. Sam was family in the South, he believed in gradual emancipation, which put him at odds with his sister, Julia Ward, who would write "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," and her husband, Samuel Gridley Howe. But there was no question, he put his dinner table at the disposal of his neighbor Secretary of State William Henry Seward. His elegant meals, which had begun to be noticed, provided the perfect cover for Northerners and Southerners looking for neutral ground. In the early days of the war, Sam traveled through the Confederacy with British journalist William Howard Russell, secretly sending letters full of military details back to Seward for which he would have been hanged or shot if exposed.
In 1862, he told Seward he was wrong to think that the Confederacy would have rejoined the Union had war been averted: "I differ from you. I found among the leaders a malignant bitterness and contemptuous hatred of the North which rendered this lesson necessary. Within two years they would have formed entangling free trade and free navigation treaties with Europe, have become a military power hostile to us."At the war's end, Sam's friends in high places, his savoir faire, his trove of anecdotes and recipes, his talents for diplomacy augured well for his success in Washington, where the coals were hot and ready for an era of unprecedented growth and corruption that became known as "the Great Barbeque" or "The Gilded Age." His entrée into the Johnson administration was Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch, faced with the colossal task of financial reconstruction, turned for help to Sam, who won for him a partial victory via cookery. Soon Sam was boasting to Julia that he was lobbying for insurance companies, telegraph companies, steamship lines, railroad lines, banking interests, mining interests, manufacturers and individuals with claims.
Everyone, he crowed, wanted him. What they wanted was a seat at his famous table, his plan de campagne for lobbying began with pâté de campagne, with a client footing the bill. Sam took great care in composing the guest list for his lobby dinners. If his client's interests were financial, members of the appropriate House and Senate committees received invitations. Mining and mineral rights? That was another group of players, he orchestrated the talk around the table and used stories from his variegated life like condiments at his dinners. The results? "Ambrosial nights," gushed one guest. "The climax of civilization," another enthused. But how did these delightful evenings serve his clients' ends? Subtly, therein lies what set Sam Ward apart as a lobbyist, he claimed, guests agreed, th