John Washington was an English planter and politician in colonial Virginia in North America. He was a lieutenant colonel in the local militia. Born in Hertfordshire, England, he settled in Virginia, he was the colonist paternal English ancestor and great-grandfather of George Washington, general of the Continental Army and first president of the United States of America. John Washington was born in 1631 in Tring, England, the son of Amphillis Twigden and Rev. Lawrence Washington. At the time of his marriage, Lawrence Washington was a don at the University of Oxford; when John was eight his father enrolled him in Charterhouse School in London to begin preparing for an academic career, but the boy never attended the school. In 1633 the senior Washington had left Oxford when called as the Rector of Essex. During the English Civil War, in 1643 the royalist Washington was stripped of his clerical position by the Parliamentary Puritans, he was reduced to serving as a Vicar of an impoverished parish in Essex.
His wife and family returned to her parents' family home in Hertfordshire. John Washington was apprenticed with a London merchant through the help of his Sandys relatives, he gained a valuable education in colonial trade, as England had colonies in the Caribbean and North America. In 1656 John Washington invested in a merchant ship engaged in transporting tobacco from North America to European markets. Washington served as the ship's second officer. In 1657, the ship foundered in the Potomac River. Although the vessel was repaired, Washington elected to remain in the colony, he was accompanied to Virginia by his cousin, James Washington, the son of Robert Washington, who worked in the London-Rotterdam trade of the Merchant Adventurers. James subsequently returned to England. While first in Virginia, Washington stayed at the house of a planter. During this stay, he fell in love with his host's daughter Anne, he settled at a site on Bridges Creek. After his marriage to Anne Pope, the couple received a wedding gift from Anne's father of 700 acres on Mattox Creek in Westmoreland County of the Northern Neck.
Washington became a successful planter, depending on the labor of African slaves and British indentured servants to cultivate tobacco as a commodity crop and the necessary kitchen crops to support the household and workers. He became a politician in the colony. In 1674, he received a 5,000 acres land grant, adding to his power. During the events leading to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, Washington was appointed a colonel in the Virginia militia, he led a company to back a group of Marylanders during a planned parley with the disgruntled opposition and their allied American Indian leaders. The militia killed six chiefs of various tribes. Outraged, their peoples retaliated, conducting raids and attacks against the colonists. Governor William Berkeley criticized Washington for the murders of the American Indian chiefs, but colonists supported him. Relations between the Indians and colonists deteriorated; as noted, Washington married Anne Pope in 1658. They had three children together: Lawrence Washington, John Washington II Anne Washington After Anne Pope's death, Washington married Anne Brett, a widow.
She was the daughter of Thomas Gerard and had been married first to Walter Broadhurst and secondly to Henry Brett, who both died. After Anne Brett's death, John Washington married Frances Gerard Appleton; this third marriage occurred about May 10, 1676 when a "joynture" was recorded between Mrs. Frances Appleton and John Washington in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Washington and his first wife Anne Pope are buried in present-day Colonial Beach, Virginia, at what is now called the George Washington Birthplace National Monument, his vault is the largest in the small family burial plot. The name of the local parish of the Anglican Church was changed to Washington in his honor. Randall, Willard Sterne. George Washington: A Life. New York: Holt & Co. Washington of Adwick.
Charles Town, West Virginia
Charles Town the City of Charles Town, is a city in Jefferson County, West Virginia, United States, is the county seat. The population was 5,259 at the 2010 United States Census. "Charlestown" was established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly in January 1787. However, for about two decades, confusion arose because the same name was used for a town established in Ohio County at the mouth of Buffalo Creek, authorized in the 1791 term of that local court; that area in 1797 became known as Brooke County, with that "Charlestown" as its county seat until a December 27, 1816 act of the Virginia General Assembly changed its name to Wellsburg, to honor a trader and his son. Charles Washington, the founder of Charles Town, was born in Hunting Creek, now Fairfax County, Virginia on May 2, 1738, he was the youngest full brother of George Washington. He came to present Jefferson County between April and October 1780; the estate of Charles Washington, Happy Retreat, was erected in 1780. In 1786, on 80 acres of his adjoining land, Charles laid out the streets of Charles Town, naming many of them after his brothers and one after his wife, Mildred.
He donated the four corner lots at the intersection of George and Washington Streets for public buildings of the town and county, provided the town become the seat of the county separated from Berkeley County, In 1794, James Madison married "Dolly" Todd at Harewood, the home of George Steptoe Washington, son of Colonel Samuel Washington, just outside Charles Town. Jefferson County was formed in 1801; the county court house stands on one of the lots he donated, as did the jail until 1919 when it was demolished to be replaced by the post office. Charles Washington died sometime between July and September, 1799, only a short while before the death of his brother George. Charles' and his wife Mildred's grave sites near Evitts Run have been located and surrounded by a stone wall. In 1844, the first issue of the Spirit of Jefferson newspaper was published in Charles Town by James W. Beller, it is still published as the Spirit of Jefferson-Advocate, making it one of the oldest newspapers in the state.
On October 16, 1859, abolitionist John Brown and his followers raided the Federal arsenal at nearby Harpers Ferry, seven miles east of Charles Town. The insurrection was put down and John Brown was tried for treason in the town's Jefferson County court house. On December 2, 1859, he was hanged in Charles Town at the Gibson-Todd House, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. During the first two years of the American Civil War, the front lines of the Union and Confederate armies in the area fluctuated and the town changed hands during the military engagements in the surrounding areas with the town first occupied by Confederate troops Union troops back to Confederate until 1863 when Union troops occupied the town on a permanent basis for the remainder of the war. In 1883, the Valley Telephone Company was incorporated in West Virginia and began installing telephone lines throughout Jefferson County; the company's main office was in Charles Town. In 1922, William Blizzard, a leader of striking coal miners, was charged with treason and murder for engaging in warfare against state and federal troops in Mingo and Logan Counties.
He was found not guilty. The Charles Town Race Track first opened in 1933, it was built on land purchased from the Charles Town Horse Show Association. In 1999, the Charles Town Race Track underwent major renovation which included a large addition to house video slot machines, it was renamed Charles Town Races & Slots. It's now the Hollywood Casino at Charles Town Races. In 1975, the new Jefferson Memorial Hospital opened, replacing the old Charles Town General Hospital, it is now part of the West Virginia University Hospitals chain of health care facilities, was renamed Jefferson Medical Center in 2013. Charles Town is located in the lower Shenandoah Valley at 39°17′3″N 77°51′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.81 square miles, all of it land. Charles Town is located 73 miles northwest of Washington, D. C. and 75 miles west of Baltimore. The city is served by US 340. Interstate 81 is located 20 miles to the west in Martinsburg. Due to its low elevation for West Virginia, Charles Town is on the northern extent of the Humid Subtropical climate zone, having cool to mildly cold winters and hot and humid summers.
Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, providing abundant plant growth. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,259 people, 2,011 households, 1,289 families residing in the city; the population density was 905.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,270 housing units at an average density of 390.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.9% White, 13.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.7% from other races, 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.0% of the population. There were 2,011 households of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.9% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.19.
The median age in the city was 35.5 years. 26.9% of residents were under the age of 18.
Harewood (West Virginia)
Harewood is one of several houses in the vicinity of Charles Town, West Virginia built for members of the Washington family. The house was designed by John Ariss for Samuel Washington in 1770. Washington moved from his farm on Chotank Creek in Stafford County, Virginia to Harewood, accumulating 3,800 acres by the time he died in 1781. George Washington visited the house several times. James Madison and Dolley Payne Todd were married at Harewood on September 15, 1794. Dolley's sister was Lucy Washington, wife of Samuel Washington's son, George Steptoe Washington, who had inherited the estate; the property remains in the Washington family. Blakeley Cedar Lawn Claymont Court Happy Retreat Media related to Harewood at Wikimedia Commons Historic American Buildings Survey No. WV-2, "Harewood, Charles Town vicinity, Jefferson County, WV", 14 photos, 20 measured drawings, 3 data pages
John Augustine Washington
John Augustine Washington was a member of the fifth Virginia Convention and a founding member of the Mississippi Land Company. During the American Revolution he was a member of Westmoreland County's Committee of Safety and the Chairman of the County Committee for Relief of Boston, he was the brother of President George Washington and the third son of Mary Ball and Augustine Washington. John Washington married Hannah Bushrod in 1756 and lived with her in the Washington family estate, Mount Vernon, until 1759 when her father John Bushrod became ill. John Augustine and Hannah moved their family to the Bushrod family estate, Bushfield, to be with her ailing father, who died in 1760. Hannah inherited Bushfield where her family remained and increased to six children. One of their children was United States Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington. John Augustine and Hannah are believed to be buried on the grounds of Bushfield, but no stone remains to mark their graves in the family plot. A stone in his honor was erected by the Daughters of the American Revolution in the churchyard of Pohick Church in 1986.
Fannie Washington Finch was member n. 8 of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Born in Virginia. Descendant of Col. Wm. Aug. Washington. Daughter of Bushrod Washington and Henrietta Bryan Spots his wife. Granddaughter of Col. Wm. Aug. Washington and Gen. Alexander Spotswood and Jane Washington and Elizabeth Washington, their wives. Great-granddaughter of John Aug. Washington and Augustine Washington Jr. and Hannah Bushrod and Ann Aylett, their wives. Great-great-granddaughter of Augustine Washington, his first wife, Jane Butler, Mary Ball Washington, of John Spotswood and Mary Dandridge, his wife. Mount Vernon biography
Popes Creek (Virginia)
Coordinates: 38°11′29″N 76°54′16″WPope's Creek is a 5.3-mile-long tidal tributary of the Potomac River in Westmoreland County, Virginia. The George Washington Birthplace National Monument lies along the north side of Popes Creek. Popes Creek landing is located at 38°11′29″N 76°54′16″W; the following variant names have been listed on the Geographic Names Information System by the United States Geological Survey. Cedar Creek Cedar Island Creek Fishing Creek Mister Pope's Creek Pope Creek Pope's Creek Hercules Bridges, Henry Brooks, John Quigley and Nathaniel Pope were the early patentees of the Mattox Neck area destined to become part of Westmoreland County, known as Virginia's Northern Neck, or in colonial days the "Athens of the New World"; the mouth of Popes Creek is plugged by a flood-tide delta making it an efficient trap for sediment and enriched run-off from three primary sources: farmed watersheds consisting of broad terraces and open upland slopes, erosion of the bluffs and beaches of the Potomac, the creek bluff erosion itself.
Agriculturally derived fill deposited in adjacent ravines to a depth of 2 meters is found covering stumps from the 17th century. Beaver dams and ponds dot the flood plains as well as several old mill ponds which interrupt the flow; the navigation of the creek has been limited to shallow-draft vessels with present depth up to one meter augmented by 0.3 to 0.4 meter tide. The tributary continues to shoal as the sea level rises driving Potomac silt more than a kilometer inland. Core drilling in the delta has indicated 15 meters of mollusk-bearing sediment, over peat and sand deposits dating back over 6000 years; the taking of oysters is abundantly evident. Aboriginal shell middens were found during archeological excavations, post structure and land preparation for the Visitors’ Center at the site of George Washington’s birthplace; the 18th century refuse pit at the birthplace containing food garbage yielded shucked oyster shells as well. Fishing at the creek mouth is highlighted by the white perch run.
In Captain John Smith’s explorations the fish were so thick their heads stuck out of water, prompting his men to attempt to catch them in a frying pan. The entrance to the smaller estuaries would be clogged during spring migrations including shad runs. Colonial inventories of the Popes Creek plantation list seine corks, seine rope, a knot of perch lines, yielding to the more than adequate kitchen utensil, or fish kettle, serving up the local delicacy. In June and August 2007, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality reported a large fish kill resulting from an algal bloom the Karlodinium type, that stretched from Colonial Beach to Mattox Creek to Muses Beach to Stratford Hall Plantation on the Potomac River. Early reports of dead fish on June 18, enumerating species involved, estimated hundreds of hogchoker at Muses Beach and hundreds of gizzard shad at Stratford Hall; the highest concentration of the characteristic reddish-brown toxin was located 4 miles below the mouth of Mattox Creek on July 17.
The number of fish killed at Mattox Creek was 296,000 with 56 percent young menhaden, 30 percent white perch, 12 percent croaker. Other species seen in the kill were gizzard shad, mummichog and channel catfish, young American eel, largemouth bass and blue crabs. List of Virginia rivers Hatch, Charles. Popes Creek Plantation, Birthplace of George Washington. Washington's Birthplace, VA 22575: National Park Service. P. 173. ISBN 0-934146-00-4. Smith, John; the Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, the Summer Isles. Chapel Hill, NC: University Library UNC. pp. 248. Algal Bloom in the Potomac River, Aug. 21, 2007 Geologic History of Popes Creek, Virginia
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Siege of Yorktown
The Siege of Yorktown known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, the siege proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in the North American theater, as the surrender by Cornwallis, the capture of both him and his army, prompted the British government to negotiate an end to the conflict; the battle boosted faltering American morale and revived French enthusiasm for the war, as well as undermining popular support for the conflict in Great Britain. In 1780, about 5,500 French soldiers landed in Rhode Island to help their American allies fight the British troops who controlled New York City.
Following the arrival of dispatches from France that included the possibility of support from the French West Indies fleet of the Comte de Grasse and Rochambeau decided to ask de Grasse for assistance either in besieging New York, or in military operations against a British army operating in Virginia. On the advice of Rochambeau, de Grasse informed them of his intent to sail to the Chesapeake Bay, where Cornwallis had taken command of the army. Cornwallis, at first given confusing orders by his superior officer, Henry Clinton, was ordered to build a defensible deep-water port, which he began to do in Yorktown. Cornwallis' movements in Virginia were shadowed by a Continental Army force led by the Marquis de Lafayette; the French and American armies united north of New York City during the summer of 1781. When word of de Grasse's decision arrived, both armies began moving south toward Virginia, engaging in tactics of deception to lead the British to believe a siege of New York was planned. De Grasse sailed from the West Indies and arrived at the Chesapeake Bay at the end of August, bringing additional troops and creating a naval blockade of Yorktown.
He was transporting 500,000 silver pesos collected from the citizens of Havana, Cuba, to fund supplies for the siege and payroll for the Continental Army. While in Santo Domingo, de Grasse met with Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis, an agent of Carlos III of Spain. De Grasse had planned to leave several of his warships in Santo Domingo. Saavedra promised the assistance of the Spanish navy to protect the French merchant fleet, enabling de Grasse to sail north with all of his warships. In the beginning of September, he defeated a British fleet led by Sir Thomas Graves that came to relieve Cornwallis at the Battle of the Chesapeake; as a result of this victory, de Grasse blocked any escape by sea for Cornwallis. By late September and Rochambeau arrived, the army and naval forces surrounded Cornwallis. After initial preparations, the Americans and French built their first parallel and began the bombardment. With the British defense weakened, on October 14, 1781, Washington sent two columns to attack the last major remaining British outer defenses.
A French column under Wilhelm of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken took Redoubt No. 9 and an American column under Alexander Hamilton took Redoubt No. 10. With these defenses taken, the allies were able to finish their second parallel. With the American artillery closer and its bombardment more intense than the British position began to deteriorate rapidly. Cornwallis asked for capitulation terms on October 17. After two days of negotiation, the surrender ceremony occurred on October 19. With the capture of more than 7,000 British soldiers, negotiations between the United States and Great Britain began, resulting in the Treaty of Paris of 1783. On December 20, 1780, Benedict Arnold sailed from New York with 1,500 troops to Portsmouth, Virginia, he first raided Richmond, defeating the defending militia, from January 5–7 before falling back to Portsmouth. Admiral Destouches, who arrived in Newport, Rhode Island in July 1780 with a fleet transporting 5,500 soldiers, was encouraged by Washington and French Lieutenant General Rochambeau to move his fleet south, launch a joint land-naval attack on Arnold's troops.
The Marquis de Lafayette was sent south with 1,200 men to help with the assault. However, Destouches was reluctant to dispatch many ships, in February sent only three. After they proved ineffective, he took a larger force of 8 ships in March 1781, fought a tactically inconclusive battle with the British fleet of Marriot Arbuthnot at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Destouches withdrew due to the damage sustained to his fleet, leaving Arbuthnot and the British fleet in control of the bay's mouth. On March 26, Arnold was joined by 2,300 troops under command of Major General William Phillips, who took command of the combined forces. Phillips resumed raiding, defeating the militia at Blandford burning the tobacco warehouses at Petersburg on April 25. Richmond was about to suffer the same fate; the British, not wanting to engage in a major battle, withdrew to Petersburg on May 10. On May 20, Charles Cornwallis arrived at Petersburg with 1,500 men after suffering heavy casualties at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse.
He assumed command, as Phillips had died of a fever. Cornwallis had not received permission to abandon the Carolinas from his superior, Henry Clinton, but he believed that Virginia would be easier to capture, feeling that it would approve of an invading British army. With the arrival of Cornwallis and more reinforcements from New York, the British Army numbered 7,200 men. Cornwallis wanted to push Lafayette, whose force now