The PlayStation 2 is a home video game console, developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the original PlayStation console and is the second iteration in the PlayStation lineup of consoles, it was released in 2000 and competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox in the sixth generation of video game consoles. Announced in 1999, the PlayStation 2 offered backwards compatibility for its predecessor's DualShock controller, as well as for its games; the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 155 million units, with 150 million confirmed by Sony in 2011. More than 3,874 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold. Sony manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as Slimline models in 2004. In 2006, Sony announced and launched its successor, the PlayStation 3. With the release of its successor, the PlayStation 2 remained popular well into the seventh generation and continued to be produced until January 4, 2013, when Sony announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after 12 years of production – one of the longest runs for a video game console.
Despite the announcement, new games for the console continued to be produced until the end of 2013, including Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin for Japan, FIFA 13 for North America, Pro Evolution Soccer 2014 for Europe. Repair services for the system in Japan ended on September 7, 2018. Though Sony has kept details of the PlayStation 2's development secret, work on the console began around the time that the original PlayStation was released. Insiders stated that it was developed in the U. S. West Coast by former members of Argonaut Software. By 1997 word had leaked to the press that the console would have backwards compatibility with the original PlayStation, a built-in DVD player, Internet connectivity. Sony announced the PlayStation 2 on March 1, 1999; the video game console was positioned as a competitor to Sega's Dreamcast, the first sixth-generation console to be released, although the main rivals of the PS2 were Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. The Dreamcast itself launched successfully in North America that year, selling over 500,000 units within two weeks.
Soon after the Dreamcast's North American launch, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show on September 20, 1999. Sony showed playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 and Tekken Tag Tournament – which showed the console's graphic abilities and power; the PS2 was launched in March 2000 in Japan, October in North America, November in Europe. Sales of the console and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, beating the $97 million made on the first day of the Dreamcast. Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over a thousand dollars for the console; the PS2 sold well on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation – another major selling point over the competition.
Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality expanded its audience beyond the gamer, as its debut pricing was the same or less than a standalone DVD player; this made the console a low cost entry into the home theater market. The success of the PS2 at the end of 2000 caused Sega problems both financially and competitively, Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, just 18 months after its successful launch; the PS2 remained as the only active sixth generation console for over 6 months, before it would face competition from newer rivals. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup among the three consoles. While the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specification of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD player. While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals.
Sony countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America, making it the same price as the GameCube and $100 less than the Xbox, it planned to cut the price in Japan around that time. It cut the price twice in Japan in 2003. In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3. Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U. S. Navy SEALs to demon
Samurai Shodown: Edge of Destiny
Samurai Spirits Sen is the fourth 3D game in SNK Playmore's Samurai Shodown series of fighting games, the eleventh overall title in the series. The arcade version was released in most other countries as Samurai Shodown: Edge of Destiny, Shi Hun: Mingyun zhi Ren in China; the Xbox 360 version was released elsewhere as Samurai Shodown Sen. The game takes place before the events of Samurai Shodown: Warriors Rage. Development of this game was announced publicly at All Nippon Amusement Machine Operator's Union. A tentative release date was set for the end of 2007. However, at the 2007 Tokyo Game Show, the date was pushed back, although it was suggested that it was ready for release in Japanese arcades. After late October 2007, the game was subjected to rigorous beta testing around arcades in Japan. On December 13, 2007, the official website to accompany the game was created, along with a bulletin of four locations sites: Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba. Testing began on December 20 and ended on December 24.
The official website confirmed an eventual release in 2008. The first overseas location testing took place in Hong Kong during December 20–21. Along with this announcement came the game's international title. Aoi Nanase, character designer to the series' first original video animation, reported in her personal blog that the official staff intended to make a great departure from the Makai and were aiming for a Sengoku period effect. On February 9, 2008 the third location testing ad was listed on the Japanese official site at four different locations. Testing ended on February 19, intended to be the final round of testing. At this time, a tentative release date was listed as "Spring 2008" in Japanese arcades on the Hong Kong SNK Playmore site. On March 3, 2008 an English location test was announced for the US; the test was a one-day event from noon until 6:00 on March 8. Director of SNK Neogeo USA Consumer's Marketing Department, Mark Rudolph, said eventual home release was anticipated to be made on current next gen consoles.
Similar beta testing was performed in Mexico on March 14. The main artist for the Samurai Shodown 64 series and Samurai Shodown: Warriors Rage, Senri Kita, is the official illustrator for this game. GameZone's Dakota Grabowski gave the game a 4.5 out of 10, opining that "after hours upon hours of competitive gameplay, Samurai Shodown: Sen didn’t serve enough entertainment value to satisfy my tastes. It’s a shame since the series has long been one of the most popular franchises among hardcore fighting fans." Official website
Samurai Shodown IV
Samurai Shodown IV: Amakusa's Revenge known as Samurai Spirits: Amakusa's Descent in Japan, is the fourth in SNK's flagship Samurai Shodown series of fighting games. Chronologically, it is the second and final chapter of a story between Samurai Shodown and Samurai Shodown II, with Samurai Shodown III being the first chapter. Among other series changes, aerial blocking was removed as well as the switch-around move, the dodges. One can no longer charge one's own "pow" gauge; the off-screen delivery man was omitted from the game. The "CD combo" was added, wherein a player can press the C and D buttons together, triggering a strike that can be followed up by a sequence of button taps. SNK added a "suicide" move, wherein one's character forfeits the round; the bonus to this is that the one committing suicide will start the next round with a full "POW" gauge. Certain finishes enable a "fatality" move in the vein of Mortal Kombat; some of the older characters were restored, such as Tam Tam and Jubei Yagyu.
The entire cast of the previous game returns, though some have been retouched to further enhance the cartoonish look. Joining the cast are the two ninja brothers: Kazuki Kazama - member of the Kazama ninja clan specializing in fire jutsu, he deserts to rescue his younger sister, from Amakusa's clutches. Sogetsu Kazama - older brother to Kazuki and Hazuki who uses water jutsu. Cham Cham from Samurai Shodown II makes a playable appearance for the PlayStation port of the game. Reviewing the arcade version in GamePro, The Union Buster commented that Samurai Shodown IV lacks the depth of contemporaries such as Street Fighter Alpha 2 and Soul Edge, but for the same reason offers an easier pick-up-and-play experience, he was unimpressed with the two new characters but pleased with the return of those, dropped from the roster in Samurai Shodown III. He praised the visuals, remarking that "The fighters have superb animation. In a review of the Virtual Console release, Nintendo Life gave the game an 8 out of 10, but their praise focused more on the animations, heavy challenge, the thrilling pacing of battles, commenting, "a single slash capable of turning the tide against any opponent."
Samurai Shodown Anthology
Samurai Shodown Anthology is a game compilation released by SNK Playmore on Wii, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable. It was re-released as a downloadable game on the PlayStation Store for PSP on October 1, 2009; this release does not include Samurai Shodown V Special, known to add significant changes to the first version of the game. Samurai Shodown Samurai Shodown II Samurai Shodown III Samurai Shodown IV Samurai Shodown V Samurai Shodown VI Official website
Electronic Gaming Monthly
Electronic Gaming Monthly is a monthly American video game magazine. It offers video game news, coverage of industry events, interviews with gaming figures, editorial content, product reviews; the magazine was founded in 1988 as U. S. National Video Game Team's Electronic Gaming Monthly under Sendai Publications. In 1994, EGM spun off EGM ², which focused on expanded tricks, it became Expert Gamer and the defunct GameNOW. After 83 issues, EGM switched from Sendai Publishing to Ziff Davis publisher; until January 2009, EGM only covered gaming on console software. In 2002, the magazine's subscription increased by more than 25 percent; the magazine was discontinued by Ziff Davis in January 2009, following the sale of 1UP.com to UGO Networks. The magazine's February 2009 issue was completed, but was not published. In May 2009, EGM founder Steve Harris purchased its assets from Ziff Davis; the magazine was relaunched in April 2010 by Harris' new company EGM Media, LLC, widening its coverage to the PC and mobile gaming markets.
Notable contributors to Electronic Gaming Monthly have included Martin Alessi, Ken Williams, "Trickman" Terry Minnich, Andrew "Cyber-Boy" Baran, Danyon Carpenter, Marc Camron, Mark "Candyman" LeFebvre, Todd Rogers, Mike Weigand a.k.a. Major Mike, Al Manuel, Howard Grossman, Arcade Editor Mark "Mo" Hain, Mike "Virus" Vallas, Jason Streetz, Ken Badziak, Scott Augustyn, Chris Johnston, Che Chou, Dave Ruchala, Crispin Boyer, Greg Sewart, Jeanne Trais, Jennifer Tsao, artist Jeremy Norm Scott, Shawn "Shawnimal" Smith, West Coast Editor Kelly Rickards, Kraig Kujawa, Dean Hager, Jeremy Parish, Mark Macdonald. Writers who served stints as editor-in chief include Ed Semrad, Joe Funk, John Davison, James Mielke, artist Jeremy "Norm" Scott, Seanbaby. In addition, writers of EGM's various sister publications – including GameNow, Computer Gaming World/Games for Windows: The Official Magazine, Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine – would contribute to EGM, vice versa; the magazine is known for making April Fools jokes.
Its April 1992 issue was the source of the Sheng Long hoax in Street Fighter II: The World Warrior. The magazine includes the following sections: Insert Coin Letter from the editor - the editorial Login - Letters from readers and replies by the magazine Press Start This section contains a general article about video gaming EGM RoundTable - discussions around video games The Buzz - industry rumors The EGM Hot List - background information about a critically acclaimed game Features - feature articles The EGM Interview - interview with a person from the gaming industry Cover Story - preview of the game featured on the magazine cover Next Wave - previews of upcoming games Launch Point - short previews of upcoming games Review Crew - review section Review Recap - recapitulation of the review scores from the preceding issue Game Over - Commentary articles on video gaming related topics EGM's current review scale is based on a letter grade system in which each game receives a grade based on its perceived quality.
Games are reviewed by one member, except for "the big games", which were reviewed by one of a pool of editors known as "The Review Crew." They each write a few paragraphs about their opinion of the game. The magazine makes a strong stance. Towards the top of the scale, awards are given to games that average a B- or higher from the three individual grade: "Silver" awards for games averaging a grade of B- to B+; the current letter grade system replaced a long-standing 0–10 scale in the April 2008 issue. In that system, Silver went to a game with an average rating from 8 to 9, Gold to a game reviewed at 9 to 10, Platinum to a game that received nothing but 10 ratings; until 1998, as a matter of editorial policy, the reviewers gave scores of 10, never gave a Platinum Award. That policy changed when the reviewers gave Metal Gear Solid four 10 ratings in 1998, with an editorial announcing the shift. In addition, they gave the game with the highest average score for that issue a "Game of the Month" award.
If a "Game of the Month" title receives a port to another console, that version is disqualified from that month's award, such as with Resident Evil 4, which won the award for the Nintendo GameCube version and subsequently received the highest scores for the PlayStation 2 port months and Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2, which won the Platinum award for two separate versions of the game. In 2002, EGM began giving games; as there is not always such a game in each issue, this award is only given out when a game qualifies. A team of four editors reviewed all the games; this process was dropped in favor of a system that added more reviewers to the staff so that no one person reviewed all the games for the month. Though the scores ranged from 0–10 on the previous numerical scale, the score of zero was never utilized, with exceptions being Mortal Kombat Advance, The Guy Game, Ping Pals. EGM en Español was released in Mexico in November 2002, it is edited by a different staff. Sometimes the content was more focused to
Samurai Shodown V
Samurai Shodown V, known as Samurai Spirits Zero in Japan, is the eighth game in SNK's Samurai Shodown/Samurai Spirits series of fighting games. It was one of the last games to be released on the Neo Geo; the original Japanese version of the game has a great deal of dialogue in single-player mode. This title takes place before the first Samurai Shodown; the game had mediocre reception. GameSpot said "This 2D fighting game is a real blast from the past, but its big cast of interesting characters and its online play can make it worthwhile for NeoGeo fans." IGN said "It's got lots of moves, a deep fighting system, the online play is a big plus, but it isn't that enjoyable in the end." Gamespy summarised it as "A competent port of an iffy game in a good series", while EGM said "this classic weapons-based fighting series has lost much of its soul. While the original cast moves as fluidly as the newer faces are the epitome of mediocre design and animation"; the Official Xbox Magazine said it was "an obsolete relic".
SNK Corporation is a Japanese video game hardware and software company, successor to the Shin Nihon Kikaku and current owner of the SNK video game brand and Neo Geo video game platform. The Shin Nihon Kikaku Corporation was founded on July 1978 by Eikichi Kawasaki. Called Shin Nihon Kikaku, the name was informally shortened to SNK Corporation in 1981 before becoming the company's official name in April 1986. SNK is most notable as creator of the Neo Geo family of arcade and handheld game consoles, beginning in 1990; the Neo Geo line was halted in 2001, when financial troubles forced SNK Corporation to close on October 22, 2001. Anticipating the end of the company, Kawasaki founded Playmore Corporation on August 1, 2001. By October, Playmore had acquired all of the intellectual property of the former SNK Corporation. On July 7, 2003, Playmore Corporation was renamed to SNK Playmore Corporation, to more establish itself as the successor to the SNK brand and legacy. Traditionally, SNK operated as a video game developer and hardware manufacturer, focusing on arcade games but working on console and PC games.
In 2004, the company started manufacturing pachislot machines, which the company leaned into before withdrawing from the market in 2015. In 2009, the company entered an active wave of mobile game development. Classic SNK franchises like Metal Slug, Samurai Shodown and The King of Fighters feature in its recent offerings. On April 25, 2016, SNK dropped the "Playmore" name from its logo and reintroduced its old slogan, "The Future Is Now", as a means to signify "a return to SNK's rich gaming history". On December 1, 2016, SNK Playmore changed its corporate name back to SNK. SNK was founded in 1973 as "Shin Nihon Kikaku" and reorganized in 1978 as a stock company under the name of "Shin Nihon Kikaku Corporation"; when Eikichi Kawasaki noticed the rapid growth, occurring in the coin-operated video game market, he expanded Shin Nihon Kikaku to include the development and marketing of stand-alone coin-op games. The first two known titles released were Ozma Wars, a vertically scrolling space shooter and Safari Rally, a maze game.
Game quality improved over time, most notably with Vanguard, a side-scrolling space shooter that many consider the precursor to modern classics such as Gradius and R-Type. SNK licensed the game to Centuri for distribution in North America, who started manufacturing and distributing the game itself when profits exceeded expectations. SNK begins to make itself known, and know well thanks to Vanguard. The latter is a great success, so an American branch opened on October 20, 1981, its name is "SNK Electronics Corporation". Around 1980, it took the initial letters from Shin Nihon Kikaku' as the company's nickname, "SNK"; the copyright notation of the alphabet was "SNK CORP.". It established itself in Sunnyvale, with the intent of delivering its own brand of coin-operated games to arcades in North America; the man chosen to run the American operation was John Rowe, one of the eventual founders of Tradewest and current president and CEO of High Moon Studios. In April 1986, Shin Nihon Kikaku Corporation became SNK Corporation.
In November 1986, SNK Electronics Corporation, the US branch, became SNK Corporation of America and moved to Sunnyvale, still in California. SNK staff moved in March 1988 to the building, it is located in Suita City, always in Osaka. SNK Corporation in Japan had at this point shifted its focus toward developing and licensing video games for arcade use and for early consoles. Between 1979 and 1986 it produced 23 stand-alone arcade games. Highlights from this period include Mad Crasher, Alpha Mission, Athena, a game that gained a large following when it was ported to the NES in 1987, its most successful game from this time frame was Ikari Warriors, released in 1986. Ikari Warriors was so popular that it was licensed and ported to the Atari 2600, Atari 7800, Commodore 64, Commodore Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Apple II, ZX Spectrum and NES, it followed up the game with Victory Road and Ikari III: The Rescue. At this point, the home market was still suffering from the fallout caused by the North American video game crash of 1983.
One console manufacturer, seemed to weather the crash unscathed. SNK signed up to become a third-party licensee for Nintendo's Famicom system in 1985 and opened a second branch in the United States, based in Torrance, California. Named SNK Home Entertainment, it handled the North American distribution and marketing of the company's products for home consoles. By this time, John Rowe had left the company to form Tradewest, which went on to market SNK's Ikari Warriors series in North America. Subsequently, both halves of SNK America were now being presided over by Paul Jacobs, known for having helped launch the company's Neo-Geo system outside of Asia. In response to strong sales of the company's NES ports, SNK began to dabble in the development of original software designed for the NES console. Two games came out of this effort: Baseball Stars and Crystalis. 1989 marked the release of two new home video game consoles in North America: the Sega Genesis and NEC's joint project with Hudson Soft, the TurboGrafx-16.
Nintendo followed suit with a new system in 1991, the Super NES. Rather than become involved in the early 90s system wars, SNK Corporation in Japan, along with SNK Corporation of America, chose to refocus its efforts on the arcade market, leaving other third parties, such