A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word megalithic describes structures made of large stones without the use of mortar or concrete. For periods, the monolith, with an overlapping meaning, is more likely to be used. The word megalith comes from the Ancient Greek μέγας and λίθος, megalith denotes an item consisting of rock hewn in definite shapes for special purposes. It has been used to describe buildings built by people from parts of the world living in many different periods. A variety of stones are seen as megaliths, with the most widely known megaliths not being sepulchral. The construction of these took place mainly in the Neolithic and continued into the Chalcolithic. At a number of sites in eastern Turkey, large ceremonial complexes from the 9th millennium BC have been discovered and they belong to the incipient phases of agriculture and animal husbandry. Large circular structures involving carved megalithic orthostats are a feature, e. g.
at Nevalı Çori. Although these structures are the most ancient megalithic structures known so far, at Göbekli Tepe, four stone circles have been excavated from an estimated 20. Some measure up to 30 metres across, as well as human figures, the stones carry a variety of carved reliefs depicting boars, lions, birds and scorpions. Dolmens and standing stones have been found in areas of the Middle East starting at the Turkish border in the north of Syria close to Aleppo. They can be encountered in Lebanon, Iran, Jordan, the largest concentration can be found in southern Syria and along the Jordan Rift Valley, however they are being threatened with destruction. They date from the late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age, megaliths have been found on Kharg Island and pirazmian in Iran, at Barda Balka in Iraq, and at Jaintapur in Bangladesh. A semicircular arrangement of megaliths was found in Israel at Atlit Yam and it is a very early example, dating from the 7th millennium BC. The most concentrated occurrence of dolmens in particular is in an area on both sides of the Jordan Rift Valley, with greater predominance on the eastern side.
They occur first and foremost on the Golan Heights, the Hauran, and in Jordan, in Saudi Arabia, only very few dolmen have been identified so far in the Hejaz. They seem, however, to re-emerge in Yemen in small numbers, the standing stone has a very ancient tradition in the Middle East, dating back from Mesopotamian times
Tunja is a city on the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, in the region known as the Altiplano Cundiboyacense,130 km northeast of Bogotá. In 2012 it had an population of 181,407 inhabitants. It is the capital of Boyacá department and the Central Boyacá Province, Tunja is an important educational centre of known universities. The city hosts the most remaining Muisca architecture, Hunzahúa Well, Goranchacha Temple, Tunja is a tourist destination, especially for religious colonial architecture, with the Casa Fundador Gonzalo Suárez Rendón as oldest remnant. It is a stop on the Pan American Highway which connects Tunja to Bogotá and Santa Marta and eventually to the northern, Tunja has a population of approximately 180,000 inhabitants and is located in central Colombia. The city centre is at an elevation of 2,820 metres above sea level, tunjas climate is influenced by its location and altitude. At almost 3000 m it is one of the cities in Colombia. As a result, the city features a subtropical climate with little variation in temperature throughout the year.
The earliest evidence of population on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense has been dated to approximately 12.000 years ago. Homus Tequendama inhabited the area by 6375 BCE, archeologists have found human skeletons including arm bones in the area. Many archaeological discoveries were found in the area of the present-day city, during the 1st millennium a. d. the territory was inhabited by the Muisca, who spoke Chibcha and emigrated from Central America through Panama to the Andean Region. The Muisca developed their own religion and mythology, according to those myths, it was the brutal cacique and prophet Goranchacha who moved the capital for the northern Muisca from Ramiriquí to Tunja, called Hunza. An era when frequent battles among cacicazgos took place, peace was proposed for the region, Hunzahúa, who came from Ramiriqui, was elected. The capital of his confederation was named Hunza, Hunzahúa took the title of zaque, and reign over the lands from the Chicamocha to Fusagasugá and from the Llanos de San Juan to Panche and Muzo frontiers, including Vélez territory.
This helped to unify the Muisca, especially with respect to their language and religion, with 50,000 soldiers, decided on a massive attack on zaque Michuá, crossing Guatavita and Chocontá, after which the Battle of Chocontá is named. Michuá dealt with him, supported by an army which doubled Saguamanchica, a new zaque, was installed, during the tense truce between Bacatá and Hunza. In 1514, Quemuenchatocha found out about the expansionist intentions of the new zipa Nemequene and he asked the caciques of Gámeza, Tundama and Sáchica to help him to reinforce his army. A battle was fought in Ventaquemada and, when Nemequene was about to become the victor, he was fatally wounded, iraca retracted his support and Quemuenchatocha got a truce whose terms would end when the Spanish arrived
El Espectador is a newspaper with national circulation within Colombia, founded by Fidel Cano Gutiérrez on 22 March 1887 in Medellín and published since 1915 in Bogotá. It changed from a daily to an edition in 2001, following a financial crisis, and became a daily again on 11 May 2008. From 1997 to 2011 its main shareholder was Julio Mario Santo Domingo and it is the oldest newspaper in Colombia. Since its first issue its motto has been El Espectador will work for the good of the country with liberal criteria and it was initially published twice a week,500 issues each. It defined itself as a political, literary and industrial newspaper, years it became a daily and in 2001 became a weekly. Since then, the uses the slogan El Espectador. Opinion is news, implying it now focuses in opinion articles and this focus was kept when it regained its daily format on 11 May 2008. According to the latest Estudio General de Medios, El Espectador has 687,900 readers every week and it is a member of the Inter American Press Association and the Asociación de Diarios Colombianos.
Since its foundation in 1887, El Espectador acted as a speaker for the Colombian Liberal Party and it was closed by the authorities several times,8 July 1887, by the Rafael Núñez administration,134 days after its first issue, until 10 January 1888. On 26 September 1892 the government fined the newspaper with $200.000 after considering one of its articles subversive,8 August 1893, by Antioquia governor Abraham García, until 14 March 1896. On 27 June 1896, until 27 April 1897, due to a press law recently passed by the Congress and it appeared again on 2 January 1913, as an evening daily in Medellín. Since 10 February 1915 El Espectador has been published in Medellín. Its Medellín edition was suspended on 20 July 1923, in 1948, after the murder of Liberal Party leader Jorge Eliecer Gaitán, its circulation was suspended for three days. Since then, El Espectador has had to deal with the censorship of the ruling Conservative Party several times. On 9 November 1949, Luis Cano Villegas, its director, resigned in protest for the seizure of the edition by the government.
In 1955 the newspaper, outspokenly opposed to the government of Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, publishing several articles by Alberto Lleras Camargo. In December, the government accused El Espectador of several accounting and tax irregularities, on 6 January 1956 the National Taxes Direction imposed on El Espectador a fine of $600,000. Its directors, who were forbidden to respond to the accusations against the paper, in order to replace El Espectador, on 20 February 1956 appeared El Independiente, directed by Alberto Lleras Camargo, who retired in April when the newspaper was closed for several months
El Tiempo (Colombia)
El Tiempo is a nationally distributed, broadsheet daily newspaper in Colombia. As of 2012, it had the highest circulation in Colombia with a daily weekday of 1,137,483 readers. However, El Espectador returned to the format on May 11,2008. From 1913 to 2007 El Tiempos main shareholders were members of the Santos family, the last was elected President in 2010. In 2007, Spains Grupo Planeta acquired 55% of the Casa Editorial El Tiempo media group, including the newspaper, the newspaper was founded in 1911 by Alfonso Villegas Restrepo. In 1913 it was purchased by his brother-in-law, Eduardo Santos Montejo, from until 2007, El Tiempos main shareholders were members of the Santos family, as part of the media conglomerate Casa Editorial El Tiempo. In 2007, the Spanish Grupo Planeta obtained majority ownership of the daily, between 2001 and 2008, due to El Espectador being published as a weekly newspaper, it was Colombias only national daily newspaper. El Tiempo is published in six editions, Bogotá Caribe Medellín Café Cali Region.
On Sundays there are special sections, for about 3 years it published every Sunday a special section with a weekly selection of articles from The New York Times, translated into Spanish and using the same pictures. This section was dropped in January 2008 and since August 2008 it has published by rival newspaper El Espectador. El Tiempo is part of Grupo de Diarios América, an organization of leading newspapers from eleven Latin American countries
Villa de Leyva
Villa de Leyva, called Villa de Leiva, is a touristic colonial town and municipality, in the Ricaurte Province, part of the Boyacá department of Colombia. The town is located 37 kilometres west of the departmental capital Tunja and it is three and a half hours by car or bus from Bogotá. Located away from trade routes in a high altitude valley of semi-desert terrain, and with no mineral deposits nearby to exploit. This has resulted in Villa de Leyva becoming one of Colombias principal tourist attractions, the town and the surrounding countryside, which contains several sites of interest, are popular weekend destinations for citizens of Bogota, and attract an increasing number of foreign tourists. The urban centre of Villa de Leyva is located in a valley on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense at 2,149 metres. The area of Villa de Leyva was inhabited early in the inhabitation of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, the earliest archaeological evidence has been surfaced around El Infiernito, an archeoastronomical site dating back to pre-Herrera times.
The Muisca were the inhabitants of the area at the time of the Spanish conquest, the town was founded on June 12,1572 by and named after the first president of the New Kingdom of Granada, Andrés Díaz Venero de Leiva. The focus of the town is the Plaza Mayor, which at 14,000 square meters is the largest square in Colombia and believed to be the largest entirely cobbled square in South America. The towns most famous son is Antonio Ricaurte, a captain in Simon Bolivars army fighting for independence, the house in which he was born, on the Plazuela de San Agustín, was acquired by Colombias Air Force in 1977 and turned into a military museum. Villa de Leyva has been home to two other figures in Colombian history. Antonio Nariño, best known for translating The Rights of Man into Spanish, luis Alberto Acuña, one of the most important Colombian artists of the 20th century, spent his final years in the town. The houses of men are now museums containing their personal properties, and in the case of Acuña.
The House of the First Congress, where the First Congress of the United Provinces of Nueva Granada met on October 4,1812, is located on the corner of the main plaza. It is currently the site of the municipal council, near Villa de Leyva are several other sites of interest
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about 1,528 kilometres through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene and it is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as far as Honda, at the downstream base of its rapids. It flows through the Magdalena River Valley and its drainage basin covers a surface of 273,000 square kilometres, which is 24% of the countrys area and where 66% of its population lives. The headwaters of the Magdalena River are in the south of Colombia, the river runs east of north in a great valley between the two cordilleras. The Magdalena River basin, which includes the Cauca River and other tributaries, is rich in fish. As of 2008,213 fish species were known from the basin, since several new species have been described from the basin such as five Hemibrycon in 2013, two Ancistrus in 2013 and a Farlowella in 2014. About 55% of the species in the basin are endemic, including four endemic genera, The catfish Centrochir and Eremophilus.
In general, the fauna shows connections with surrounding basins, notably Atrato and Maracaibo. The most productive fishing areas in Colombia are in the basin, the primary threats are pollution and habitat loss. Additional dams are being constructed, including El Quimbo and Ituango, as a result of the pollution, heavy metals have been detected in some commercially important fish in the river. As of 2002,19 fish species in the basin were recognized as threatened. In addition, there is a possible risk posed by invasive hippopotamus, due to its geographical position in the north of South America, the Magdalena River was since precolumbian times a route towards the interior of today Colombia and Ecuador. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the river was the transport link communicating Bogotá with the Caribbean Sea port Cartagena de Indias. In 1825, the Congress of Colombia awarded a concession to establish steam navigation in the Magdalena River to Juan Bernardo Elbers, by 1845, steamboats regularly travelled on the river until 1961, when the last steamers ceased operation.
Much of the film Love in the Time of Cholera takes place in the historic, some screen shots showed the Magdalena River and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range
Colombian coffee growing axis
There are three departments in the area, Quindío and Risaralda. The most visited cities are Manizales and Pereira, Coffee beans began being grown commercially in Colombia in Salazar de las Palmas, Norte de Santander and grew to be Colombias primary export in the twentieth century. In 1999 it represented 3. 7% of gross domestic product, the main coffee producing departments are, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Valle del Cauca, Tolima, Risaralda and Cundinamarca. The area between the departments of Caldas and Quindío is known as the Coffee Zone because of the large development experienced by the cultivation of this product. This region was affected by an earthquake of 6.4 on the Richter scale on January 25,1999. Weather conditions and this region, determine the production of high quality coffee. The famous advertising icon Juan Valdez, represented by a Paisa farmer wearing a carriel, aguadeño hat and poncho, Juan Valdez has been considered in United States as the advertising image of greater recall among the inhabitants of that country in the year 2005.
“The coffee axis” and “The coffee triangle”, is different from the “Coffee Cultural Landscape” in Colombia, the “Coffee Cultural Landscape”, inscribed on the World Heritage List by UNESCO,2011, is different from “The coffee axis” and “The coffee triangle”. The region has developed major theme parks, one of them, the Colombian National Coffee Park located in the town of Montenegro in Quindio. Another theme park unique in Colombia is the National Park of Culture Agriculture - Panaca and its key feature is that, unlike zoos, visitors are immersed in a personal and direct contact with farm animals and enjoy scheduled activities and events with those animals. It has the important Museum of Nature within, santuario is one of the most characteristic towns of the region, is known for its tradition paisas architecture and streets. It is close to PNN Tatamá, thermal Santa Rosa de Cabal, a Spa Spa for bathing in hot springs and different activities for relaxation and body care. Rafting on the Rio la Vieja, Walking the Rio La Vieja on the border between the departments of Valle del Cauca and Quindío, from the town of Quimbaya.
Extreme Sports Tour operators in the region offer kayaking on the River Barragan, paragliding in Calarcá, Quindío Botanical Gardens, located in the town of Calarcá, where you can see in the butterfly with the largest exhibition of butterflies in the country. Pereira, Risaralda Department Armenia, Quindío Department Manizales, Caldas Department Colombian National Coffee Park Montenegro Nevado del Ruiz, Manizales PANACA Parque Cocora valle, Salento
It is the fifth-largest city in Colombia and the second largest in the region, after Barranquilla. The urban area of Cartagena is the fifth-largest urban area in the country, economic activities include the maritime and petrochemicals industries, as well as tourism. The city was founded on June 1,1533, and named after Cartagena, settlement in the region around Cartagena Bay by various indigenous people dates back to 4000 BC. During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena served a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire and it was a center of political and economic activity due to the presence of royalty and wealthy viceroys. In 1984, Cartagenas colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC.
The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga cultures use of the art of pottery and to have developed an economy of agriculture. The Monsú peoples diet was based mostly on shellfish and fresh, the development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the Cartagena Bay area. Until the Spanish colonization, many derived from the Karib, Malibu. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was home to the Tayrona people, around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more precisely the Mocanae sub-family. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence, rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500-01. On 14 Feb.1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosas voyage to Uraba, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, before he could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area.
They preferred the better known Hispaniola and Cuba, De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus, and that encouraged Bastidas to investigate. Under contract to Queen Joanna of Castile, Pedro de Heredia invaded the Bay of Cartagena with three ships,150 men, and 22 horses, on 14 Jan.1533 and he soon found the village of Calamari abandoned. Proceeding onwards to Turbaco, where Juan de la Cosa had been mortally wounded 13 years earlier, using India Catalina as a guide, Heredia embarked on a three month exploration expedition. He returned to Calamari in April 1533 with gold pieces, including a gold porcupine weighing 132 pounds. In expeditions, Heredia raided the Sinú tombs and temples of gold and his rule as governor of Cartagena lasted 22 years, before perishing on his return to Spain in 1544. Cartagena was founded on June 1,1533 by the Spanish commander, Pedro de Heredia, the town was named after Cartagena, where most of Heredias sailors had resided