click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

San Antonio Force

The San Antonio Force were a professional arena football team based in San Antonio, Texas. The team was a member of the Arena Football League; the team owner of the Force was Red McCombs. The teams colors were black and silver; the Force played their home games at HemisFair Arena the home of the San Antonio Spurs. They set two records for futility, becoming the first arena football team to be shut out in a game, losing to the Orlando Predators 50-0 on June 13, 1992, the all-time lowest record for field goal percentage in a season, 11.8%, among three different kickers. The team ceased operations upon the completion of the season, citing that there were not enough available dates at HemisFair Arena or the Alamodome for the team to host games. There was an attempt by Marc Reich to bring the team to Hartford, but he was unable to convince the city to purchase the rights to the Force, as it was believed there wasn't a high enough return on investment. Arena football returned to San Antonio in 2012 when the Tulsa Talons franchise relocated to the Alamodome.

The team appeared on the game EA Sports Arena Football as a hidden bonus team. The first player drafted in 1992 by the Force was OL/DL David A. Caldwell, second on the team with 5.0 sacks. Caldwell is a San Antonio resident and coaching football in San Antonio ISD. San Antonio Force at ArenaFan.com

History of Ecuador

The History of Ecuador extends over an 8,000-year period. During this time, a variety of cultures and territories influenced what has become the Republic of Ecuador; the history can be divided into six eras: Pre-Columbian, the Conquest, the Colonial Period, the War of Independence, Gran Colombia, Simón Bolívar the final separation of his vision into what is known today as the Republic of Ecuador. During the pre-Inca period, people lived in ans, which formed great tribes, some allied with each other to form powerful confederations, as the Confederation of Quito, but none of these confederations could resist the formidable momentum of the Tawantinsuyu. The invasion of the Incas in the 16th century was painful and bloody. However, once occupied by the Quito hosts of Huayna Capac, the Incas developed an extensive administration and began the colonization of the region; the Pre-Columbian era can be divided up into four eras: the Pre-ceramic Period, the Formative Period, the Period of Regional Development and the Period of Integration and the Arrival of the Incas.

The Pre-ceramic period begins with the end of the first ice-age and continued until 4200BC. The Las Vegas culture and The Inga Cultures dominated this period; the Las Vegas culture lived on the Santa Elena Peninsula on the coast of Ecuador between 9,000–6,000 BC. The earliest people were fishermen. Around 6,000 BC cultures in the region were among the first to begin farming; the Ingas lived in the Sierra near present-day Quito between 9000 and 8000 BC along an ancient trade route. During the Formative Period, people of the region moved from hunter-gathering and simple farming into a more developed society, with permanent developments, an increase in agriculture and the use of ceramics. New cultures included the Machalilla culture, Chorrera in the coast; the Valdivia culture is the first culture. Their civilization dates back as early as 3500 B. C. Living in the area near The Valdivias, they were the first Americans to use pottery, they established a trade network with tribes in the Andes and the Amazon.

Succeeding the Valdivia, the Machalilla culture were a farming culture who thrived along the coast of Ecuador between the 2nd and 1st millennia BC. These appear to be the earliest people to cultivate maize in this part of South America. Existing in the late formative period the Chorrera culture lived in the Andes and Coastal Regions of Ecuador between 1000 and 300 BC; the period of Regional Development is identified for the first time the regional differences in the territorial or political and social organization of people that formed. Among the main towns of this period were the cultures: Jambelí, Bahia, Tejar-Daule, La Tolita, Jama Coaque in the coast of Ecuador, in the sierras the Cerro Narrío Alausí; the figurine of 300 BC – 500 AD) La Chimba is the site of the earliest ceramic northern Andes, north of Quito, is representative of the Formative Period in its final stage. Its inhabitants contacted several villages on the coast and the mountains, keeping close proximity to the Cotocollao culture, located on the plateau of Quito and its surrounding valleys.

The Bahia culture occupied the area that stretches from the foothills of the Andes to the Pacific Ocean, from Bahía de Caráquez, to the south of Manabi. The Jama-Coaque culture inhabited areas between Cabo San Francisco in Esmeraldas, to Bahía de Caráquez, in Manabi, in an area of wooded hills and vast beaches of their immigrant who facilitated the gathering of resources of both the jungle and the ocean; the La Tolita developed in the coastal region of Southern Colombia and Northern Ecuador between 600 bc and 200 AD. A Number of archaeological sites have been discovered and show the artistic nature of this culture. Artifacts are characterized by gold jewelry, beautiful anthropomorphous masks and figurines that reflect a hierarchical society with complex ceremonies. Tribes throughout Ecuador integrated during this period, they created better housing that allowed them to improve their living conditions and no longer be subject to the climate. In the mountains Cosangua-Píllaro, the Capulí and Piartal-Tuza cultures arose, in the eastern region was the Yasuní Phase while the Milagro, Manteña and Huancavilca cultures developed on the coast.

The Manteños were the last of the pre-Columbian cultures in the coastal region existing between 600–1534. They were the first to witness the arrival of Spanish ships sailing in the surrounding Pacific Ocean. According to archaeological evidence and Spanish chronicles the civilization existed from Bahia de Caraquez to Cerro de Hojas in the south, they were excellent weavers, produced textiles, articles of gold, silver spondylus shells and mother of pearls. The manteños mastered the seas and created an extensive trade routes as far as Chile to the south and Western Mexico to the north; the center of the culture was in the area of Manta, named in their honor. The Huancavilcas constitute the most important pre-Columbian culture of Guayas; these warriors were noted for their appearance. Huancavilca of culture is the legend of Guayas and Quiles, which gives its name to the city of Guayaquil; the existence of the Kingdom of Quito was formed by the Quitus, the Puruhaes and Cañari who inhabited the Andean regions of Ecuador by that time.

Their main settlement was located in the area now known as the city of Quito, its inhabitants were called Quitus. The Quitus were militarily weak, formed only a small, poorly organized kingdom; because of this it could not raise a strong resistance against invaders, were defeated and subjugated by the Shyris, ancient indigen

Back-formation

In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes. The resulting neologism is called a back-formation, a term coined by James Murray in 1889. For example, the noun resurrection was borrowed from Latin, the verb resurrect was back-formed hundreds of years from it by removing the -ion suffix; this segmentation of resurrection into resurrect + ion was possible because English had examples of Latinate words in the form of verb and verb+-ion pairs, such as opine/opinion. These became the pattern for many more such pairs, where a verb derived from a Latin supine stem and a noun ending in ion entered the language together, such as insert/insertion, project/projection, etc. Back-formation may be similar to the reanalyses or folk etymologies when it rests on an erroneous understanding of the morphology of the longer word. For example, the singular noun asset is a back-formation from the plural assets. However, assets was not a plural; the -s was reanalyzed as a plural suffix.

Back-formation is different from clipping – back-formation may change the word's class or meaning, whereas clipping creates shortened words from longer words, but does not change the class or meaning of the word. Words can sometimes acquire new lexical categories without any derivational change in form; that process is called conversion. Like back-formation, it can produce a new noun or a new verb. Back-formation may be common in English given that many English words are borrowed from Latin and Greek, which together provide English a large range of common affixes. Many words with affixes have entered English, such as dismantle and dishevelled, so it may be easy to believe that these are formed from roots such as mantle and shevelled, although these words have no history of existing in English. Many words came into English by this route: pease was once a mass noun, but was reinterpreted as a plural, leading to the back-formation pea; the noun statistic was a back-formation from the field of study statistics.

In Britain, the verb burgle came into use in the nineteenth century as a back-formation from burglar. Other examples are Noun "taxon", a unit of classification in taxonomy, derived from Greek taxis +nomia "distribution" Singular "sastruga", plural "sastrugi": new Latin-type singular "sastrugus" has been used sometimes Singular "syringe", from plural "syringes". Verb "edit" from editor Verbs "euthanase" or "euthanize" from the noun euthanasia; the verb translate is a back-formation from translation, from Latin trāns + lāt- + -tio. Lāt- is from the irregular verb ferō'to carry.' Trānslāt- in Latin was a semi-adjectival form of trānsferō meaning' having been carried across'. The result of the action trānsferō textum'to translate a text' was a textus trānslātus'a text, translated.' Thus the verb in English is from a adjectival form in Latin. Though many English words are formed this way, new coinages may sound strange, are used for humorous effect. For example, gruntled is used only in humorous contexts, as when P. G. Wodehouse wrote, "I could see that, if not disgruntled, he was far from being gruntled", or the character Turk in the American sitcom Scrubs told another character, "I don't disdain you!

It's quite the opposite – I dain you." As it happens and dain are both attested much earlier, but not as antonyms of the longer forms. Back-formations begin in colloquial use and only become accepted. For example, enthuse is gaining popularity, though today it is still considered nonstandard; the immense celebrations in Britain at the news of the relief of the Siege of Mafeking created the verb to maffick, meaning to celebrate both extravagantly and publicly. "Maffick" is a back-formation from Mafeking, a place-name, treated humorously as a gerund or participle. There are many other examples of back-formations in the English language; as English place names are British, hence the study of Celtic scholars, back-formations have occurred in many ways over the centuries owing to English-speaking interpretations. For example, the River Chelmer in Essex is named after the town of Chelmsford, derived from the Saxon personal name Cēolmǣr. List of English back-formations Folk etymology Backronym Retronym Rebracketing or juncture loss Onomasiology Unpaired word

List of people from Memphis, Tennessee

This is a list of notable people who were born in, residents of, or otherwise associated with Memphis and its surrounding metropolitan statistical area, including Crittenden County, Arkansas. This list is in alphabetical order by last name. Johnny Acerhythm and blues singer Heather Armstrong — Author and blogger, Dooce.com Kristin Armstrong — professional road bicycle racer and three-time Olympic gold medalist George AwsumbNorwegian-American architect Estelle Axton — co-founder of Stax Records Archbishop LeRoy Bailey — Senior Pastor of The First Cathedral, a megachurch in Bloomfield, Connecticut. C. Charles Bartliff — soccer player Kathy Bates — Academy Award-winning actress Kenneth Lawrence Beaudoin — poet Michael Beck — actor, best known for The Warriors and Xanadu Reginald Becton — basketball player who plays for Maccabi Haifa of the Israeli Basketball Premier League William Bedford — basketball player Diane Meredith Belcher — concert organist and church musician Chris Bell — musician William Bell — singer Charles T.

Bernard — businessman and Arkansas politician, died in Memphis in 2015 Big Star — rock band Blac Youngstarapper. G.'s and The Blues Brothers Edward H. Crump — political boss and U. S. Representative Randy Culpepper — basketball player Chastity Daniels — musician Janette Davis — singer Rick Dees — radio personality Nancy Densonmayor of Athens, Georgia Eric Jerome Dickey — author Jim Dickinson — musician. Doherty — Nobel laureate. Dunavant — businessman, CEO of Dunavant Enterprises Donald "Duck" Dunn — musician in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Johanna Edwards — author William Eggleston — photographer Egypt Central — band Eightball & MJG — musicians Ben Ferguson — nationally syndicated talk radio host Paul Finebaum — television and radio sports-talk host Veronica Finn — pop singer of now-disbanded group Innosense Ric Flair — professional wrestler Rey Flemings — music commissioner "Trae Flocka" — internet personality, rapper Avron Fogelman — former owner of Kansas City Royals and various Memphis-based sports teams.

S. Supreme Court justice Cary Fowleragriculturalist, established the Svalbard Global Seed V

The Chocolate War

The Chocolate War is a young adult novel by American author Robert Cormier. First published in 1974, it was adapted into a film in 1988. Although it received mixed reviews at the time of its publication, some reviewers have argued it is one of the best young adult novels of all time. Set at a fictional Catholic high school, the story depicts a secret student organization's manipulation of the student body, which descends into cruel and ugly mob mentality against a lone, non-conforming student; because of the novel's language, the concept of a high school secret society using intimidation to enforce the cultural norms of the school and various characters' sexual ponderings, it has been embroiled in censorship controversies and appeared as third on the American Library Association's list of the "Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books in 2000–2009." A sequel was published in 1985 called Beyond the Chocolate War. Jerry Renault is a freshman attending an all-boys Catholic high school called Trinity, while coping with depressive feelings and existential questions that stem from his mother's recent death and his father's enduring grief.

Jerry is recruited onto Trinity's football team, where he meets Roland "The Goober" Goubert, a fellow freshman and instant friend. Trinity's vice-principal, Brother Leon, has become acting headmaster and overextends his rising ambition by committing Trinity to selling double the previous year's amount of chocolates during an annual fundraising event enlisting the support of Archie Costello, the genesis and leader behind The Vigils: the school's cruelly manipulative secret society of student pranksters. Archie arrogantly plans to alternate between betraying and supporting Leon in a frenzied series of power plays, his first "assignment" is to incite Jerry to refuse to sell any chocolate for ten days. However, inspired after reading a quotation inside his locker: "Do I dare disturb the universe?" from T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," feels strangely determined to sell nothing after the ten days have passed, thus estranging himself from both Leon and The Vigils. At first, Jerry's refusal to cooperate with the corrupt school culture and fundraiser is seen by many classmates as heroic, but the gesture threatens Brother Leon and The Vigils' ability to coerce the student population.

Leon presses Archie to put The Vigils' full force behind the chocolate sales and so they set up Jerry as an enemy for the rest of the student body to harass through bullying, prank calls, vandalism. Only The Goober does little to protect him. Archie enlists the school bully Emile Janza to beat up Jerry just outside the school, but in the aftermath, Jerry maintains his defiant nonconformity. Archie concocts a showdown: a boxing match at night between Jerry and Emile. On the football field, the match is watched by all students, who can select which blows will be laid during the fight through a randomized lottery system. Half-conscious, he tells The Goober that there was no way to win and he should have just complied, conceding that it is best, after all, not to "disturb the universe." Though Archie is apprehended as the mastermind of the fight, Brother Leon intervenes on his behalf and praises his efforts in the unprecedented success of the chocolate sales. Leon implies that next year, if he is made the new headmaster, he will work to preserve Archie's power.

The book was well received by critics. The New York Times wrote, "The Chocolate War is masterfully rich in theme. Cormier explained in an interview that he was "interested in creating real people, dramatic situations that will keep the reader turning pages." He went on to say that although some adults dislike the book because of the topics discussed, "the kids can absorb my kind of book because they know this kind of thing happens in life."The New York Times Book Review declared, "Mr. Cormier is unique in his powerful integration of the personal and moral" and The Australian wrote that young readers "recognised his vision as authentic and admired his willingness to tell things as they are". However, the book has been banned from many schools and it was one of the most challenged books of 2006, for its sexual content, strong language, violence. Reviewers compared the book to Lord of the Flies. 1974 School Library Journal Best Books of the Year 1974 ALA Best Books for Young Adults 1974 New York Times Notable Books of the Year The Chocolate War inspired the 1988 film of the same name, directed by Keith Gordon.

It starred John Glover, Wallace Langham, Ilan Mitchell-Smith, Jenny Wright, Adam Baldwin, Corey Gunnestad. "The Chocolate War" on Google Books Robert Cormier's website

Diocese of Ripon

The Diocese of Ripon is a former Church of England diocese, part of the Province of York. Prior to its dissolution, it covered an area in western and northern Yorkshire as well as the south Teesdale area administered by County Durham, traditionally part of Yorkshire; the cities of Ripon and Leeds were within its boundaries as were the towns of Harrogate, Knaresborough and Bedale and the surrounding countryside. The diocesan Bishop of Ripon had his cathedral church at Ripon; the diocese was served by a suffragan Bishop of Knaresborough and was divided into two archdeaconries, those of Richmond and Leeds. For organizational purposes, the diocese was further divided into eight deaneries: Richmond, Ripon, Allerton, Headingley and Whitkirk; the first four deaneries are located in the Archdeaconry of Richmond, the latter four are in the Archdeaconry of Leeds. The former Diocese covered an area of 1,359 square miles, with a range of urban and rural parishes, these range from urban areas like Holbeck and Armley with New Wortley, urban centres like Ripon and Richmond and rural parishes like Danby Wiske with Hutton Bonneville in the Vale of Mowbray, Eryholme on the southern bank of the River Tees and Upper Nidderdale high in the Yorkshire Dales.

The diocese of Ripon was created out of the dioceses of York and Chester in 1836 with Charles Thomas Longley consecrated as its first bishop. It was the first diocese to be created in England after the Reformation, was erected on 5 October 1836 under the Established Church Act 1836. In a process which began with commission recommendations in 1989 and in 1997, included Diocesan Synod on 20 June 1998, General Synod approval in November 1998 and royal assent in May 1999, the diocese was renamed'The Diocese of Ripon and Leeds' in order to reflect the demographic importance of Leeds within its boundaries; the diocesan bishop's residence and offices and the diocesan offices were based in Leeds, while the cathedral remained Ripon Cathedral. The central importance of Leeds to the area was further recognised in the eventual creation of the new Diocese of Leeds. On 2 March 2013, the diocesan synod voted in favour of proposals to abolish the diocese in order to create a larger Leeds diocese. Church of England Statistics 2002 Diocese page Bradford and Ripon & Leeds Education Team