Monticello was the primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, who began designing and building Monticello at age 26 after inheriting land from his father. The current Nickel features a depiction of Monticello on the reverse, situated on the summit of an 850-foot -high peak in the Southwest Mountains south of the Rivanna Gap, the name Monticello derives from the Italian for little mount. Cabins for field slaves were farther from the mansion, at Jeffersons direction, he was buried on the grounds, in an area now designated as the Monticello Cemetery. The cemetery is owned by the Monticello Association, a society of his descendants through Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, after Jeffersons death, his daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph sold the property. In 1834 it was bought by Uriah P. Levy, a commodore in the U. S. Navy and his nephew Jefferson Monroe Levy took over the property in 1879, he invested considerable money to restore and preserve it. In 1923, Monroe Levy sold it to the Thomas Jefferson Foundation and it has been designated a National Historic Landmark.
In 1987 Monticello and the nearby University of Virginia, designed by Jefferson, were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Jeffersons home was built to serve as a house, which ultimately took on the architectural form of a villa. It has many antecedents, but Jefferson went beyond them to create something very much his own. He consciously sought to create a new architecture for a new nation, work began on what historians would subsequently refer to as the first Monticello in 1768, on a plantation of 5,000 acres. Jefferson moved into the South Pavilion in 1770, where his new wife Martha Wayles Skelton joined him in 1772, Jefferson continued work on his original design, but how much was completed is of some dispute. In constructing and reconstructing his home, Jefferson used both free workers and enslaved laborers, after his wifes death in 1782, Jefferson left Monticello in 1784 to serve as Minister of the United States to France. His decision to remodel his own home may date from this period, in 1794, following his service as the first U. S.
Secretary of State, Jefferson began rebuilding his house based on the ideas he had acquired in Europe. The remodeling continued throughout most of his presidency, although generally completed by 1809, Jefferson continued work on the present structure until his death in 1826. Jefferson added a hallway and a parallel set of rooms to the structure, more than doubling its area. He removed the second full-height story from the house and replaced it with a mezzanine bedroom floor. The interior is centered on two rooms, which served as an entrance-hall-museum, where Jefferson displayed his scientific interests. The most dramatic element of the new design was an octagonal dome, the dome room has now been restored to its appearance during Jeffersons lifetime, with Mars yellow walls and a painted green floor
Olympic National Park
Olympic National Park is a United States national park located in the state of Washington, on the Olympic Peninsula. The park has four regions, the Pacific coastline, alpine areas, the west side temperate rainforest. Within the park there are three distinct ecosystems which are sub-alpine forest and wildflower meadow, temperate forest, and the rugged Pacific Shore and these three different ecosystems are in pristine condition and have outstanding scenery. U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt originally created Mount Olympus National Monument on 2 March 1909 and it was designated a national park by President Franklin Roosevelt on June 29,1938. In 1976, Olympic National Park was designated by UNESCO as an International Biosphere Reserve, in 1988, Congress designated 95 percent of the park as the Olympic Wilderness. The coastal portion of the park is a rugged, sandy beach along with a strip of adjacent forest and it is 60 miles long but just a few miles wide, with native communities at the mouths of two rivers.
The Hoh River has the Hoh people and at the town of La Push at the mouth of the Quileute River live the Quileute, the beach has unbroken stretches of wilderness ranging from 10 to 20 miles. While some beaches are sand, others are covered with heavy rock. Bushy overgrowth, slippery footing and misty rain forest weather all hinder foot travel, the coastal strip is more readily accessible than the interior of the Olympics, due to the difficult terrain, very few backpackers venture beyond casual day-hiking distances. The most popular piece of the strip is the 9-mile Ozette Loop. The Park Service runs a registration and reservation program to control levels of this area. From the trailhead at Ozette Lake, a 3-mile leg of the trail is a path through near primal coastal cedar swamp. Arriving at the ocean, it is a 3-mile walk supplemented by headland trails for high tides and this area has traditionally been favored by the Makah from Neah Bay. The third 3-mile leg is enabled by a boardwalk which has enhanced the loops popularity, there are thick groves of trees adjacent to the sand, which results in chunks of timber from fallen trees on the beach.
The mostly unaltered Hoh River, toward the end of the park, discharges large amounts of naturally eroded timber and other drift. The removal of driftwood – logs, dead-heads and root-wads from streams, even today driftwood deposits form a commanding presence, biologically as well as visually, giving a taste of the original condition of the beach viewable to some extent in early photos. Drift-material often comes from a distance, the Columbia River formerly contributed huge amounts to the Northwest Pacific coasts. The smaller coastal portion of the park is separated from the larger, President Franklin D. Roosevelt originally had supported connecting them with a continuous strip of park land
San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populated city in the United States and the second-most populous city in the state of Texas, with a population of 1,409,019. It was the fastest growing of the top 10 largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the city straddles South Texas and Central Texas and is on the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion known as the Texas Triangle. San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County, recent annexations have extended the citys boundaries into Medina County and, though for only a very tiny area near the city of Garden Ridge, into Comal County. Due to its placement, the city has characteristics of other urban centers in which there are sparsely populated areas. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area, growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it likely that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is on June 13, the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2015.
Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, the Alamo Bowl, the city is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs and hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the country. The U. S. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, the remaining portions of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, at the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, calling the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning refreshing waters. In 1691, a group of Spanish Catholic explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13 and they named the place and river San Antonio in his honor. It was years before any Spanish settlement took place, father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, and he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there.
He directed Martin de Alarcón, the governor of Coahuila and Texas, differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, and construction did not start until 1718. The families who clustered around the presidio and mission formed the beginnings of Villa de Béjar, on May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5,1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14,1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas. By June 1730,25 families had reached Cuba, and 10 families had sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, due to marriages along the way, the party now included 15 families, a total of 56 persons.
They joined the community established in 1718
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are old-growth temperate rainforests located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and Californias Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, and Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks, the combined RNSP contain 139,000 acres. Located entirely within Del Norte and Humboldt Counties, the four parks, protect 45% of all remaining coast redwood old-growth forests and these trees are the tallest and one of the most massive tree species on Earth. In addition to the forests, the parks preserve other indigenous flora, grassland prairie, cultural resources, portions of rivers and other streams. In 1850, old-growth redwood forest covered more than 2,000,000 acres of the California coast, the northern portion of that area, originally inhabited by Native Americans, attracted many lumbermen and others turned gold miners when a minor gold rush brought them to the region. Failing in efforts to strike it rich in gold, these men turned toward harvesting the giant trees for booming development in San Francisco, after many decades of unrestricted clear-cut logging, serious efforts toward conservation began.
Redwood National Park was created in 1968, by which time nearly 90% of the redwood trees had been logged. The ecosystem of the RNSP preserves a number of threatened species such as the tidewater goby, Chinook salmon, northern spotted owl. Modern day native groups such as the Yurok, Karok and Wiyot all have ties to the region. Archaeological study shows they arrived in the area as far back as 3,000 years ago, an 1852 census determined that the Yurok were the most numerous, with 55 villages and an estimated population of 2,500. They used the abundant redwood, which with its grain was easily split into planks, as a building material for boats, houses. For buildings, the planks would be erected side by side in a trench, with the upper portions bound with leather strapping. Redwood boards were used to form a sloping roof. Previous to Jedediah Smith in 1828, no other explorer of European descent is known to have investigated the inland region away from the immediate coast. The discovery of gold along the Trinity River in 1850 led to a secondary rush in California.
This brought miners into the area and many stayed on at the coast after failing to strike it rich and this quickly led to conflicts wherein native peoples were placed under great strain, if not forcibly removed or massacred. By 1895, only one third of the Yurok in one group of villages remained, by 1919, the miners logged redwoods for building, when this minor gold rush ended, some of them turned again to logging, cutting down the giant redwood trees. Representative John E. Raker, of California, became the first politician to introduce legislation for the creation of a national park
Mesa Verde National Park
Mesa Verde National Park is a National Park and World Heritage Site located in Montezuma County, Colorado. It protects some of the best preserved Ancestral Puebloan archaeological sites in the United States, created by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, the park occupies 52,485 acres near the Four Corners region of the American Southwest. With more than 4,300 sites, including 600 cliff dwellings, Mesa Verde is best known for structures such as Cliff Palace, thought to be the largest cliff dwelling in North America. Starting c. 7500 BCE, Mesa Verde was seasonally inhabited by a group of nomadic Paleo-Indians known as the Foothills Mountain Complex. The variety of points found in the region indicates they were influenced by surrounding areas, including the Great Basin, the San Juan Basin. Later, Archaic people established semi-permanent rockshelters in and around the mesa, by 1000 BCE, the Basketmaker culture emerged from the local Archaic population, and by 750 CE the Ancestral Puebloans had developed from the Basketmaker culture.
The Mesa Verdeans survived using a combination of hunting and subsistence farming of crops such as corn and squash. They built the mesas first pueblos sometime after 650, and by the end of the 12th century, the first occupants of the Mesa Verde region, which spans from southeastern Utah to northwestern New Mexico, were nomadic Paleo-Indians who arrived in the area c. 9500 BCE. They followed herds of big game and camped near rivers and streams, the earliest Paleo-Indians were the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition, defined largely by the way in which they fashioned projectile points. Although they left evidence of their presence throughout the region, there is indication that they lived in central Mesa Verde during this time. After 9600 BCE, the environment grew warmer and drier, a change that brought to central Mesa Verde pine forests. Paleo-Indians began inhabiting the mesa in increasing numbers c. 7500, development of the atlatl during this period made it easier for them to hunt smaller game, a crucial advance at a time when most of the regions big game had disappeared from the landscape.
6000 BCE marks the beginning of the Archaic period in North America, the Archaic people probably developed locally, but were influenced by contact and intermarriage with immigrants from these outlying areas. The early Archaic people living near Mesa Verde utilized the atlatl and harvested a variety of plants and animals than the Paleo-Indians had. Environmental stability during the period drove population expansion and migration, by the late Archaic, more people were living in semi-permanent rockshelters that preserved perishable goods such as baskets and mats. They started to make a variety of figurines that usually resembled sheep or deer. The late Archaic is marked by increased trade in materials such as obsidian. Marine shells and abalone from the Pacific coast made their way to Mesa Verde from Arizona, Rock art flourished, and people lived in rudimentary houses made of mud and wood
The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site /kəˈhoʊkiə/ is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri. This historic park lies in southern Illinois between East St. Louis and Collinsville, the park covers 2,200 acres, or about 3.5 square miles, and contains about 80 mounds, but the ancient city was much larger. In its heyday, Cahokia covered about 6 square miles and included about 120 human-made earthen mounds in a range of sizes, shapes. Today, Cahokia Mounds is considered the largest and most complex archaeological site north of the great cities in Mexico. Cahokia Mounds is a National Historic Landmark and a site for state protection. It is one of only 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites within the United States, although there is some evidence of occupation during the Late Archaic period in and around the site, Cahokia as it is now defined was settled around 600 CE during the Late Woodland period. Mound building at this location began with the Emergent Mississippian cultural period, the citys original name is unknown.
The Mounds were named after the Cahokia tribe, a historic Illiniwek people living in the area when the first French explorers arrived in the 17th century. As this was centuries after Cahokia was abandoned by its original inhabitants, most likely multiple indigenous ethnic groups settled in the Cahokia area. Though widely debated, some archaeologists connect Dhegihan Siouan-speaking tribes to Cahokia and they include the Osage, Omaha and Quapaw. These peoples are believed to have migrated from the east of the Ohio Valley. Many Native American tribes migrated over the centuries in response to local conditions and those living in territories at the time of the European encounter were often not the descendants of peoples who had lived there centuries before and built the mounds. Historian Daniel Richter notes that the apex of the city occurred during the Medieval Warming Period, the decline of the city coincides with the little ice age, although by the three-fold agriculture remained well-established throughout temperate North America.
Cahokia became the most important center for the peoples known today as Mississippians and their settlements ranged across what is now the Midwest and Southeastern United States. Cahokia was located in a position near the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri. It maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such items as copper, Mill Creek chert. Mill Creek chert, most notably, was used in the production of hoes, Cahokias control of the manufacture and distribution of these hand tools was an important economic activity that allowed the city to thrive. Bartering, not money was used in trade, at the high point of its development, Cahokia was the largest urban center north of the great Mesoamerican cities in Mexico and Central America
Alamo Mission in San Antonio
The Alamo Mission in San Antonio is commonly called The Alamo and was originally known as Misión San Antonio de Valero. It was founded in the 18th century as a Roman Catholic mission and fortress compound and it was the site of the Battle of the Alamo in 1836, and is now a museum in the Alamo Plaza Historic District. The compound was one of the early Spanish missions in Texas, the mission was secularized in 1793 and abandoned. Ten years later, it became a housing the Second Flying Company of San Carlos de Parras military unit. During the Texas Revolution, Mexican General Martin Perfecto de Cos surrendered the fort to the Texian Army in December 1835, a relatively small number of Texian soldiers occupied the compound for several months. They were wiped out at the Battle of the Alamo on March 6,1836, when the Mexican army retreated from Texas several months later, they tore down many of the Alamo walls and burned some of the buildings. For the next five years, the Alamo was periodically used to garrison soldiers, in 1849, several years after Texas was annexed to the United States, the U. S.
Army began renting the facility for use as a quartermasters depot. The U. S. Army abandoned the mission in 1876 after nearby Fort Sam Houston was established, the Alamo chapel was sold to the state of Texas, which conducted occasional tours but made no effort to restore it. The remaining buildings were sold to a company which operated them as a wholesale grocery store. The Daughters of the Republic of Texas formed in 1895 and began trying to preserve the Alamo, Adina Emilia De Zavala and Clara Driscoll successfully convinced the state legislature in 1905 to purchase the remaining buildings and to name the DRT as the permanent custodian of the site. Over the next century, periodic attempts were made to control of the Alamo from the DRT. In early 2015, Texas Land Commissioner George P. Bush officially removed control of the Alamo to the Texas General Land Office, the Alamo and the four missions in the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites on July 5,2015.
In 1716, the Spanish government established several Roman Catholic missions in East Texas, the isolation of the missions—the nearest Spanish settlement, San Juan Bautista, Coahuila was over 400 miles away—made it difficult to keep them adequately provisioned. To assist the missionaries, the new governor of Spanish Texas, Martín de Alarcón, in April 1718, Alarcón led an expedition to found a new community in Texas. On May 1, the group erected a temporary mud, one mile north of the mission, Alarcón built a presidio, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar. Close by, he founded the first civilian community in Texas, within a year, the mission moved to the western bank of the river, where it was less likely to flood. Over the next years, a chain of missions were established nearby. In 1724, after remants of a Gulf Coast hurricane destroyed the structures at Mission San Antonio de Valero
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U. S. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the states struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texan state flag, the origin of Texass name is from the word Tejas, which means friends in the Caddo language. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas land area is desert. Most of the centers are located in areas of former prairies, forests. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the term six flags over Texas refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas, Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic.
In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state, the states annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, after the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle, due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The states economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated a boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy, as of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, aerospace. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.
The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning friends or allies, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, during Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas, La Provincia de Texas. Texas is the second largest U. S. state, behind Alaska, though 10 percent larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile, Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers, the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south
Western United States
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. Because European settlement in the U. S. expanded westward after its founding, prior to about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains was seen as the western frontier. Since then, the frontier moved westward and eventually lands west of the Mississippi River came to be referred to as the West. The West contains several major biomes, the Western U. S. is the largest region of the country, covering more than half the land area of the United States. Given this expansive and diverse geography it is no wonder the region is difficult to specifically define, a majority of the historian respondents placed the eastern boundary of the West east of the Census definition out on the eastern edge of the Great Plains or on the Mississippi River. The survey respondents as a whole showed just how little agreement there was on the boundaries of the West, within a region as large and diverse as the Western United States, smaller areas with more closely shared demographics and geography have developed as subregions.
Meanwhile, the states of Idaho, Montana and Washington can be considered part of the Northwest or Pacific Northwest, West Texas in the Chihuahuan Desert may be considered as part of the Western U. S. Fort Worth has long laid claim to be Where the West Begins, the West is still one of the most sparsely settled areas in the United States with 49.5 inhabitants per square mile. Only Texas with 78.0 inhabitants/sq mi, Washington with 86.0 inhabitants/sq mi. and California with 213.4 inhabitants/sq mi. exceed the national average of 77.98 inhabitants/sq mi. The entire Western region has strongly influenced by European, Hispanic or Latino and Native Americans. African and European Americans, continue to wield a stronger political influence because of the rates of citizenship and voting among Asians. The West contains much of the Native American population in the U. S. particularly in the reservations in the Mountain. The Western United States has a sex ratio than any other region in the United States.
Because the tide of development had not yet reached most of the West when conservation became an issue, agencies of the federal government own. National parks are reserved for activities such as fishing, camping and boating, but other government lands allow commercial activities like ranching, logging. The largest city in the region is Los Angeles, located on the West Coast, Other West Coast cities include San Diego, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Francisco, Bakersfield, Seattle and Portland. Prominent cities in the Mountain States include Denver, Colorado Springs, Tucson, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Boise, El Paso, and Cheyenne. Along the Pacific Ocean coast lie the Coast Ranges and they collect a large part of the airborne moisture moving in from the ocean
Franciscan friars established Mission Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña in 1716 as Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Hainais in East Texas. The mission was meant to be a base for converting the Hasinai to Catholicism. The friars moved the mission in 1731 to San Antonio, after its relocation most of the people in the mission were Pajalats who spoke a Coahuiltecan language. Catholic Mass is still held every Sunday, on October 28,1835, Mexican troops under Colonel Domingo Ugartechea and Texian insurgents led by James Bowie and James Fannin fought the Battle of Concepción here. Historian J. R. Edmondson describes the 30-minute engagement as the first major engagement of the Texas Revolution, Mission Concepcion consists of a sanctuary, nave and granary. When originally built, brightly painted frescos decorated both the exterior and interior of the building, traces of the frescoes still exist on the weathered facade of the building. Experts restored some of the artwork on the ceilings and walls of the convento in 1988.
The Archdiocese of San Antonio completed another restoration of the interior in 2010 which exposed more frescoes in the sanctuary. Located at 807 Mission Road, Concepción is the best preserved of the Texas missions and it was designated a National Historic Landmark on April 15,1970 and is part of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. TX-319-A, Mission Senora de la Purisima Concepcion, Church,807 Mission Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX,17 photos,3 color transparencies,7 data pages,3 photo caption pages HABS No. TX-319-B, Mission Senora de la Purisima Concepcion, Convent,807 Mission Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX,3 photos,1 color transparency,4 data pages,2 photo caption pages
Midwestern United States
It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Illinois is the most populous of the states and North Dakota the least, a 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions, the East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. Major rivers in the include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River. Chicago is the most populated city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country, other large Midwest cities include, Columbus, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Wichita and St. Louis. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan area with 9.8 million people, followed by Metro Detroit. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, Kansas City metro area, the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States.
A variant term, Middle West, has used since the 19th century. Another term sometimes applied to the general region is the heartland. Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest, the Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and upper-Mississippi. The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country, economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Its central location makes it a crossroads for river boats, autos, trucks. Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections, after the sociological study Middletown, which was based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as typical of the nation.
The region has a higher ratio than the Northeast, the West. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states, the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states. The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the line between future slave and non-slave states