Alamo Mission in San Antonio
The Alamo Mission in San Antonio called The Alamo and known as the Misión San Antonio de Valero, is a historic Spanish mission and fortress compound founded in the 18th century by Roman Catholic missionaries in what is now San Antonio, United States. It was the site of the Battle of the Alamo in 1836. Today it is a museum in the Alamo Plaza Historic District and a part of the San Antonio Missions World Heritage Site; the historic district was one of the early Spanish missions in Texas, built for the education of local American Indians after their conversion to Christianity. The mission was secularized in 1793 and abandoned. Ten years it became a fortress housing the Second Flying Company of San Carlos de Parras military unit, who gave the mission the name Alamo. During the Texas Revolution, Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos surrendered the fort to the Texian Army in December 1835, following the Siege of Béxar. A small number of Texian soldiers occupied the compound for several months; the defenders were wiped out at the Battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.
As the Mexican Army retreated from Texas several months they tore down many of the Alamo walls and burned some of the buildings. For the next five years, the Alamo was periodically used to garrison soldiers, both Texian and Mexican, but was abandoned. In 1849, several years after Texas was annexed to the United States, the U. S. Army began renting the facility for use as a quartermaster's depot, before again abandoning the mission in 1876 after nearby Fort Sam Houston was established; the Alamo chapel was sold to the state of Texas, which conducted occasional tours but made no effort to restore it. The remaining buildings were sold to a mercantile company which operated them as a wholesale grocery store; the Daughters of the Republic of Texas began trying to preserve the Alamo. Adina Emilia De Zavala and Clara Driscoll convinced the state legislature in 1905 to purchase the remaining buildings and to name the DRT as the permanent custodian of the site. Over the next century, periodic attempts were made to transfer control of the Alamo from the DRT.
In early 2015, Texas Land Commissioner George P. Bush removed control of the Alamo to the Texas General Land Office; the Alamo and the four missions in the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site on July 5, 2015. In 1716, the Spanish government established several Roman Catholic missions in East Texas; the isolation of the missions—the nearest Spanish settlement, San Juan Bautista, Coahuila was over 400 miles away—made it difficult to keep them adequately provisioned. To assist the missionaries, the new governor of Spanish Texas, Martín de Alarcón, wished to establish a waystation between the settlements along the Rio Grande and the new missions in East Texas. In April 1718, Alarcón led an expedition to found a new community in Texas. On May 1, the group erected a temporary mud and straw structure near the headwaters of the San Antonio River; this building would serve as a new mission, San Antonio de Valero, named after Saint Anthony of Padua and the viceroy of New Spain, Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, Marquess of Valero.
The mission, headed by Father Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares, was located near a community of Coahuiltecans and was populated by three to five Indian converts from Mission San Francisco Solano near San Juan Bautista. One mile north of the mission, Alarcón built the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar. Close by, he founded the first civilian community in Texas, San Antonio de Béxar, which developed into the present-day city of San Antonio, Texas. Within a year, the mission moved to the western bank of the river, where it was less to flood. Over the next several years, a chain of missions were established nearby. In 1724, after remnants of a Gulf Coast hurricane destroyed the existing structures at Misión San Antonio de Valero, the mission was moved to its current location. At the time, the new location was just across the San Antonio River from the town of San Antonio de Béxar and just north of a group of huts known as La Villita. Over the next several decades, the mission complex expanded to cover 3 acres.
The first permanent building was the two-story, L-shaped stone residence for the priests. The building served as south edges of an inner courtyard. A series of adobe barracks buildings were constructed to house the mission Indians and a textile workshop was erected. By 1744, over 300 Indian converts resided at San Antonio de Valero; the mission was self-sufficient, relying on its 2,000 head of cattle and 1,300 sheep for food and clothing. Each year, the mission's farmland produced up to 100 bushels of beans; the first stones were laid for a more permanent church building in 1744, the church, its tower and the sacristy collapsed in the late 1750s. Reconstruction began with the new chapel located at the south end of the inner courtyard. Constructed of 4-foot thick limestone blocks, it was intended to be three stories high and topped by a dome, with bell towers on either side, its shape was a traditional cross, with short transepts. Although the first two levels were completed, the bell towers and third story were never begun.
While four stone arches were erected to support the planned dome, the dome itself was never built. As the church was never completed, it is unlikely that it was used for religious services; the chapel was intended to be decorated. Niches were carved on either side of the door to hold statues; the lower-level niches displaye
Mission San José (Texas)
Mission San José y San Miguel de Aguayo is an historic Catholic mission in San Antonio, United States. The mission was named in part for the Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo, José de Azlor y Virto de Vera. Many buildings on the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, borrow architectural elements from those found at Mission San José; the mission was founded on February 23, 1720, because Mission San Antonio de Valero had become overcrowded shortly after its founding with refugees from the closed East Texas missions. Father Antonio Margil received permission from the governor of Coahuila and Texas, the Marquis de San Miguel de Aguayo, to build a new mission 5 miles south of San Antonio de Valero. Like San Antonio de Valero, Mission San José served the Coahuiltecan Indians; the first buildings, made of brush and mud, were replaced by large stone structures, including guest rooms, offices, a dining room, a pantry. A heavy outer wall was built around the main part of the mission, rooms for 350 Indians were built into the walls.
A new church, still standing, was constructed in 1768 from local limestone. The mission lands were given to its Indians in 1794, mission activities ended in 1824. After that, the buildings were home to soldiers, the homeless, bandits. Starting in 1933, the Civil Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration provided the labor to rebuild and restore the grounds of the mission; some of the funding for the restoration came from money allotted by the United States for the Texas Centennial Exposition held in Dallas in 1936. The mission walls and Indian quarters were re-built, the granary was restored; the church facade features from the top: a cross, representing Jesus Christ, St. Joseph holding the infant Jesus, St. Dominic and St. Francis, Our Lady of Guadalupe, St. Joachim and St. Anne holding the infant Mary. Mission San José is now part of the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. In 2015, along with The Alamo and Mission Concepcion, it became one of five missions in San Antonio designated a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Education and Cultural Organization.
Today the mission is an active parish, is staffed by the Order of Friars Minor. The current pastor is Fr. Rogelio Martinez, OFM. Spanish missions in Texas Mission Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña.
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
Acequia Park is located in the Bexar County city of San Antonio in the U. S. state of Texas. There are picnic tables and restrooms; the origins of the park date back to Spanish missionaries, who worked with mission Indians to create a water system sourced by the San Antonio River. The San Antonio Conservation Society purchased much of this acreage in 1957 to preserve the area's environment; because the San Antonio River Authority planned to reconfigure the river channel, SACS joined local land owners in filing a successful water rights and water flow lawsuit against the Authority. In 1975, SACS deeded the property to the City of San Antonio with the stipulation that it be used as a public park. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bexar County, Texas Media related to Aqueduct at Mission San Juan at Wikimedia Commons
Mission San José (California)
Mission San José is a Spanish mission located in the present-day city of Fremont, California. It was founded on June 11, 1797, by the Franciscan order and was the fourteenth Spanish mission established in California; the mission is the namesake of the Mission San José district of Fremont, an independent town subsumed into the city when it was incorporated in 1957. The Mission entered a long period of gradual decline after Mexican secularization act of 1833. After suffering decline and earthquakes most of the mission was in ruins. Restoration efforts in the intervening periods have reconstructed many of the original structures; the old mission church remains in use as a chapel of Saint Joseph Catholic Church, a parish of the Diocese of Oakland. The museum features a visitor center and slide show telling the history of the mission. Mission San José was going to be built by C. A in what is now the San Ramon Valley. However, the Native Americans living in that area were hostile towards the Spanish. So the Spanish decided to move the Mission further south to what is now California.
Work on the site of Mission San Jose commenced in May 1797 by Native American people from Mission Santa Clara, 13 miles to the south, under the direction of Franciscan missionaries and secular Hispanic overseers. The location, on slopes overlooking the Fremont plain on the east side of San Francisco Bay, had been inhabited for countless generations by Indians who spoke the San Francisco Bay Ohlone language; the Ohlone lived wild-plant harvesting lifestyle. Their food included seeds, berries, the flour from acorns, small game, deer and shellfish. In 1797 most of the Indians, from the immediate vicinity of the mission site had already been baptized at Mission Santa Clara, 13 miles to the south, during the 1780s and early 1790s, it was these people. Mission San José's walls were 5 ft thick; the church is 30 feet wide, 24 feet high. By the end of 1800, the neophyte population had risen to 277, including both Ohlone and Bay Miwok speakers. By the end of 1805, all Indians of the East Bay south of Carquinez Strait were at the missions.
After a devastating measles epidemic that reduced the mission population by one quarter in 1806, people from more distant areas and new language groups began to join the Mission San Jose community. The first such language group was the Yokuts or Yokutsan, whose speakers began to move to Mission San José from the San Joaquin Valley in 1810. Members of two more language groups, the Coast Miwok from present Sonoma County and Patwin from present Napa and Solano counties, moved down to Mission San Jose in the 1812–1818 period, but in smaller numbers than the Yokuts. By 1825 Delta Yokuts was the dominant language in the multi-lingual community of 1,796 people. Over the next few years speakers of yet another language group, Plains Miwok, moved to the mission from the north side of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. By the time Mission San Jose was closed as an agricultural commune in the mid-1830s, Plains Miwok was the predominant native language among its neophyte Indian people. Father Narciso Durán became the pastor of the mission in 1806 and remained until he was replaced by Father José González Rubio in February 1833 as part of a post-independence policy requiring the replacement of Spanish-born clerics with those born in Mexico.
Durán trained the neophytes in music, organizing both a choir and a 30 piece orchestra that became famous throughout California. While at San José, Father Durán twice served as Father-Presidente of the Franciscan missions; the Mission's first permanent Adobe church was dedicated with great ceremony on April 22, 1809. Valuable gifts of vestments, sacred vessels, religious statues, paintings attest to the generosity of friends of the Mission in the Bay Area and abroad; the majority of vestments in the modern collection date from the late early 19th centuries. The silken fabrics and embroideries were products of various textile centers of the Spanish Empire, whose suppliers extended from Europe to Asia. Mission San José was the center of agriculture; the site was chosen for the abundance of natural resources of the area including water, fertile ground and adobe soil suitable for building. Thousands of cattle roamed the Mission ranges, acres of wheat and other crops were planted and harvested under the direction of the Padres.
In 1868, it produced 4,070 bushels of wheat and much produce, including grapes and figs. In 1832, the Mission's 12,000 cattle, 13,000 horses, 12,000 sheep roamed Mission lands from present-day Oakland to San Jose. San José was one of the most prosperous of all of the California missions. An 1833 inventory prepared by Father José González Rubio lists a church, guardhouse, guest house, a women's dormitory, in addition to the thousands of acres of crops and grazing land; this prosperity was not to last however. On August 17 of that year, the Mexican Congress passed An Act for the Secularization of the Missions of California. During the transition to full secularization, Father José González Rubio remained at the Mission as chief administrator for the church, while José de Jesús Vallejo was appointed a civil administrator; the Mission lands were parceled out to private landowners. In 1842, Father González Rubio was transferred to Mission Santa Barbara; the native people found themselves unable to readjust to their former way of life.
The Mission buildings, granaries, or
Franciscan Friars established Mission Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña in 1716 as Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Hainais in East Texas. The mission was meant to be a base for converting the Hasinai to Catholicism and teaching them what they needed to know to become Spanish citizens; the friars moved the mission in 1731 to San Antonio. After its relocation most of the people in the mission were Pajalats who spoke a Coahuiltecan language. Catholic Mass is still held every Sunday. On October 28, 1835, Mexican troops under Colonel Domingo Ugartechea and Texian insurgents led by James Bowie and James Fannin fought the Battle of Concepción here. Historian J. R. Edmondson describes the 30-minute engagement as "the first major engagement of the Texas Revolution."Mission Concepcion consists of a sanctuary, nave and granary. When built, brightly painted frescos decorated both the exterior and interior of the building. Traces of the frescoes still exist on the weathered facade of the building.
Experts restored some of the artwork on the interior ceilings and walls of the convento in 1988. The Archdiocese of San Antonio completed another restoration of the mission's interior in 2010 which exposed more frescoes in the sanctuary and nave. Located at 807 Mission Road, Concepción is the best preserved of the Texas missions, it was designated a National Historic Landmark on April 15, 1970 and is part of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. In 2015, the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization designated Concepción and four other San Antonio missions, including The Alamo, as a World Heritage Site, the first in Texas and one of twenty-three such establishments in the United States; the western entrance to the church is aligned to the sunset in such a way that an "annual double solar illumination event" occurs every year on or around August 15, the feast day of the Assumption of Mary. Spanish missions in Texas Mission San José y San Miguel de Aguayo Mission San Juan Capistrano Mission San Francisco de la Espada Espada Acequia San Antonio Missions National Historical Park Mission Conception parish Mission Conception entry at Handbook of Texas Online Historic American Buildings Survey No.
TX-319-A, "Mission Senora de la Purisima Concepcion, Church, 807 Mission Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX", 17 photos, 3 color transparencies, 7 data pages, 3 photo caption pages HABS No. TX-319-B, "Mission Senora de la Purisima Concepcion, Convent, 807 Mission Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX", 3 photos, 1 color transparency, 4 data pages, 2 photo caption pages
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list