A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, may serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community; these may include a hospice, a school, a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery. In English usage, the term monastery is used to denote the buildings of a community of monks.
In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. A convent denoted a house of friars, now more called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways; the word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριον, neut. of μοναστήριος – monasterios from μονάζειν – monazein "to live alone" from the root μόνος – monos "alone". The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, ch. III. In England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition.
See the entry cathedral. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. Buddhist monasteries are called vihara. Viharas may be occupied by men or women, in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. In Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be a priory, or conceivably a hermitage, it may be a community of men or of women. A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity, a small monastic community can be called a skete, a large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra.
The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. There has been under the Osmanli occupation of Greece and Cyprus, an "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle where monks come together but being able to own things individually and not being obliged to work for the common good. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most an ashram. Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property; the degree to which life inside a particular monastery is separate from the surrounding populace can vary widely. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism; some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to an entire lifetime.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. There has been a long tradition of Christian monasteries providing hospitable and hospital services. Monasteries have been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. Buddhist monasteries, known as vihāra i
Marah fabaceus, the California manroot or bigroot, is the most common of the manroot species native to California. Its range throughout the state subsumes nearly the entire ranges of all the other California native manroots species and intergrades. Hybrids between California manroot and the other species are common. Like other manroots, Marah fabaceus has stout, hairy stems with tendrils. Vines appear in late winter in response to increased rainfall, can climb or scramble to a length of 6 meters, its leaves have five lobes with individual plants showing wide variation in leaf size and lobe length. Vines emerge from a large, hard tuberous root which can reach several meters in length and weigh in excess of 100 kilograms. Newly exposed tubers can be seen along roadcuts or eroded slopes and have a scaley, tan-colored surface. Injured or decaying tubers take on a orange color; the flower can vary in colour from yellowish green to cream to white. Flowers appear; the flowers are monoecious, that is, individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant.
Male flowers appear in open clusters while females flowers, distinguished by a swollen base appear individually. The plant is self-fertile. Pollination is by insects; the fruit is spherical, 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter, covered in prickles of variable density, up to 1 centimeter long but without hooks. Unripe fruit are ripening to yellow; the fruit swells as it ripens until rupturing and releasing the large seeds. Fruit begin to form in ripen by early summer, it is not suggested that the fruit is eaten as it can induce diarrhea. Seeds of the California manroot are large and smooth. Fruit hold 4 or more seeds. Seeds sprout in the cool wetness of late winter. Seeds have an intriguing germination process; the initial shoot grows downward into the earth. This shoot splits, one part beginning to swell and form the tuber, while the second part grows back to the surface and becomes the vine; the California manroot grows most vigorously by streams or in washes but is successful in dry chaparral, at elevations up to 1600 metres.
It ranges through most of California except the far northwest and the Mojave Desert. It will tolerate a variety of soil types and acidities. Vines can grow in full-sun to shaded conditions. In mild areas where year-round moisture is available, vines can be perennial. In the Mediterranean climate areas of California, manroot emerges soon after winter rains begin, grows until late spring, dies back in the heat and dryness of summer. Two varieties are recognised, Marah fabaceus var. agrestis, Marah fabaceus var. fabaceus. An example occurrence of M.f. agrestis is on Ring Mountain in California. The tubers of Marah fabaceus were crushed and thrown into surface waters by the Kumeyaay to immobilize fish; the tubers contain a saponin-like glucoside. Saponins lower the surface tension of water allowing the formation of bubbles, it is that the substance enters the fish's circulation through the gill arches where only a single-cell epithelium separates the water from the animal’s red blood cells. The affected fish float to the surface.
All parts of the plant have a bitter taste. Despite this, the leaves have been used as a vegetable. Due to its saponin content, the large tuber of the manroot can be processed for a soap-like extract; the liquid inside the fruit is an eye irritant, the spines on the fruit are irritating to the skin. Be cautious when handling the fruit. Bjenning, Christina A.. "Native fishing practices - revisited". Torreyana. San Diego, California: The Torrey Pines Docent Society. Pp. 8–9. Archived from the original on 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2008-04-21. C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Ring Mountain, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham Jepson Manual - Marah fabaceus Entry in the Plants for a Future database Marah fabaceus - U. C. Photo gallery
Gaspar de Portolá
Gaspar de Portolá y Rovira was a Spanish soldier and administrator in New Spain. As commander of the Spanish colonizing expedition on land and sea that established San Diego and Monterey, Portolá expanded New Spain's Las Californias province far to the north from its beginnings on the Baja California peninsula. Portolá's expedition was the first European to see San Francisco Bay; the expedition gave names to geographic features along the way. Portolá was born on January 1, 1716 in Catalonia, Spain, of Catalan nobility. Don Gaspar served as a soldier in the Spanish army in Portugal, he was commissioned ensign in 1734, lieutenant in 1743. Beginning in 1684, Jesuit missionaries started establishing missions on the Baja California Peninsula. Rumors circulated that the Jesuits had amassed a fortune and were becoming powerful; as part of the nearly global suppression of the Jesuits, King Carlos III ordered the Jesuits expelled and deported to the Papal States on the Italian peninsula. Following the command of the king, the Viceroy of New Spain ordered the arrest and deportation of all Jesuits in missions.
Portolá was charged with the expulsion of the Jesuits. The missions were turned over to the Franciscans, to the Dominicans. Spain was driven to establish missions and other outposts on the Pacific Coast north of the Baja California Peninsula by fears that the territory would be claimed by foreign powers; the English, who had established colonies on the East Coast of the continent and north into what is now Canada, had sent explorers into the Pacific. Russian fur hunters were pressing east from Siberia across the Bering Strait into the Aleutian Islands and beyond. Dispatches of January 23, 1768, exchanged between King Carlos and the viceroy, set the wheels in motion to extend Spain's control up the Pacific Coast and establish colonies and missions at San Diego Bay and Monterey Bay, discovered and described in reports by earlier explorers Juan Cabrillo and Sebastián Vizcaíno. Vizcaíno had mapped the California coastline as far north as Monterey in 1602, but not much more was done until 166 years later.
In May 1768, the Spanish Visitor General, José de Gálvez, began to organize an expedition, by sea and by land. Portolá was given overall command. Junípero Serra, leader of the expedition's Franciscan missionaries, took command of spiritual matters. Sea and land detachments were to meet at San Diego Bay; the first ship, the San Carlos, sailed from La Paz on January 10, 1769 and a second, the San Antonio sailed from Cabo San Lucas on February 15. At the same time, the various elements of the land parties began to move north from Loreto, Baja California Sur; the land expedition was assembled at Velicatá. From there, Portolá's plan called for splitting the land expedition in two; the lead group, charged with building a wagon trail and pacifying the natives, was led by Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada, departed from Velicatá on March 24. With Rivera was the priest Juan Crespí, diarist for the Franciscans; the expedition led by Portolá, which included Junípero Serra, along with a combination of missionaries and leather-jacket soldiers, including José Raimundo Carrillo, left Velicata on May 15.
Junípero Serra founded two more missions during the expedition: San Diego de Alcalá on July 16, 1769 and Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on June 3, 1770. Rivera reached the site of present-day San Diego in May, established a camp in the area, now Old Town and awaited the arrival of the others; because of an error by Vizcaíno in determining the latitude of the San Diego Harbor, the ships passed by it and landed too far north before finding their way back. The San Antonio arrived on April 11 and the San Carlos, the first ship to leave La Paz, having met with fierce winds and storms on the journey, arrived on April 29. A third vessel was to follow with supplies, but it was lost at sea; the land expedition of Portolá arrived on June 29. After their arduous journeys, most of the men aboard ship were ill, chiefly from scurvy, many had died. Out of a total of 219 who left Baja California, little more than 100 now survived. Eager to press on to Monterey Bay, Portolá and his expedition, consisting of Juan Crespí, 63 leather-jacket soldiers and 100 mules loaded down with provisions, headed north on July 14, 1769.
Marching two to four leagues a day, they reached the site of present-day Fullerton, at Hillcrest Park on July 30, 1769. They next traveled to Brea Canyon, in Brea, California, on July 31, 1769, they arrived in what is now Los Angeles on August 2. The following day, they marched out the Indian trail that would one day become Wilshire Boulevard to the present site of Santa Monica. Winding around to the area of Saugus, now part of Santa Clarita, they reached the area to become Santa Barbara on August 19, the present day San Simeon area on September 13. Unable to remain on the coast due to the steep, difficult terrain, the party turned inland, they marched through the San Antonio Valley and on October 1, Portolá's party emerged from the Santa Lucia Mountains and reached the mouth of the Salinas River. After a march of some 400 miles from San Diego and about 1,000 miles from Velicatá, they had reached the bay they were seeking, but they failed to discern the coastline's semi-circular shape, described by Vizcaíno as round like an "O" though members of the party had twice marched along its beach.
Having failed to find their goal, they marched on north and reached the area at the north end of the bay, where Crespi named a creek Santa Cruz on October 18. Pushing on, they
Loma Prieta is 3,790 feet high and is the highest peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Northern California. The peak is on private property about 11 miles west of Morgan Hill in Santa Clara County; the dirt road to the summit is gated, but the tower maintainers do not mind hikers. From 1976 through 1990 amateur astronomer Donald Machholz set up his telescope an average of 120 times a year on the south slope of this mountain to search for comets. From this site he discovered three new comets that bear his name, including Periodic Comet Machholz 1 96P/Machholz on May 12, 1986; the first official West Coast Messier marathon was conducted from this site in March 1979. The epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake was near the mountain; the mountain was the longtime site for the transmitter tower of San Jose television station KNTV. It moved its transmitter 83 kilometres northwest to San Bruno Mountain in September 2005, after it became the Bay Area's NBC affiliate. Loma Prieta is the tallest peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains and it is common to see snow on the mountain during the winter.
List of summits of the San Francisco Bay Area "Map of Loma Prieta"
Melilotus, known as melilot, sweet clover, kumoniga, is a genus in the family Fabaceae. Members are known as weeds of cultivated ground. From Europe and Asia, it is now found worldwide; this legume is named for its sweet smell, due to the presence of coumarin in its tissues. Coumarin, though responsible for the sweet smell of hay and newly mowed grass, has a bitter taste, and, as such acts as a means for the plant to discourage consumption by animals. Fungi can convert coumarin into a toxic anticoagulant. Dicoumarol may be found in decaying sweet-clover, was the cause of the so-called sweet-clover disease, recognized in cattle in the 1920s. A few varieties of sweet clover have been developed with low coumarin content and are safer for forage and silage; the name sweet clover varies orthographically. Melilotus species are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, such as those of the genus Coleophora, including C. frischella and C. trifolii. Melilotus used as a green manure, can be turned into the soil to increase its nitrogen and organic matter content.
It is valuable in heavy soils because of its deep rooting. However, it may fail, it should be turned into the soil. Unscarified seed is best sown in spring. Blue melilot is not a member of the genus, despite the name; the genus Melilotus has nineteen recognized species: Melilotus albus Medik. Melilotus altissimus Thuill. Melilotus dentatus Pers. Melilotus elegans Salzm. Ex Ser. Melilotus hirsutus. Melilotus infestus Guss. Melilotus italicus Lam. Melilotus macrocarpus Coss. & Durieu Melilotus officinalis Lam. Melilotus polonicus Desr. Melilotus segetalis Ser. Melilotus siculus B. D. Jacks. Melilotus speciosus. Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb. Melilotus sulcatus Desf. Melilotus tauricus Ser. Melilotus wolgicus Poir
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture, grazing is one method used whereby domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat and other products. Many small selective herbivores follow larger grazers which skim off the highest, tough growth of grasses, exposing tender shoots. For terrestrial animals, grazing is distinguished from browsing in that grazing is eating grass or forbs, whereas browsing is eating woody twigs and leaves from trees and shrubs. Grazing differs from predation, it differs from parasitism because the two organisms live together in a constant state of physical externality. Water animals that feed by rasping algae and other micro-organisms from stones are called grazers-scrapers. Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. Graminivory is a form of grazing involving feeding on grass.
Horses, capybara, grasshoppers and giant pandas are graminivores. Giant pandas are 99 % of their diet consisting of sub-alpine bamboo species. Rabbits are herbivores that feed by grazing on grass and leafy weeds, they graze and for about the first half-hour of a grazing period, followed by about half an hour of more selective feeding. If the environment is non-threatening, the rabbit remains outdoors for many hours, grazing at intervals, their diet contains large amounts of cellulose, hard to digest. Rabbits solve this problem by using a form of hindgut fermentation, they pass two distinct types of feces: hard droppings and soft black viscous pellets, the latter of which are known as caecotrophs and are eaten. Rabbits reingest their own droppings to extract sufficient nutrients. Capybara are herbivores that graze on grasses and aquatic plants, as well as fruit and tree bark; as with other grazers, they can be selective, feeding on the leaves of one species and disregarding other species surrounding it.
They eat a greater variety of plants during the dry season. While they eat grass during the wet season, they have to switch to more abundant reeds during the dry season; the capybara's jaw hinge is not perpendicular. Capybara are coprophagous as a means of obtaining bacterial gut flora to help digest the cellulose in the grass that forms their normal diet, to extract the maximum protein and vitamins from their food, they may regurgitate food to masticate again, similar to cud-chewing by a cow. As with other rodents, the front teeth of capybara grow continually to compensate for the constant wear from eating grasses; the hippopotamus is a large, semi-aquatic, mammal inhabiting rivers and mangrove swamps. During the day, they remain cool by staying in the mud, they emerge at dusk to graze on grasses. While hippopotamuses rest near each other in the water, grazing is a solitary activity, their incisors can be the canines up to 50 cm. Hippos rely on their broad, horny lips to grasp and pull grasses which are ground by the molars.
The hippo is considered to be a pseudoruminant. Although grazing is associated with mammals feeding on grasslands, or more livestock in a pasture, ecologists sometimes use the word in a broader sense, to include any organism that feeds on any other species without ending the life of the prey organism. Use of the term varies more than this. Malacologists sometimes apply the word to aquatic snails that feed by consuming the microscopic film of algae and detritus—a biofilm—that covers the substrate and other surfaces underwater; the use of livestock grazing can be dated back to the Civil War. During this time land ownership was not common, ranchers grazed their cattle on the surrounding federal, land. Not having a permanent home, these cowboys would graze an area down, continue on their way. More however, cattle were rotated between summer and winter ranges. Soon the public saw how profitable cattle could be, many tried to get into the cattle business. With the appearance of free, unlimited grass and feed, the land became overcrowded and the forage depleted.
Ranchers tried to put a stop to this by using barbed wire fences to barricade their land, water sources, cattle. After failed attempts, the Taylor Grazing Act was enacted in 1934; this act was put into place to help regulate the use of public land for grazing purposes and allotted ranchers certain paddocks of land. Additionally, "fees collected for grazing livestock on public lands was returned to the appropriate grazing district to be used for range improvements"; the Taylor Grazing Act helped to stabilize ranchers' operations and allow them to continue raising their livestock. In the 19th century, grazing techniques were non-existent. Pastures would be grazed for long periods of time, wi