South San Francisco, California
South San Francisco is a city in San Mateo County, United States, located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 63,632 at the 2010 census, locals often refer to the town as South City, in much the same way that San Francisco is called The City. Despite its name, South San Francisco does not border San Francisco, most of the valley faces San Francisco Bay, affording bay views from higher levels. South San Francisco has mild winters and dry cool summers, the hills to the west shield the city from much of the fog that prevails in neighboring areas. The city is noted for the South San Francisco Hillside Sign on Sign Hill, the sign, a tribute to the citys industrial past, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The area which is now South San Francisco was originally part of Rancho Buri Buri, in 1853 Charles Lux and a business partner, Alfred Edmondson, purchased 1,700 acres of Rancho Buri Buri. Lux bought out Edmonson’s interest in 1856 and founded the town of Baden, in 1855 Lux bought another 1,464 acres of Rancho Buri Buri land and became a partner of fellow San Francisco butcher and entrepreneur Henry Miller, forming the firm of Miller & Lux.
A city plan was put forward in 1888 by Gustavus Franklin Swift, the plan called for multiple individual meat-packing companies with a shared stockyard, as well as a residential area for employees. Swift proposed the name South San Francisco based on South Chicago and South Omaha, where the Swift company already had plants. In 1890 Peter E. Iler of Omaha, Nebraska, an agent of the Beef Trust, purchased Luxs property, the area was divided into industrial and residential districts, and the company installed lighting, sewer connections, and water distributions in the residential areas. A second corporation, eventually known as the Western Meat Company, set up stock yards and meat packing facilities on 80 acres of bayfront property, other industries soon moved in, including a pottery works, two brick companies, the paint manufacturer W. P. Fuller & Company, the South San Francisco Lumber Company, following incorporation additional industries moved into the town, including two steel mills. A new City Hall was opened on November 11,1920, by the 1920s the city was the smokestack capital of the Peninsula.
South San Francisco proudly called itself The Industrial City, a motto immortalized in 1923 by a sign on a hillside overlooking the city. Industry remained the main economic focus through the 1950s. During World War II shipbuilding became a significant operation, at the end of the war the citys focus shifted away from smokestack industries toward light industry and residential development. The major manufacturers closed, and new development was focused on office parks, high-rise hotels, the biotechnology giant Genentech opened in 1976, leading to South San Franciscos new identity as the birthplace of biotechnology. The population grew to 63,632 as of the 2010 census, South San Francisco is located at 37°39′22″N 122°25′32″W
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as likely to become extinct. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3079 animal and 2655 plant species as endangered worldwide, the figures for 1998 were, respectively,1102 and 1197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species, for example, population numbers and species conservation status can be found in the lists of organisms by population. The conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood that it will become extinct, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 40% of the species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally,199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered, in the United States, such plans are usually called Species Recovery Plans. Those species of Near Threatened and Least Concern status have been assessed and found to have relatively robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline.
The IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, Extinct Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, critically endangered Faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future, vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future, Least concern No immediate threat to species survival. A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. E) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 20% within 20 years or five generations, there is data from the United States that shows a correlation between human populations and threatened and endangered species. Under the Endangered Species Act in the United States, species may be listed as endangered or threatened, the Salt Creek tiger beetle is an example of an endangered subspecies protected under the ESA.
Some endangered species laws are controversial, lobbying from hunters and various industries like the petroleum industry, construction industry, and logging, has been an obstacle in establishing endangered species laws. The Bush administration lifted a policy that required federal officials to consult an expert before taking actions that could damage endangered species. Under the Obama administration, this policy has been reinstated, being listed as an endangered species can have negative effect since it could make a species more desirable for collectors and poachers. This effect is potentially reducible, such as in China where commercially farmed turtles may be reducing some of the pressure to poach endangered species. Another problem with the species is its effect of inciting the use of the shoot, shovel
Los Gatos Creek (Santa Clara County, California)
The Guadalupe River continues onward into San Francisco Bay. The creek begins in the Santa Cruz mountains near the Santa Clara/Santa Cruz County border and it flows northwesterly to Lake Elsman, a reservoir owned by the San Jose Water Company, on to Holy City and Chemeketa Park, northward into the Lexington Reservoir. The creek flows through the Los Gatos Canyon and through the town of Los Gatos and Vasona Reservoir, northeasterly through Campbell and San Jose where it meets the Guadalupe River. The first settlers, a Spanish family arriving in 1839, were scouting for a homestead in the area when they heard mountain lions roaring and fighting, while frightened, they recognized it was a good omen, for it meant water couldnt be far away. They discovered the creek and built a home in what is now Vasona Lake County Park, on Hares 1872 map the creek was called Arroyo de Los Gatos and Zachariah Jones called it Jones Creek at the time he laid out the town he called Jones Mill. Forbes Mill was established by James Forbes along the creek in the 1850s, the construction of State Route 17 in the 1950s forced much of the creek through Los Gatos to be diverted into a concrete gulch.
As a Caltrans magazine from the era describes it, Included in this project is a relocation of Los Gatos Creek for a distance of 6,000 feet, requiring a concrete line channel. Also in the 1950s, the construction of the James J. Lenihan Dam formed Lexington Reservoir, the dam and reservoir were completed in 1952, forcing the rerouting of Highway 17. When the reservoirs water level is low, the bed of the old highway through those towns can be seen. In spite of these events, much of the creek maintains its natural course, below Vasona Park, Los Gatos Creek feeds percolation ponds that are part of the groundwater recharge system built by the Santa Clara Valley Water District. North of Lark Avenue, one can see a structure resembling a fountain. In the 1920s, people discovered that Santa Clara Valley was sinking because of groundwater pumping, San Joses elevation subsided 13 feet from 1910 to 1970s, correlated with a 250 feet decline in the underground water table. The valleys aquifers were in danger of being ruined by saltwater infiltration, local reservoirs were built to provide water for an aggressive groundwater recharge program.
While simultaneously dealing with the demands of growing cities, the district finally managed to stop further sinking by the 1980s. Vasona and Lexington reservoirs were part of the effort, fish were plentiful for the first settlers of Los Gatos Creek. Newspaper stories in the 1880s describe catches of 100 to 200 trout a day, one pioneer wrote that speckled trout were so plentiful, they could be caught with your hands. Based on the locations of fish collections made in 1895 and historical habitat condition suitable for salmonids, stream resident coastal rainbow trout populations remain in the portions of the creek maintaining permanent flow, just below and above of Lexington Reservoir. The Santa Clara Valley Water District reservoir system has now raised water tables sufficiently that lower Los Gatos Creek once again supports steelhead trout, steelhead trout PIT-tagged in the South San Francisco Bay Ponds were identified upstream in the Guadalupe River in spring 2014
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae. This includes the plants and other gymnosperms, clubmosses, liverworts and the green algae. Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction is common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains and vegetables form humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture.
They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals. The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts. When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a group of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled. Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors.
Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown and green algae. Each of these groups includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms
San Mateo County, California
San Mateo County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451, the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, and is part of the San Francisco Bay Area and it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the end of the county. The countys built-up areas are mostly suburban with some areas being very urban, San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the states 18 original counties since Californias statehood in 1850, was split apart. Until 1856, San Franciscos city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, in response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated rapidly between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county. A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain.
The consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by an introduced by Horace Hawes. San Mateo County was officially organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G, San Mateo County annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by unblushing frauds, perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco named Belmont the county seat. The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, Redwood Citys status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew, until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 741 square miles. It is the third-smallest county in California by land area, a number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio. These streams originate along the spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length, the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannah
San Bruno Mountain
San Bruno Mountain is located in northern San Mateo County, with some slopes of the mountain crossing over into southern San Francisco. Most of the lies within the 2, 326-acre San Bruno Mountain State Park. Next to the park is the 83-acre state San Bruno Mountain Ecological Reserve on the north slope. It is near the boundary of San Francisco, surrounded by the cities of South San Francisco, Daly City, Colma. San Bruno Mountain is topped by a four mile long ridge, trails to the summit afford expansive views of the San Francisco Bay Area. The mountain provides habitat for species of rare and endangered plants. The endangered San Bruno elfin butterfly inhabits this mountain and a few other locations, the distinct Franciscan fog zone plants of San Bruno Mountain set it apart from other California coastal areas. The Portola expedition visited San Francisco Bay in 1769, the expedition is usually considered the first European presence in the area. Five years Fernando Rivera and four soldiers climbed the mountain, the mountain was named by Bruno de Heceta for his patron saint.
San Bruno Mountain consists of portions of five Mexican land grants, jose Antonio Sanchez, who rode by mule as a child from Sonora, Mexico was given Rancho Buri Buri in 1827, with confirmation in 1835. Rancho Buri Buri extended from the bay salt flats to San Andreas Valley, in 1835 this rancho was granted to Jacob P. Leese. Three other ranchos held minor portions of the flank of San Bruno Mountain. The cities that have grown up around the mountain are San Francisco to the north, Brisbane to the east, thornton pioneered the Habitat Conservation Plan concept creating the first such plan for the area around San Bruno Mountain. KRON was the first television station to place a transmitter tower on Radio Peak, in 1949, followed by KQED and KTVU, though these tenants moved their transmitters to Sutro Tower in the 1970s. A number of FM stations built transmitter towers on the mountain, KTSF occupies the former KRON site. In 1965, Westbay Community Associates announced a plan to level a portion of the mountain to fill 27 square miles of San Francisco Bay north of Sierra Point with landfill.
The proposal intended to create housing developments in the Saddle just north of Guadalupe Canyon Road, the Terra Bay project was approved in the mid-1980s for development at the south and southeast base of San Bruno Mountain. Dean & Associates, was unable to complete the project, and SunChase Holdings acquired the project in 1992, SunChase agreed to fund ecological restoration to mitigate the impact of Terra Bay during the development of Phase I under the terms of the San Bruno HCP
Mount Thayer is a mountain in the Santa Cruz mountain range located in Santa Clara County, California. The summit is in a section of the abandoned Almaden Air Force Station, the elevation of the summit is at 3,479 feet feet. An old derelict building, surrounded by telephone poles, is located on the summit, Mount Thayer, along with the surrounding property is off limits to the public. List of summits of the San Francisco Bay Area Mount Thayer
Twin Peaks (Santa Clara County, California)
Twin Peaks are two prominent peaks along the foothills east of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California. The peaks are nestled between Uvas Reservoir to the west, and Paradise Valley in Morgan Hill to the east, the headwaters for Sycamore Creek rise from the eastern hillsides near these peaks. Although part of the Uvas Reservoir County Park, no trails lead to the peaks from the park side. List of summits of the San Francisco Bay Area Twin Peaks
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use state as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, the term is used in the Australian state of Victoria. The equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa, similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar to parks, but under state rather than federal administration. Similarly, local government entities below state level may maintain parks, in general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California. As of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, there are some 739 million annual visits to the countrys state parks.
The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail,217,367 campsites, many states include designations beyond state park in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, some state park systems include long-distance trails and historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, however several public parks previously or currently maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a park since 1825. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890. In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its forests as The State Park but, needing money. The first state park with the designation of state park was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, list of U. S. state parks National Association of State Park Directors Wilderness preservation systems in the United States Ahlgren, Carol.
The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development, the State Park Movement in America, A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement, oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp, 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. When Forests Trumped Parks, The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950, Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp, 203-224
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Carbonera Creek is a 10. 2-mile-long watercourse in Santa Cruz County, that eventually flows to the San Lorenzo River. The stream rises in the rugged Santa Cruz Mountains and flows in a southwesterly direction. The city of Scotts Valley is situated within the watershed of Carbonera Creek and its tributary to the north. Carbonera Creek joins Branciforte Creek near the 500 block of Market Street in Santa Cruz, Branciforte Creek discharges to the San Lorenzo River, which empties into the Pacific Ocean at Monterey Bay at Santa Cruz. The perennial Carbonera Creek has a watershed of 7.4 square miles, the West Branch of Carbonera Creek is a total of 1.4 miles in length and passes under Vine Hill Road. The West Branch continues under Scotts Valley Drive and the State Route 17/Granite Creek Interchange through a series of box culverts, the West Branch joins the main branch of Carbonera Creek immediately south of the State Route 17/Granite Creek Interchange. Carbonera Creek is the surface water hydrological feature in Scotts Valley, running across the western portion of the Santas Village site.
Elevations in the Carbonera Creek watershed vary from about 500 feet above sea level on the floor to 1,123 feet at the highest ridge. The average annual precipitation in the Carbonera Creek watershed ranges from 85 to 120 centimeters per year, Carbonera Creek flows at an average of 0.8 to 1.0 cubic foot per second. Lower Bean Creek has an average flow of 3.0 cubic feet per second. However, the flow in both creeks greatly depends on the season, in fact, flows in these creeks typically drop dramatically during the dry summer season, riparian woodland vegetation is located Carbonera Creek and its tributaries. The 1990 Earth Metrics EIR identifies broadleaf deciduous trees as dominating this habitat and are able to survive because of the presence of fresh water. Examples of such trees present in the zone include California bay laurel, California Sycamore, black cottonwood, Bigleaf maple, white alder. Invasive root systems of trees are important in erosion control and their dense canopy provides food and shelter for a variety of birds and mammals.
The lush cover afforded by this provides wildlife with a suitable environment for breeding. The plant community Northern coastal scrub exists in the Carbonera Creek catchment basin and this community is scattered throughout the basin, typically situated on windy, exposed sites with shallow, rocky soils. The surface soil and subsoil drain very rapidly and do not retain water to support local climax species such as Coast redwood or Douglas fir. There are two Federally listed endangered species of insects within this sparse forest, aquatic species include steelhead and Chinook salmon, which migrate up the San Lorenzo River and its tributaries, including Carbonera Creek