El Camino Real (California)
The meaning of the term Camino Real has in fact changed over time. In earlier Spanish colonial times, any road under the jurisdiction of the Spanish crown. Examples of such roads ran between principal settlements throughout Spain and its colonies such as New Spain, most caminos reales had names apart from the appended camino real. Once Mexico won its independence from Spain, no road in Mexico, the name was rarely used after that and was only revived in the American period in connection with the boosterism associated with the Mission Revival movement of the early 20th century. The original route began in Baja California Sur, Mexico, at the site of Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó. Today, many streets throughout California that either follow or run parallel to this route still bear the El Camino Real name. Some of the route has been continually upgraded until it is now part of the modern California freeway system. The original route is traced by a series of commemorative bell markers. Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of outposts from todays Baja California.
In Alta California, El Camino Real followed two routes, established by the first two Spanish exploratory expeditions of the region. The first was the Portolá Expedition of 1769, the expedition party included Franciscan missionaries, led by Junípero Serra. Starting from Loreto, Serra established the first of the 21 missions at San Diego, Serra stayed at San Diego and Juan Crespí continued the rest of the way with Gaspar de Portolá. Proceeding north, Portolá followed the coastline, except where forced inland by coastal cliffs, the expedition was prevented from going farther north by the entrance to San Francisco Bay, the Golden Gate. Crespí identified several future mission sites which were not developed until later, on the return trip to San Diego, Gaspar de Portolá found a shorter detour around one stretch of coastal cliffs via Conejo Valley. Portolá journeyed again from San Diego to Monterey in 1770, where Junipero Serra founded the second mission (later moved a distance south to Carmel. Carmel became Serras Alta California mission headquarters, the second Juan Bautista de Anza expedition, entering Alta California from the southeast picked up Portolás trail at Mission San Gabriel.
De Anzas scouts found easier traveling in several valleys, rather than staying on the rugged coast. On his journey north, de Anza traveled the San Fernando Valley and this became the preferred route, and more closely corresponds to the officially recognized El Camino Real
Ventura College is a California-state funded community college located in Ventura, California, USA. Established in 1925, the college has a 112-acre campus with an enrollment of 13,763 students, the college is part of the Ventura County Community College District. Ventura College was established as the first college in Ventura County in 1925, in 1929, the Ventura High School District adopted the four-four plan of secondary education, providing four years of junior high school and four years of high school/junior college. The next year, Ventura Junior College, as the senior school was known, was moved to a new campus at Main and Catalina Streets in Ventura. Ventura Junior College became Ventura College, an institution for the freshman. In 1962, the voters of Ventura County authorized the formation of a community college district separate from any public school entity. In 1974, the college began offering classes in Fillmore to serve the Santa Clara River Valley’s predominantly Hispanic population, in 1980, the East Campus moved to its current location on Dean Drive in Santa Paula.
In addition to the East Campus, Ventura College currently utilizes classrooms at Fillmore High School, the first Ventura College building constructed using bond funds was the Library and Learning Resources Center, which opened in January 2005. The remodeled Student Services Center opened in April 2008, and the Sportsplex in 2009, the Advanced Technology Center, General Purposes Classroom Building and the Health Sciences Center buildings are currently under construction, as is the training facility for sheriff officers. The Performing Arts Complex and the housing the college’s technical programs are currently under renovation. Ventura College serves a student body through both credit and non-credit offerings. The college offers associate of arts or associate of science degrees in thirty-three majors, students are able to obtain an associate of arts degree in general studies, using one of three patterns to obtain the required units. In addition, the college offers certificates of achievement in thirty-five career and technical education fields, the Ventura County Community College District has grown to include two additional colleges, Moorpark College and Oxnard College, collectively serving more than 36,000 students per semester.
The District Administrative Center offices are located on Stanley Avenue in Ventura, Ventura College is the home of the Ventura College Promise, the largest grant program of its kind in the nation at a community college. This same promise is extended to students who have completed their GED requirements or who have completed the coursework for school but have not yet passed their exit exam. In addition, the student must apply for the Ventura College Promise, according to its website, Ventura College transfers more students than most California Community Colleges. It is among the top 25% of all California Community Colleges transferring students to the UC and CSU systems and its top UC feeders include Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Diego, Santa Cruz, and Berkeley. Its top CSU feeders include Channel Islands, Long Beach, San Diego, students can participate in more than 17 clubs related to their various interests, ethnic background, and majors, and 17 intercollegiate athletic teams and spirit
Dudley House (Ventura, California)
Dudley House in Ventura, California is a historic house museum built in 1891 in a Late Victorian-style. Designed and built by architect and builder Selwyn Shaw, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. At the time of the NRHP listing, the farmhouse was occupied by the generation of the Dudley family. The property was deemed significant for its architecture and for its association with this farming family, the city-owned house is now managed by San Buenaventura Heritage, Inc. and is open for tours on a limited basis. Accessed 29 September 2013 City Map, accessed 29 September 2013 Detail Sheet #44 accessed from link on City Map with Historic Landmarks
Emma Wood State Beach
Emma Wood State Beach is a California State Beach in Ventura County, California. It is located on the side of the city of Ventura. The park is named for Emma Catherine Wood, a co-owner of the Taylor Ranch and her husband Buddy Wood donated the land in her memory, she died in 1944. The 112-acre park was established in 1957, Emma Wood State Beach is popular for walking, fishing and surfing. The park features a seaside RV-only campground, over 70 percent of this shoreline, with narrow sandy beaches and rocky tidepools, is accessible via state- or county-owned parks and other properties. California State Beaches Parks in Ventura County, California List of California beaches List of California state parks Official Emma Wood State Beach website
Ventura, officially the City of San Buenaventura, is the county seat of Ventura County, United States. European explorers encountered a Chumash village, referred to as Shisholop, the eponymous Mission San Buenaventura was founded nearby in 1782 where it benefitted from the water of the Ventura River. The town grew around the compound and incorporated in 1866. The development of oil fields in the 1920s and the age of automobile travel created a major real estate boom during which many designated landmark buildings were constructed. The mission and these buildings are at the center of a downtown that has become a cultural, Ventura lies along U. S. Route 101 between Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, which was one of the original U. S. Routes. The highway is now known as the Ventura Freeway, but the route through the town along Main Street has been designated El Camino Real. During the post–World War II economic expansion, the community grew easterly, the population was 106,433 at the 2010 census, up from 100,916 at the 2000 census.
Ventura is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, archaeological discoveries in the area suggest that humans have populated the region for at least 10, 000-12,000 years. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash people have roots in central and southern coastal regions of California. Shisholop Village, designated Historic Point of Interest #18 by the city at the foot of nearby Figueroa Street, was the site of a Chumash village, the mission was named for St. Bonaventure, a Thirteenth Century Franciscan saint and a Doctor of the Church. San Miguel Chapel was the first outpost and center of operations while the first Mission San Buenaventura was being constructed, the first mission burned in 1801 and a replacement building of brick and stone was completed in 1809. The bell tower and facade of the new mission was destroyed by an 1812 earthquake, the Mission was rebuilt and functions as a parish church. Historic tours of downtown include the mission compound, on July 6,1841, Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado granted Rancho San Miguel to Felipe Lorenzana and Raymundo Olivas.
Fernando Tico received a Mexican land grant for part of Ventura and he received a land grant for Ojai and the downtown area of Ventura. Whose Olivas Adobe on the banks of the Santa Clara River was the most magnificent hacienda south of Monterey, California became a territory of the United States in 1848 and the 31st state in the Union in 1850. After the American Civil War, settlers came to the area, buying land from the Mexicans, vast holdings were acquired by Easterners, including the railroad magnate, Thomas A. Scott. He was impressed by one of the employees, Thomas R. Bard, who had been in charge of train supplies to Union troops. Not easily accessible, Ventura was not a target of immigrants, for most of the century which followed the incorporation of Ventura in 1866, it remained isolated from the rest of the state
Channel Islands National Park
Channel Islands National Park is a United States national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U. S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely populated Southern California, the park covers 249,561 acres of which 79,019 acres are owned by the federal government. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. It was designated a U. S. National Monument on April 26,1938, and it was promoted to a National Park on March 5,1980. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles around Channel Islands National Park, the Channel Islands were originally discovered in 1542 by the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1938 the Santa Barbara and Anacapa islands were designated a national monument, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands were combined with the monument in 1980 to form modern-day Channel Islands National Park.
On January 28,1969 an oil rig belonging to Union Oil experienced a blow-out 6 miles off the coast of California, the resulting spill was, at the time, the largest oil spill to occur in United States territorial waters. Following the spill, tides carried the oil onto the beaches of the Anacapa, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and this spill had a large impact on native wildlife of the Channel Islands. Much of the seabird population was affected, with over an estimated 3,600 avians killed. Meanwhile, seals and other sea life died and washed ashore on both the islands and the mainland and this spill is the third largest oil spill in the United States, only surpassed by the Deepwater Horizon and the Exxon Valdez oil spills. It resulted in a 34,000 acres expansion of the Department of the Interior buffer zone in the channel, the islands within the park extend along the Southern California coast from Point Conception near Santa Barbara to San Pedro, a neighborhood of Los Angeles. Park headquarters and the Robert J.
Lagomarsino Visitor Center are located in the city of Ventura, only three mammals are endemic to the islands, one of which is the deer mouse which is known to carry the sin nombre hantavirus. The spotted skunk and Channel Islands fox are endemic, the island fence lizard is endemic to the Channel Islands. One hundred and forty-five of these species are unique to the islands, Marine life ranges from microscopic plankton to the endangered blue whale, the largest animal on earth. Archeological and cultural resources span a period of more than 10,000 years, the average annual visitation to the parks mainland visitor center was around 300,000 in the period from 2007 to 2016, with 364,807 visiting in 2016. The visitor center is located in the Ventura Harbor Village, the visitor center contains several exhibits that provide information regarding all five islands, native vegetation, marine life and cultural history. Also, visitors can enjoy a film, free of charge. The visitor center is open day, except Thanksgiving and Christmas, from 8, 30AM–5
Elizabeth Bard Memorial Hospital
Elizabeth Bard Memorial Hospital, known as Bard Hospital, built in 1902, is an office building in Downtown Ventura, California. Featuring covered terraces and a porch with a three-story bell tower at the southeast corner. This building was among the numerous that used this easily recognizable architectural style during the Mission Revival movement that was at its greatest popularity between 1890 and 1915. Thomas R. Bard and his brother, Dr. Cephas Little Bard, the Los Angeles Conservancy holds a conservation easement protecting the hospital building’s facade. List of Registered Historic Places in Ventura County, California Reportedly haunted locations in California City of Ventura, City Landmarks, Points of Interest, and Historic Districts. Accessed 29 September 2013 City Map
Santa Barbara Business College
SBBCollege is one of the oldest colleges in California, founded in 1888 as a co-ed finishing college in Santa Barbara. SBBCollege has expanded its fields and campus locations. SBBCollege now has four campuses, and an online campus, SBBCollege is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools to award certificates, associates degrees, bachelors degrees and masters degrees. ACICS is listed as a recognized accrediting agency by the United States Department of Education and is recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. The vocational nursing program is at SBBCollege accredited by the State of California Board of Vocational Nursing, SBBCollege is one of the oldest colleges in California. Founded in 1888, the College educated area teachers and offered courses in banking, shorthand, over the years, SBBCollege added new programs to meet the demands of emerging industries and expanded to five communities in Southern California. During the last part of the 20th century, the College added medical, recently, SBBCollege added bachelors degrees in business administration, criminal justice and healthcare administration and an MBA program
The land had originally been part of grazing area for the cattle herds of Mission San Buenaventura but was appropriated during the secularization of the missions lands. Olivas built the home in 1841, and expanded it in 1849 to two stories, making it the only such building in the area. He and his wife and their 21 children lived here until 1899 and it became part of Max Fleischmanns holdings, and it was he who donated the land and the house to the City of Ventura. The Olivas Adobe is registered as California Historical Landmark #115 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, list of Registered Historic Places in Ventura County, California Ranchos of California Spanish missions in California Official website City of Ventura. The Olivas Family Adobe in Ventura
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins
U.S. Route 101
U. S. Route 101, or U. S. Highway 101 is a north–south United States Numbered Highway that runs through the states of California and Washington, on the West Coast of the United States. It is known as El Camino Real where its route along the southern and central California coast approximates the old trail which linked the Spanish missions, pueblos and it merges at some points with California State Route 1. US101 is a major parallel freeway or highway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, and is an alternative to the Interstate for most of its length, in 1964, California truncated US 101s southern terminus in Los Angeles, as I-5 replaced it. The old road is known as County Route S21 or Historic Route 101 in northern San Diego County, the southern terminus of US101 is in Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange, the worlds busiest freeway interchange. However, the principal routes were assigned numbers ending in 1. Thus, US101 is treated as a primary, two-digit route with a first digit of 10, rather than a spur of US1, thus US101, not US99, is the westernmost north-south route in the U. S.
Highway System. US101 is called the Oregon Coast Highway in Oregon, and it is called The 101 by Southern Californians or simply 101 by residents of Northern California and Washington. From north of San Francisco and continuing almost to Oregon it is signed as the Redwood Highway though not often spoken of as such outside organizations responsible for tourism marketing. Urban portions of the route in Southern California are named the Santa Ana Freeway, Hollywood Freeway, in 2003, the portion of US101 in Ventura County was named Screaming Eagles Highway in honor of the US Army 101st Airborne Division. Urban portions of the route in the Bay Area are called the James Lick Freeway, Bayshore Freeway, a portion of the route between Cochrane Road in Morgan Hill and SR85 in San Jose is named the Sig Sanchez Freeway. The section of highway between SR-85 in Mountain View and Embarcadero Road in Palo Alto is officially known as the Fredrick E. Terman Highway, Street routings in San Francisco are more commonly referred to by their street names rather than the route number.
Portions of the route between Southern California and the Bay Area are named El Camino Real or El Camino Real Freeway, but such names are used colloquially. In Northern California the section of US101 between Sonoma and Marin counties is referred to as the Novato Narrows because of the reduction from four lanes to two. The route is the Santa Ana Freeway from East Los Angeles to Downtown Los Angeles and it becomes the Hollywood Freeway north of Downtown Los Angeles through the Cahuenga Pass, before turning west and becoming the Ventura Freeway. It is one of two major routes connecting the South Bay and Silicon Valley with San Francisco and the North Bay. It serves as an urban alternative to the rural I-280, as US101 runs through Peninsula cities closer to the Bay and I-280 runs closer to the Santa Cruz Mountains. Through northern San Francisco, US101 remains routed on congested city streets due to freeway revolts and it departs the immediate coast and continues through wine country and Redwood forests until it re-emerges coast-side at Eureka.
In areas where US101 turns inland, SR1 branches off to serve the coastal communities, unlike Washington, California does not sign the long east–west section of US101 between Gaviota and its junction with SR134 and SR170 in North Hollywood as west and east