Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Miami is a town in Gila County, United States. Miami is a classic Western copper boom-town. Miami's old downtown has been renovated, the Bullion Plaza Museum features the cultural and ranching history of the Miami area. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the town was 1,837. Miami is located at 33°23.8'N 110°52.3'W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of.9 square miles, all of it land. Miami is adjacent to Globe, near the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. Miami and the unincorporated areas nearby are called Globe-Miami; the town is located on the northeastern slope of the Pinal Mountains, is surrounded by the Tonto National Forest. It is located on U. S. Routes 60 and 70, is served by the Arizona Eastern Railway; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,936 people, 754 households, 493 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,008.0 people per square mile. There were 930 housing units at an average density of 964.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 74.74% White, 1.03% Black or African American, 1.45% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 20.40% from other races, 2.27% from two or more races.
54.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 754 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.21. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 29.7% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.6 males. Copper mining accounts for the largest number of jobs in Miami. According to the 2002 annual report of the Arizona State Mine Inspector, Freeport-McMorRan employed nearly 600 at its Miami operations, including 330 at the smelter and 187 at the mine.
The median income for a household in the town was $27,196, the median income for a family was $30,625. Males had a median income of $28,250 versus $18,026 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,674. About 20.5% of families and 23.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.7% of those under age 18 and 19.7% of those age 65 or over. The Miami mine is operated by Freeport-McMoRan. Mining began in 1911 as the Inspiration mine, the nation’s first froth flotation copper concentrator to process sulfide minerals was built and began production in 1915. Inspiration was among the first to employ vat leaching in 1926 and precipitation plants to recover oxide minerals. Copper was mined underground until after World War II; the plant’s smelter was modernized in 1974 to meet Clean Air Act standards and further modernized and expanded in 1992. The success of a Solvent extraction and electrowinning plant commissioned in 1979 ended vat leaching by the mid-1980s, the concentrator closed in 1986 as well.
The copper rod mill was commissioned in 1966. Copper mining was suspended in September 2015. Leaching/SX-EW operations are expected to decline over time; the Miami smelter and rod plant continue to operate. In 2016, copper production at Miami amounted to 25 million pounds of copper. In 2017, copper production was 19 million pounds, more than 740 people were employed there. Romana Acosta Bañuelos – Treasurer of the United States under Richard Nixon Joe Castro – jazz pianist Jack Elam – actor known for having lazy-eye, inducted into the Hall of Great Western Performers Matt Pagnozzi – Major League Baseball player for the Cleveland Indians Rueben Martinez – activist and MacArthur Fellow Felix L. Sparks – American military commander who led the first Allied force to enter Dachau concentration camp and liberate its prisoners Esteban Edward Torres – ambassador and politician Richard F. Pedersen- United States Ambassador to Hungary, President of the American University of Cairo. Eric Guadiana – 1992 US Jr.
Summer Olympics Freestyle and Greco Roman medalist 2 Time USA Freestyle International Wrestling Gold Medalist Musician CandyMan featuring Junebug Slim Brady Ellison – American archery Olympian, winner of individual bronze medal at the 2016 Olympic Games, multiple World Cup Gold Medalist According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Miami has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps. List of historic properties in Miami, Arizona National Register of Historic Places listings in Gila County, Arizona.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Graham County, Arizona
Graham County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,220, making it the third-least populous county in Arizona; the county seat is Safford. Graham County composes Arizona Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county is home to several organizations including Eastern Arizona College and the Mount Graham International Observatory, which includes one of the world's largest and most powerful telescopes. Graham County is home to the Arizona Salsa Trail and the annual Salsa Fest. Graham County contains part of the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. Joseph Knight Rogers, an early settler in the area, a member of the Arizona Territorial Legislature, is known as the father of Graham County, he introduced the bill in the territorial legislature creating Graham County. Graham County was created from southern Apache County and eastern Pima County on March 10, 1881; the county seat was located in the city of Safford but was moved to Solomonville in 1883.
This change was undone in 1915. Graham County is named after the mountain by the same name, named after Lt. Col James Duncan Graham, was the first Arizona county to break the tradition of naming counties for Native Americans. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,641 square miles, of which 4,623 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water; the county has various mountain ranges including Mount Graham, the highest mountain in the Pinaleno Mountains. Cochise County — south Pima County — southwest Pinal County — west Gila County — northwest Navajo County — north Apache County — north Greenlee County — east Coronado National Forest Gila Box Riparian National Conservation Area U. S. Route 70 U. S. Route 191 State Route 266 State Route 366 As of the 2000 census, there were 33,489 people, 10,116 households, 7,617 families residing in the county; the population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 11,430 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 67.11% White, 1.87% Black or African American, 14.95% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 13.35% from other races, 2.14% from two or more races. 27.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.38 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 10,116 households out of which 39.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 13.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.70% were non-families. 20.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.47. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.10% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 18.70% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $29,668, the median income for a family was $34,417. Males had a median income of $30,524 versus $20,739 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,139. About 17.70% of families and 23.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.20% of those under age 18 and 13.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 37,220 people, 11,120 households, 8,188 families residing in the county; the population density was 8.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,980 housing units at an average density of 2.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 72.1% white, 14.4% American Indian, 1.8% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 8.2% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 30.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.1% were English, 9.2% were German, 6.9% were Irish, 4.3% were American. Of the 11,120 households, 41.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.4% were non-families, 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.50. The median age was 31.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,683 and the median income for a family was $48,005. Males had a median income of $41,732 versus $25,990 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,644. About 15.9% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.3% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over. In it's early days Graham County was a solidly Democratic county, it voted for the Democratic nominee in every presidential election from 1912 to 1952, being one of only four Western counties outside New Mexico to support James M. Cox in 1920, one of only five to support John W. Davis in 1924. Since the 1950s, Graham has become a reliable Republican county rivaling Mohave and Yavapai as the most Republican in Arizona, sometimes, as in 2004 and 2000, being the “reddest” of all the state’s counties. No Democratic presidential nominee has carried Graham County since Lyndon B. Johnson – against Arizona native Barry Goldwater – did so in 1964.
Safford Pima Thatcher Bonita Eden Fort Grant Old Columbine Aravaipa Camp Goodwin Geronimo Klondyke Spenazuma Fort Apache Indian Reservation San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation The populatio
Hayden is a town in Gila County in the State of Arizona. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 662; the economic base of Hayden's economy is the Asarco Hayden Smelter. Hayden is located at 33°0′5″N 110°47′8″W, adjacent to Winkelman and entirely in Gila County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 892 people, 288 households, 222 families residing in the town; the population density was 707.1 people per square mile. There were 334 housing units at an average density of 264.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 56.95% White, 0.45% Black or African American, 1.68% Native American, 0.56% Pacific Islander, 35.09% from other races, 5.27% from two or more races. 84.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 288 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.9% were non-families.
21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.10 and the average family size was 3.56. In the town, the population was spread out with 33.2% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 20.5% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $24,293, the median income for a family was $26,964. Males had a median income of $35,521 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $9,797. About 20.1% of families and 27.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.2% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over. Dick Tuck, politician consultant, was born in Hayden. History of Hayden EPA Takes Action Against Toxic Arizona Copper Plant, NPR story on Hayden, with video
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai