National Register of Historic Places listings in Georgia
This is a list of the more than 2,000 properties and historic districts in the U. S. state of Georgia that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Listings are distributed across all of Georgia's 159 counties. Listings for the city of Atlanta are in Fulton County's list but spill over into DeKalb County's list; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are tallies of current listings by county. List of National Historic Landmarks in Georgia List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Georgia
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches and windows than their historic counterparts. An early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free "Romanesque" manner was Henry Hobson Richardson. In the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. Romanesque Revival is sometimes referred to as the "Norman style" or "Lombard style" in works published during the 19th century after variations of historic Romanesque that were developed by the Normans and Lombards, respectively. Like its influencing Romanesque style, the Romanesque Revival style was used for churches, for synagogues such as the New Synagogue of Strasbourg built in 1898, the Congregation Emanu-El of New York built in 1929.
The style was quite popular for university campuses in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States and Canada. See also: Romanesque Revival architecture in the United KingdomThe development of the Norman revival style took place over a long time in the British Isles starting with Inigo Jones's refenestration of the White Tower of the Tower of London in 1637–38 and work at Windsor Castle by Hugh May for Charles II, but this was little more than restoration work. In the 18th century, the use of round arched windows was thought of as being Saxon rather than Norman, examples of buildings with round arched windows include Shirburn Castle in Oxfordshire, Wentworth in Yorkshire, Enmore Castle in Somerset. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl's castle at Inverary, started in 1744, castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Oxenfoord and Seton Palace, 1792. In England James Wyatt used round arched windows at Sandleford Priory, Berkshire, in 1780–89 and the Duke of Norfolk started to rebuild Arundel Castle, while Eastnor Castle in Herefordshire was built by Robert Smirke between 1812 and 1820.
At this point, the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817, Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation, it was now realised that'round-arch architecture' was Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon. The start of an "archaeologically correct" Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper, his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837; the style did not catch on for domestic buildings, though many country houses and mock castles were built in the Castle Gothic or Castellated style during the Victorian period, a mixed Gothic style. However, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, who developed Romanesque Revival church architecture.
Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47, St Agatha’s Llanymynech, 1845, he copied the tower of St. Salvator's Cathedral, Bruges. Other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, the porch to Langedwyn Church, he was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, saving on the expense of stonework. Penson’s last church in the Romanesque Revival style was Rhosllannerchrugog, Wrexham 1852The Romanesque adopted by Penson contrasts with the Italianate Romanesque of other architects such as Thomas Henry Wyatt, who designed Saint Mary and Saint Nicholas Church, in this style at Wilton, built between 1841 and 1844 for the Dowager Countess of Pembroke and her son, Lord Herbert of Lea. During the 19th century, the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations. Whereas high churches and Anglo-Catholic, which were influenced by the Oxford Movement, were built in Gothic Revival architecture, low churches and broad churches of the period were built in the Romanesque Revival style.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches and chapels. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, who designed the Mint Lane Baptist Chapel in Lincoln in a debased Italianate Romanesque revival style in 1870. After about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canada's provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto and the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria, are Romanesque Revival in style. University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style; the building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the final d
San Francisco 4th and King Street station
San Francisco 4th and King Street, 4th and King, or Caltrain Depot is the north end of the Caltrain commuter rail line to the San Francisco Peninsula and Santa Clara Valley, is a major area transit hub. It is next to a Muni Metro light rail station, which provides connections to downtown San Francisco and Bay Area Rapid Transit; the station is in the Mission Bay/China Basin area, bordered on the north by Townsend Street, east by 3rd Street, west by 4th Street and south by King Street. It opened on June 1975, replacing a station built in 1914 at 3rd and Townsend, one block away. 4th & King is one block from the home of the San Francisco Giants. Caltrain runs extra trains to shuttle fans to and from Giants games; the Muni extension to the station was opened in 1998. The Downtown Rail Extension project to the rebuilt Transbay Terminal includes the construction of an underground 4th and King station; the underground station will be next to the current station on the Townsend side. Until that time, California High-Speed Rail trains may utilize the existing station.
4th and King hosts a number of Muni bus lines, the E Embarcadero historic streetcar line, Muni's T Third Street and N Judah lines run to Market St downtown. The N Judah station platform is located on the median of King Street southwest of the 4th and King intersection, while The T Third Street station platform is located on the median of 4th Street southeast of the intersection. N Judah service replaced the J Church on June 30, 2007, two months after the J Church replaced the N Judah on April 7, 2007 on the Caltrain connection to downtown following the opening of the T line; the nearest BART access is the Powell Street station, a 1-mile walk up 4th street left on Market St. California Shuttle Bus runs to Los Angeles via San Jose. Service to Chinatown via Muni's Central Subway will connect to this station in 2019 after a realignment of the T Third Street line's route. Media related to San Francisco 4th and King Street station at Wikimedia Commons Caltrain - San Francisco station
National Register of Historic Places property types
The U. S. National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of properties. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and structure. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and district. I When multiple like properties are submitted as a group and listed together, they are known as a Multiple Property Submission. Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are structures intended to shelter some sort of human activity. Examples include a house, hotel, church or similar construction.
The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail, or a barn and a house. Buildings included on the National Register of Historic Places must have all of their basic structural elements as parts of buildings, such as ells and wings; as such, the whole building is considered during the nomination and its significant features must be identified. If a nominated building has lost any of its basic structural elements, it is considered a ruin and categorized as a site; the National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition, a historic district is: "a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. In addition, historic districts consist of non-contributing properties.
Historic districts possess a concentration, linkage or continuity of the other four types of properties. Objects, structures and sites within a historic district are thematically linked by architectural style or designer, date of development, distinctive urban plan, and/or historic associations." For example, the largest collection of houses from 17th and 18th century America are found in the McIntire Historic District in Salem, Massachusetts. Some NRHP-listed historic districts are further designated as National Historic Landmarks, termed National Historic Landmark Districts. All National Historic Landmarks are NRHP-listed. A contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district which reflects the significance of the district as a whole, either because of historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological features. Another key aspect of the contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can damage its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Objects are artistic in nature, or small in scale when compared to structures and buildings. Though objects may be movable, they are associated with a specific setting or environment. Examples of objects include monuments and fountains. Objects considered for inclusion on the NRHP, whether individually or as part of districts, should be designed for a specific location. Fixed outdoor sculpture, an example of public art, is appropriate for inclusion on the Register; the setting of an object is important in relation to the Register. It should be appropriate to roles, or character. In addition, objects that have been relocated to museums are not considered for inclusion on the Register. Sites may include discrete areas significant for activities in that location in the past, such as battlefields, significant archaeological finds, designed landscapes, other locations whose significance is not related to a building or structure. Sites possess significance for their potential to yield information in the future, though they are added to the Register under all four of the criteria for inclusion.
A sites need not have actual physical remains if it marks the location of a prehistoric or historic event, or if there were no buildings or structures present at the time of the events marked by the site. Site determination requires careful evaluation when the location of prehistoric or historic events cannot be conclusively determined. Structures differ from buildings, in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. Examples include, a ship, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge; the criteria of significance are applied to nominated structures in much the same fashion as they are for buildings. The basic structural elements must all be intact. An example would be a truss bridge being considered for inclusion. Said truss bridge is composed of metal or wooden truss and supporting piers. Structures that have lost their historic configuration or pattern of organization through demolition or deterioration, much like buildings, are considered ruins and classified as sites.
There are several other types of properties that do not fall neatly into the categories listed abo
SamTrans is a public transport agency in and around San Mateo, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. It provides bus service throughout San Mateo County and into portions of San Francisco and Palo Alto. SamTrans operates commuter shuttles to BART stations and community shuttles. Service is concentrated on the east side of the Santa Cruz Mountains, and, in the central county, I-280, leaving coast-side service south of Pacifica spotty and intermittent. SamTrans is constituted as a special district under California state law, it is governed by a board of nine appointed members. The district was established in 1976 and consolidated eleven different municipal bus systems serving the county. One year SamTrans began operation of mainline bus service to San Francisco. Shuttle service began in 2000. In addition to fixed route bus and paratransit operations, the district participates in the administration of the San Jose-San Francisco commuter rail line Caltrain. SamTrans provides administrative support for the San Mateo County Transportation Authority, a separate board charged with administering the half-cent sales tax levy that funds highway and transit improvement projects.
SamTrans was formed in 1976 with the consolidation of 11 different city bus systems throughout San Mateo County. Today, SamTrans operates 48 fixed bus routes and a paratransit service branded Redi-Wheels or RediCoast on an annual budget of $177 million. Voters in San Mateo County approved the formation of the San Mateo County Transit District in 1974. SamTrans purchased the local bus fleet from Greyhound in 1977, the SamTrans fleet exceeded 200 buses by 1980. In August 2013 the agency merged two routes along El Camino Real into the single all-day ECR route with 15-minute headways stemming a long-term decline in bus ridership that began in the early 1990s. Ridership on SamTrans buses was 52,140 passengers per weekday in November 2009. According to a route-level analysis, in 2014, four lines accounted for more than half of all weekday riders: ECR, 120, 292, 122/28, with ECR alone accounting for more than 1⁄4 of all weekday riders. SamTrans is predicting a $28 million budget deficit by 2024 if it maintains existing levels of service and revenue sources, driven by growing employee pension obligations.
In November 2017 the agency announced that it would place another 1⁄2-cent sales tax, dubbed "Get Us Moving", on the county's November 2018 ballot. SamTrans has not developed a spending plan for the estimated $80 million in annual revenues, but according to the San Mateo Daily Journal, "A preliminary proposal suggested half of the money go toward SamTrans and Caltrain, both facing financial difficulty; the remaining revenue could be allocated in a manner similar to the current countywide transportation tax that supports projects covering highways, local roads, grade separations, bikes and other transit-related expenditures." The Staff Report stated that half the revenue raised by the proposed tax would go to public transit projects, with the remainder going to highway/interchange improvements, local safety/pothole repairs, regional connections, bicycle/pedestrian infrastructure. Measure W passed on the November 2018 ballot. SamTrans headquarters are at 1250 San Carlos Avenue in a 125,000-square-foot building built in 1979 and acquired in 1990, one block southwest of the San Carlos Caltrain station.
SamTrans has two maintenance bases. North Base opened in 1988, it is in South San Francisco, just north of San Francisco International Airport and adjacent to U. S. 101 and I-380. South Base opened in 1984 near the San Carlos Airport, east of U. S. 101 off Redwood Shores Parkway. Primary maintenance is carried out at North Base. South Base can store 150 buses. SamTrans owns Brewster Depot in Redwood City, used by its subcontractor MV Transportation for storage and dispatching. SamTrans serves the cities of San Mateo County, including Atherton, Burlingame, Daly City, East Palo Alto, Foster City, Half Moon Bay, Menlo Park, Pacifica, Palo Alto, Redwood City, San Bruno, San Carlos, San Mateo, South San Francisco. Most routes provide connecting service to Caltrain, or both. There is regular scheduled service to San Francisco International Airport and Transbay Terminal in downtown San Francisco. Unlike most large transit operators in the Bay Area, SamTrans outsources to private contractors the operation of a number of its routes.
The current contract operator for Peninsula mainline and paratransit services is MV Transportation. SamTrans operated special service for a couple of Bay Area events such as San Francisco 49ers home football games and the quirky Bay To Breakers footrace in San Francisco. Notes SamTrans reorganized its bus routes in August 1999 and adopted a new route designation system to identify service types, geographical coverage, connections to rail services. Local routes have a special designation. For three digit routes, the first digit ident
National Register of Historic Places listings in Illinois
This is a list of properties and districts in Illinois that are on the National Register of Historic Places. There are over 1,800 in total. Of these, 85 are National Historic Landmarks. There are listings in all of the state's 102 counties; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Illinois List of NRHP Multiple Property Submissions in Illinois List of archaeological sites on the National Register of Historic Places in Illinois List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Illinois United States National Register of Historic Places listings
National Register of Historic Places listings in Indiana
This is a list of properties and districts in Indiana that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are over 1,900 in total. Of these, 39 are National Historic Landmarks; each of Indiana's 92 counties has at least two listings. The locations of National Register properties and districts, may be seen in an online map by clicking on "Map of all coordinates"; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings by county; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of March 13, 2009 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
Indiana Register of Historic Sites and Structures List of archaeological sites on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana List of Indiana covered bridges List of Indiana state historical markers List of National Historic Landmarks in Indiana List of railroad property on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana Indiana Historic Sites and Structures Inventory Indiana State Historic Architectural and Archaeological Research Database