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San Cristóbal (Madrid)

San Cristóbal is a neighbourhood on the southern outskirts of Madrid, belonging to the working-class district of Villaverde, of which it is an administrative ward. The growing immigration rate has boosted its population to 18,000 inhabitants; the neighbourhood is geographically isolated by the railroads and highways that create borders, but has a Madrid Metro stop on Line 3 at San Cristóbal station. San Cristóbal is home to the Puente de Colores open-air social centre, built from 2012–2014 and a community urban renewal project. Raul, the Real Madrid legend, was born in this joint. Spanish footballer Raúl González grew up around San Cristóbal de los Ángeles, he was spotted by Atlético Madrid. From 1994 to 2010 he played for Real Madrid


Zingerone called vanillylacetone, is thought by some to be a key component of the pungency of ginger, but imparts the "sweet" flavor of cooked ginger. Zingerone is a crystalline solid, sparingly soluble in water and soluble in ether; when synthesized and tasted does not have any pungency, suggesting it is more that zingerone is a decomposition product of, rather than the direct source of, the pungency of ginger. Zingerone is similar in chemical structure to other flavor chemicals such as eugenol, it is used in perfumery to introduce spicy aromas. Fresh ginger does not contain zingerone, but it is produced by cooking or drying of the ginger root, which causes a reverse aldol reaction on gingerol. Zingerone was first isolated from the ginger root in 1917 by Hiroshi Nomura, a chemistry professor at Tokyo Imperial University. Nomura named the compound and identified the empirical formula of zingerone in his studies at the laboratory of the Agricultural College. Nomura identified and patented a method for the synthesis of zingerone, in which vanillin and acetone are reacted under basic conditions to form dehydrozingerone.

This compound is obtained in about 95% quantity. This reaction is followed by catalytic hydrogenation of the intermediate compound in order to form zingerone, obtained in 100% quantity. Ginger compounds have been shown to be active against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea; this type of diarrhea is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Zingerone is the active constituent responsible for the antidiarrheal efficacy of ginger. Zingerone is recognized as being a efficient free radical scavenger, it is able to scavenge and degrade free radicals and reactive oxygen species in the body, inhibits enzymes involved in the generation of these reactive oxygen species


Ampullaria is an extinct genus of freshwater snails with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusks in the family Ampullariidae. Ampullaria is the type genus of the family Ampullariidae. All of its species are extinct. All extant species that were treated as Ampullaria are classified within the genus Pila. Species within the genus Ampullaria include: Ampullaria acuta Paetel, 1873 Ampullaria batabana Paetel, 1887 Ampullaria bicarinata Radovanović, 1900 Ampullaria brasiliensis Paetel, 1887 Ampullaria cassidiformis Reeve, 1856 Ampullaria columbensis Jay, 1836 Ampullaria crosseana Hidalgo, 1871 Ampullaria fasciata Roissy, 1805 Ampullaria ferruginea von Martens, 1857 Ampullaria gibbosa Paetel, 1887 Ampullaria hepataria Reeve, 1856 Ampullaria imperforata Swainson, 1823 Ampullaria nucleus Philippi, 1852 Ampullaria obtusa Deshayes, 1850 Ampullaria pachystoma Paetel, 1887 Ampullaria planorboides Cristofori & Jan, 1832 Ampullaria ponderosa Ampullaria prunella Hupé, 1857 Ampullaria rotundata Say, 1829 Ampullaria rufilineata Reeve, 1856 Ampullaria tristis Gaudion, 1879 Ampullaria tasmanica T. Woods, 1877 - extant Ampullaria trochulus Reeve, 1856 Ampullaria succinea Petch, 1917 - species of fungi in the family Ceratostomataceae Ampullaria aurea A. L. Sm. 1903 - species of fungi in the family Ceratostomataceae

Basgo Monastery

Basgo Monastery known as Basgo or Bazgo Gompa, is a Buddhist monastery located in Basgo or Bazgo in Leh District, northern India 40 km from Leh. Although the monastery was built for the Namgyal rulers in 1680, Bazgo itself was embedded in the early days of Ladakh and is mentioned in the Ladakhi Chronicles when it was a political and cultural center. In the 15th century, a palace was built in Basgo; the monastery is situated on top of the hill towering over the ruins of the ancient town and is noted for its Buddha statue and murals. The complex comprises the Chamchung, Chamba Lakhang, Serzang temples, dedicated to the Maitreya Buddha. Flickr photos tagged with Basgo

Soldier of Orange

Soldier of Orange is a 1977 Dutch film directed and co-written by Paul Verhoeven and produced by Rob Houwer, starring Rutger Hauer and Jeroen Krabbé. The film is set around the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II, shows how individual students have different roles in the war; the story is based on the autobiographical book Soldaat van Oranje by Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema. The film had a budget of at the time the most expensive Dutch movie ever. With 1,547,183 viewers, it was the most popular Dutch film of 1977; the film received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Foreign Language Film in 1980. At the 1999 Netherlands Film Festival, it was voted the second-best Dutch film of the twentieth century; the film is about a group of students from Leiden, the Netherlands, amongst them Erik Lanshof, Guus LeJeune, Jan Weinberg, Alex. Robby Froost is a friend of Erik, Esther is Robby's girlfriend; each of them follow a different path and therefore have a different role in World War II, either as a collaborator or in the resistance.

Part of the story is set in London. The students Erik and Guus fight alongside Colonel Rafelli and soldier Susan of the allied forces in London; the film begins with a flashforward in the form of a newsreel with a voice-over. Queen Wilhelmina is accompanied by Erik arriving in the Netherlands from London shortly after World War II. After the newsreel, the film starts in the late 1930s in Leiden, where freshmen undergo the humiliation of the initiation rites of their fraternity. Erik is picked out by Guus, the chair of the fraternity, who throws a bowl of soup over his head and injures him with the bowl. After this accident, Guus apologises to Erik, the two become close friends, Guus offers him a room in his private student house in the centre of Leiden. In this house, the students have a drink. In September 1939, an English radio broadcast interrupts the students in a tennis match and announces the declaration of war by the United Kingdom against Germany. In the beginning the students seem to take things believing that the Netherlands will remain neutral as it had done World War I.

Jan, a Jew, Alex, who has a German mother join the Dutch Army. In May 1940, Germany invades the Netherlands and Erik and Guus try to join the army, but they are not accepted by a traumatised army officer. Shortly thereafter, the Netherlands capitulates after the Rotterdam Blitz. Erik has an affair with Esther. Robby has a radio transmitter in his garden shed from where he contacts the Dutch exile government in London, he arranges for Erik to take a flight to London. The Jewish Jan and boxing champion, gets into trouble by fighting with two anti-Semitic collaborators, who were bullying a Jewish salesman; because of this, Erik offers his place on the aeroplane to Jan. However, during the pick-up they get into a fight with German soldiers, Jan gets captured. Erik is able to escape; when Erik meets Alex during a military parade, he discovers Alex is now fighting on the German side for the Waffen-SS. Erik is captured. In prison, he hears from Jan. Jan is executed at the Waalsdorpervlakte dune area. Robby's radio installation is discovered, he is blackmailed by the Gestapo into cooperating as a spy because his fiancée Esther is a Jew.

Erik and Guus try to flee to London again, this time on the Swiss cargo ship St. Cergue. In London Erik tries to kill him; however he turns not to be a traitor, but head of the Dutch Central Intelligence Service and a trustee of Queen Wilhelmina. Guus begins an affair with a British servicewoman named Susan. Erik and Guus agree with the Queen to pick up some resistance leaders who could play an important role in the Netherlands after the war. Guus ends up crashing a party held at a nearby stately home. Erik comes back to the Netherlands to pick up the resistance leaders. However, Robby is with them on the beach and the Germans have followed the group who are about to escape by sea. Erik can not reach them. On his way to the beach, Erik runs into Alex at a party and dances ballroom tango with him. Erik meets the others; when Robby realises that Erik knows about his collaboration, he flees. The group tries to escape. Guus escapes swimming into the sea, but only Erik is able to reach the British ship and returns to London and to Susan.

Guus shoots him in the middle of the street. He attempts to escape by bicycle, but is caught and executed by guillotine. In the Eastern Front, Alex is killed in a latrine by a hand grenade thrown by a Russian boy whom he had insulted earlier when he begged him for food. Erik drops bombs over Germany. Erik is appointed assistant to Queen Wilhelmina, accompanies her back to the Netherlands after the war, as shown in the newsreel at the beginning of the film. In the end, Erik meets Esther and finds that Dutch citizens have cut her hair short as revenge for her and Robby's collaboration with the Nazis, she says. Erik celebrates the end of the war with one of his fellow students, Jacques ten Brinck, who survived the war; the film won the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Bes

Earl of Rosslyn

Earl of Rosslyn is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1801 for Alexander Wedderburn, 1st Baron Loughborough, Lord Chancellor from 1793 to 1801, with special remainder to his nephew Sir James St Clair-Erskine, as Wedderburn had no surviving issue of his own. Wedderburn had been created Baron Loughborough, of Loughborough in the County of Leicester, in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1780, with normal remainder to the heirs male of his body, Baron Loughborough, of Loughborough in the County of Surrey, in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1795, with the same remainder as the earldom; the 1780 barony became extinct upon his death, but the 1795 barony and the earldom passed, by the special remainder, to his nephew, who thus became the second Earl of Rosslyn. The second Earl was a Lieutenant-General in the Army and held political office as Lord Privy Seal and Lord President of the Council, his son, the third Earl, was a General in the Army and held political office as Master of the Buckhounds and Under-Secretary of State for War.

He was succeeded by the fourth Earl. He served as Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms in Lord Salisbury's second Conservative administration; as of 2015, the titles are held by his great-great-grandson, the seventh Earl, who succeeded his father in 1977. He is a former police officer with the Metropolitan Police Service. Lord Rosslyn is one of the ninety elected hereditary peers that remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, sits as a cross-bencher; the Erskine Baronetcy, of Alva in the County of Clackmannan, was created in 1666 for Charles Erskine in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia. He represented Stirling in the Parliament of Scotland, his eldest son, the second Baronet, was killed at the Battle of Landen in 1693. He was succeeded by the third Baronet, he was one of the Scottish representatives to the 1st Parliament of Great Britain and represented Clackmannanshire. His eldest son, the fourth Baronet, was killed at the Battle of Lauffeld in 1747.

His younger brother and successor, the fifth Baronet, was a Lieutenant-General in the Army and sat as Member of Parliament for Ayr Burghs and Anstruther Easter Burghs. Erskine married Janet Wedderburn, daughter of Peter Wedderburn and sister of Alexander Wedderburn, 1st Earl of Rosslyn, he was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned sixth Baronet, who in 1805 succeeded his uncle Lord Rosslyn in the barony of Loughborough and earldom of Rosslyn. See above for further history of the baronetcy; the family seat is Rosslyn Castle in Scotland. The Earl owns Rosslyn Chapel. Sir Charles Erskine, 1st Baronet Sir James Erskine, 2nd Baronet Sir John Erskine, 3rd Baronet Sir Charles Erskine, 4th Baronet Sir Henry Erskine, 5th Baronet Sir James St Clair-Erskine, 6th Baronet Alexander Wedderburn, 1st Earl of Rosslyn James St Clair-Erskine, 2nd Earl of Rosslyn James Alexander St Clair-Erskine, 3rd Earl of Rosslyn Robert Francis St Clair-Erskine, 4th Earl of Rosslyn James Francis Harry St Clair-Erskine, 5th Earl of Rosslyn Anthony Hugh Francis Harry St Clair-Erskine, 6th Earl of Rosslyn Peter St Clair-Erskine, 7th Earl of Rosslyn The heir apparent is the present holder's son, Jamie William St Clair-Erskine, Lord Loughborough.

Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages